1862 June 29th

June 29 1862 Sunday

 Battle of Savage’s Station, VA (CWSAC – Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

Seven Days’ Battles

Naval Assault on Vicksburg

CSA. A process of consolidation of commands had begun in Virginia as General Robert Edward Lee consolidated all available forces to ensure the security of the capital. Similar clarity of command was also emerging in the Trans-Mississippi region as the Confederates identified commanders and structures to ensure unity of command in these three primary theatres.

The reorganisation of the Confederate forces in the western theatre into a unified command structure now advanced to a new phase. The Department of Alabama and West Florida was discontinued and its area incorporated into the Western Department. The creation of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana in May had been followed by the discontinuation of the Department No 1, bringing the remnants of Louisiana and the Mississippi Valley into the Western Department. Confederate General Braxton Bragg now controlled the entire theatre from the Mississippi River and from the Gulf of Mexico northwards to the Ohio River. His authority extended over eastern Louisiana, western Florida, and Alabama, but not into Georgia, western Louisiana or eastern Tennessee. This gave Bragg command of the territory between the Mississippi and the Appalachians to oppose Union incursions through Tennessee and along the major rivers.

Alabama. USS Susquehanna, Commander Robert Bradley Hitchcock, captured the British blockade running schooner Ann under the guns of Fort Morgan near Mobile, with its cargo of arms and ammunition.

Arkansas. Confederate troops fired on USS Lexington, Lieutenant James W Shirk, on White River between St Charles and Clarendon.

Mississippi. Bombardment of Vicksburg. Reconnaissance to Amite River ended. Expedition to Ripley.

Mississippi. Confederate Braxton Bragg received instructions from Secretary of War George Wythe Randolph to start an offensive with the Army of Mississippi. Bragg had concentrated his forces around Tupelo with the main aims of training, restoring morale and discipline, and reducing the levels of sickness in the army by camping in a healthier region. His efforts were successful and had raised the strength of the army from about 45,000 men to nearer 60,000 by the return of convalescents and the restoration of discipline. Bragg instigated a rigorous programme of training for the troops and also for his inexperienced regimental and brigade commanders. Severe discipline was imposed which reduced the level of desertions but it also provoked resentment among many of the troops.

Bragg’s high command had also changed. Major-General Earl Van Dorn had been sent to organise the defence of Vicksburg, Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge was soon to depart with 6,000 men to oppose the Union advance from Louisiana,and Major-General Thomas Carmichael Hindman was sent to raise a new army in Arkansas. Major-General Leonidas Polk was named as Bragg’s second-in-command by seniority. Polk, Major-General William Joseph Hardee and Major-General Samuel Jones were in charge of the three unofficial “Corps” that made up the main body of his army. Major-General Sterling Price lad the Army of the West, protecting the Mississippi Valley,

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE WESTERN DEPARTMENT

Western Department: General Braxton Bragg
Army of Mississippi: General Braxton Bragg
I Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Leonidas Polk
Clark’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Charles Clark
Russell’s Brigade, Clark’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Robert M Russell
Stewart’s Brigade, Clark’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Alexander Peter Stewart
Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Donelson’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Daniel Smith Donelson
Maney’s Brigade, Cheatham’s Division, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General George Earl Maney
Maxey’s Independent Brigade, I Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Samuel Bell
Maxey
II Corps (Mississippi): Major-General Samuel Jones
Ruggles’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Samuel Jones
Anderson’s Brigade, Ruggles’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Patton Anderson
Mouton’s Brigade, Ruggles’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Augustus Reichard
Gibson’s Brigade, Ruggles’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Randall Lee Gibson
III Corps (Mississippi): Major-General William Joseph Hardee
Hindman’s Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Colonel St John Richardson Liddell
Cleburne’s Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Wood’s Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
Marmaduke’s Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Colonel John Sappington Marmaduke
Hawthorn’s Brigade, III Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge
Withers’ Division, Reserve Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Jones Mitchell Withers
Gardner’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Franklin Gardner
Chalmers’ Brigade, Withers’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Ronald Chalmers
Jackson’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John King Jackson
Trapier’s Brigade, Withers’ Division, II Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Arthur Middleton Manigault
Army of the West: Major-General John Porter McCown
Price’s Division (West): Brigadier-General Henry Little
Little’s Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Colonel Elijah Gates
Hébert’s Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Brigadier-General Louis Hébert
Green’s Brigade, Price’s Division (West): Colonel (State Brigadier-General) Martin Edwin Green
McCown’s Division (West): Major-General John Porter McCown
Cabell’s Brigade, McCown’s Division (West): Colonel William Lewis Cabell
Churchill’s Brigade, McCown’s Division (West): Brigadier-General Thomas James Churchill
Jones’ Division (West): Brigadier-General Dabney Herndon Maury
Hogg’s Brigade, Jones’ Division (West): Colonel Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Moore’s Brigade, Jones’ Division (West): Brigadier-General John Calvin Moore
Ector’s Brigade, Jones’ Division (West): Colonel Charles W Phifer

