1862 June 26th

June 26 1862 Thursday

Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Seven Days’ Battles

Naval Assault on Vicksburg

Mississippi. Union Captain David Glasgow Farragut’s fleet started the bombardment of Vicksburg.

Mississippi. USS Kensington, Acting Master Frederick Crocker, and the mortar schooners Horace Beals and Sarah Bruen silenced a Confederate battery near Cole’s Creek while making their way towards Vicksburg.

Mississippi. The Confederates burned three gunboats on the Yazoo River to prevent their capture by two Union gunboats sent under Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Washington Ellet to discover their location. One of the Confederate losses was the CSS Van Dorn which was the only surviving gunboat of the defeat at Memphis.

Missouri. Skirmish at Cherry Grove in Schuyler County.

North Carolina. USS Mount Vernon, Commander Oliver S Glisson, USS Mystic, and USS Victoria chased the blockade runner Emily near Wilmington. The Emily was grounded and a boat crew was sent to burn the ship under heavy fire from Fort Caswell.

Virginia. Skirmish at Atlee’s Station on the Virginia Central Railroad.

Virginia. Skirmish at Point of Rocks on the Appomattox River.

Virginia. Skirmish near Hanover Court House

Virginia. Skirmishes at Hundley’s Corner and Fair Oaks.

Virginia. The Union Army of Virginia was created to provide unity of command after the failure of the disjointed Union efforts to defeat the Confederates under Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson during the Shenandoah Valley campaign. It also provided a way to separate these powerful forces from the direct control of Major-General George Brinton McClellan, whose passivity with the Army of the Potomac at the gates of Richmond had lost him the confidence of the government.

The new army’s commander, Major-General John Pope, was appointed after his successes in the western theatre . He was given a threefold mission with his newly unified command. The Army of Virginia was to guard the capital at Washington, DC, it was also to prevent the  Confederates from dominating the Shenandoah Valley, and was also to move east of the Blue Ridge with a strong striking force towards Charlottesville in order to draw Confederate troops away from Richmond. The latter move would assist McClellan’s Army of the Potomac in its advance on the Confederate capital. In due course, the advance would be resumed towards the capital to provide more than a diversionary impact. The army would number about 51,000 to 56,000 men when combined but it was at present still widely dispersed.

The right flank of the Army of Virginia was currently at Sperryville on the Blue Ridge Mountains and was assigned to Major-General John Charles Frémont, whose Mountain Department was discontinued. Frémont disputed being subordinated for field operations to Pope, whom  he outranked. Frémont’s segment of Pope’s Army was designated as I Corps (Virginia) and comprised the forces of the discontinued Mountain Department. The three divisions of I Corps (Virginia) were commanded by Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck, Brigadier-General Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr, and Brigadier-General Carl Schurz.

The centre of the army under Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was designated II Corps (Virginia) and was currently located at Little Washington. This corps consisted of the two divisions from the discontinued Department of the