Missouri. Operation at Johnson County ended.

Virginia. Operation at Forge Bridge began. Union reconnaissance from Front Royal to Luray began.

Virginia. Skirmish at Moorefield.

Virginia. Skirmishes at the Peach Orchard near Fair Oaks Station, Charles City Cross Road, Turkey Bend, Jones’ Bridge, Jordan’s Field, near Fair Oaks Station on the Williamsburg Road, at Willis Church on the James River Road, and Bottom’s Bridge.

Virginia. USS Marblehead, Lieutenant S Nicholson, and USS Chocura, Lieutenant Thomas H Patterson, continued to cover the withdrawal of troops from White City on the Pamunkey River.

Virginia. The Union submarine Alligator was sent back down the James River to Hampton Roads. Although the potential of the submarine was apparent, it was felt that the Appomattox River was too shallow for the Alligator to operate in shoal areas as it would be too easily seen and sunk or captured. Its mission to attack the Railroad Bridge over the Appomattox was cancelled.

Virginia. As operations around Richmond continued, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, which had consolidated the field forces of several departments under General Robert Edward Lee, reported this following organisation:

ORDER OF BATTLE: CONFEDERATE DEPARTMENT OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA

Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Smith’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Hood’s Brigade, Smith’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Whiting’s Brigade: Colonel Evander McIver Law
Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Winder’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder
Jones’ Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Robert Jones
Taliaferro’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Samuel V Fulkerson
Lawton’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Alexander Robert Lawton
Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Elzey’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Arnold Elzey
Trimble’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Taylor’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Taylor
Maryland Line, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Bradley Tyler Johnson
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Rodes’ Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Emmett Rodes
Anderson’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General George Burgwyn Anderson
Garland’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Samuel Garland
Rains’ Brigade: Colonel Alfred Holt Colquitt
Ripley’s Brigade: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Kemper’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper
Jenkins’ Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Micah Jenkins
Pickett’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett
Wilcox’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Pryor’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor
Featherston’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Field’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles William Field
Gregg’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg
Anderson’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson
Branch’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Archer’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Pender’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender
Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General David Rumph Jones
Toombs’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
Jones’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel George Thomas Anderson
McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Cobb’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Thomas Howell Cobb
Griffith’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Griffith
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Benjamin Huger
Mahone’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Mahone
Wright’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Armistead’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead
Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holms
Ransom’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom
Daniel’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Junius Daniel
Walker’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John George Walker
Wise’s Command, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Reserve Artillery, Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Nelson Pendleton
Cavalry, Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart received word that 5,000 Union soldiers were guarding the supply depot near White House. At daylight, Stuart’s cavalry came within sight of the White House and found the Union soldiers gone and the immense depot in flames. About a quarter of a mile away they discovered the Union gunboat USS Marblehead. Stuart ordered a detachment of 75 men to attack the ship. Some Union troops disembarked to add their fire to that of the ship’s guns. Confederate Major John Pelham opened fire with his battery and one shell exploded above the ship. The USS Marblehead gathered steam and recalled its skirmishers and then withdrew downstream. The Union expedition up the Pamunkey River had ended in flames. Stuart was able to confirm with certainty that the Union army was now retreating in that direction, nor towards Fort Monroe and Yorktown but was departing southwards for the James River.

Savage’s Station, Virginia, also known as Peach Orchard, Allen’s Farm, Fair Oaks Station or James River Road. This was the fourth of the Seven Days’ Battles. As the Union Army of the Potomac marched towards the James River it had to negotiate the obstacle of White Oak Swamp. This was an extensive quagmire southeast of Seven Pines, located in the angle between the Williamsburg and Charles City Roads, and forming a crescent that ended between Bottom’s Bridge and Long Bridge.

Major-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes and his IV Corps were ordered to proceed first across White Oak Swamp to protect the Union western flank during the march. Major-General Fitz John Porter’s V Corps would follow behind it to safety while the VI Corps of Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin, the II Corps under Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner, followed. The III Corps under Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman provided the rear guard. McClellan moved his army headquarters south of Malvern Hill without leaving clear directions for the route of the different corps’ movements for the retreat.

The obstacle of White Oak Swamp offered another chance to the Confederates to trap the Union troops on either side of a difficult water barrier. When Confederate-General Robert Edward Lee was now sure of the direction in which the Union army was retreating, he gave orders early in the morning for the pursuit to begin. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson was ordered to rebuild the Grapevine Bridge over the Chickahominy and then to advance southwards across the river and through White Oak Swamp with the divisions of Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill and Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting. Confederate Major-General John Bankhead Magruder was to move eastwards along the Railroad and the Williamsburg Road to press the enemy’s rear alongside Jackson. Confederate Major-General Benjamin Huger’s division was to achieve an encirclement by marching southeast along the Charles City Road to hit the enemy south of White Oak Swamp the following day. Major-General James Longstreet was to take his division and that of Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill across the Chickahominy at New Bridge to attack McClellan’s new flank along the Darbytown Road. Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell was to keep his division as a flank guard at Bottom’s Bridge, proving a screen with the cavalry, to ensure that the Union retreat did not deviate to the east. Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes, who was south of the James River at Fort Darling, would cross the river and strengthen Longstreet’s right nearer the James River in order to head off the Union retreat.

Longstreet confirmed early in the morning that the Union fortifications on Powhite Creek had definitely been evacuated. Magruder, who had launched diversionary attacks at Garnett’s and Golding’s Farms on the previous two days, believed that the Union force opposing him was preparing an attack against him whereas it had, in fact, evacuated its lines behind a covering force. When Magruder learned that Longstreet had already crossed the Chickahominy and occupied the enemy’s abandoned defences, he started his own command forward. At about 9 am, Magruder made contact with the enemy about a mile beyond Fair Oaks near Allen’s Farm and the Peach Orchard. Two Georgia regiments from the brigade of Colonel George Thomas Anderson skirmished against two Pennsylvania regiments from Sumner’s II Corps for about two hours, suffering 28 casualties to the Pennsylvanians’ 119 lost. Confederate Brigadier-General Richard Griffith was mortally wounded by a Union shell fragment. Magruder became concerned that he might be attacked by a superior force. He requested reinforcements from Lee, who ordered two brigades from the division of Major-General Benjamin Huger to counter-march to his assistance, under the condition that they would have to be returned if they were not engaged by 2 pm.

Sumner’s Union II Corps withdrew at 11 am to Savage’s Station where Franklin had already organised a defensive line. Heintzelman’s III Corps was meant to extend this position further southwards but he found there were so many Union troops concentrated in the area already that, without notifying the other two corps commanders, he marched onwards to find space to camp and deploy and withdrew across White Oak Swamp.

Magruder was still anxious about being attacked and delayed his own attack even though he was exactly where Lee wanted him to attack; south of the Grapevine Bridge and ready to divert the Union from Jackson’s attack from the opposite direction. Magruder hesitated until 5 pm when he sent only two and a half brigades forward. Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw commanded the left flank, Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes the centre and Colonel William Barksdale (now commanding the wounded Griffith’s Brigade) the right. Franklin and Brigadier-General John Sedgwick were on a reconnaissance to the west of Savage’s Station when they saw Kershaw’s brigade approaching. Their immediate assumption was that these were men from Heintzelman’s Corps arriving but soon realised their mistake. This was the first indication of Heintzelman’s unannounced departure from the expected position. Union artillery opened fire and pickets were sent forward to stem the assault. The first Union unit to engage was one of Sedgwick’s brigades led by Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns, but his numbers proved inadequate to oppose the two brigades of Kershaw and Semmes. Sumner managed the battle erratically. He sent in two of Burns’ regiments and then the 1st Minnesota Infantry from another brigade in Sedgwick’s division, and finally one regiment each from two different brigades in Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson’s division. By the time all of these units had reached the front, the two sides were at rough parity. However, the Confederates were in chosevive units while the Union had intermingled their regiments.  Nevertheless, Kershaw’s brigade was repulsed by a counter-attack south of the railroad by Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks’ brigade (2/2/VI).

Magruder’s attack was accompanied by the first armoured railroad battery to be used in combat, a 32-pounder Brooke naval rifle, shielded by a sloping casemate of railroad iron, nicknamed the “Land Merrimack.” It was pushed by a locomotive at about the speed of the marching infantry. The “Land Merrimack” bombarded the Union front, with some of its shells reaching as far to the rear as the field hospital. However, this novel weapon had little impact on the action and it was hidden in a railroad cut whenever it came under artillery fire.

Once again, Jackson did not advance as Lee had planned. He was taking a very long time to rebuild bridges over the Chickahominy. Jackson received a garbled order from Lee’s chief of staff that led him to believe he should stay north of the river and guard the crossings rather than cross voer to join the attack. Darkness and a severe thunderstorm brought the fighting to a close before Jackson’s Wing could make its delayed crossing of the river to hit the Union rear. Jackson eventually crossed the river by about 2:30 am.

Magruder’s attack had been halting and ineffectual against a disorganised enemy, Jackson had failed again to launch a decisive flank attack, Huger had moved forward only six miles after diverting to support Magruder and never fired a shot, Longstreet and A P Hill were also six miles short of their intended objective. This repeated failure of staff work and execution allowed the Union forces to withdraw overnight in heavy rain across White Oak Swamp, abandoning large stores of supplies and more than 2,500 wounded soldiers in a field hospital at Savage’s Station, but gaining another head start in their retreat.

Total casualties at Allen’s Farm, Peach Orchard and Fair Oaks, and Savage’s Station were 1,590 Union and 626 Confederates plus as many as 2,500 wounded Union men taken prisoner. (CWSAC – Formative Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: SAVAGE’S STATION, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
2nd Brigade, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Harrison French
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Sedgwick
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred Sully
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns
3rd Brigade2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Toombs’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
Jones’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel George T Anderson
McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Lafayette McLaws
Semmes’ Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Paul Jones Semmes
Kershaw’s Brigade, McLaws’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Cobb’s Brigade, Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Howell Cobb
Griffith’s Brigade, Magruder’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Griffith
Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Benjamin Huger
Mahone’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Mahone
Wright’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Armistead’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Armistead

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Franz Sigel assumed command of I Corps (Army of Virginia), succeeding Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck.

Sigel, Franz / Germany / Born 18 November 1824 Sinsheim, Baden / Died New York, New York 21 August 1902 Karlsruhe Military Academy 1843 / Lieutenant Baden Army 1843-1847 / Major 5th New York Militia 1854-1857 / Colonel USV 3rd Missouri Infantry 4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Resigned USV 4 May 1865 / WIA Missouri 10 May 1861 WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861-August 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the West August 1861-10 August 1861 / 3rd Division Western Department 24 September 1861-24 October 1861 / 4th Brigade Western Department 24 October 1861-9 November 1861 / 4th Brigade Department of the Missouri 9 November 1861-25 December 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Southwest 25 December 1861-7 February 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 7 February 1862-9 May 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Southwest 7 February 1862-9 May 1862 / Sigel’s Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 June 1862-26 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 30 June 1862-7 July 1862 / I Corps Virginia 12 July 1862-12 September 1862 / XI Corps Potomac 12 September 1862-10 January 1863 / Reserve Grand Division Potomac 14 November 1862-4 February 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-22 February 1863 / Lehigh District 20 August 1863-29 February 1864 / Department of West Virginia 29 February 1864-17 May 1864 / District of Harper’s Ferry 24 May 1864-7 July 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
        • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of Alabama and West Florida was discontinued and its territory incorporated into the Western Department. It would presently be replaced by a new District of the Gulf.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Dabney Herndon Maury temporary
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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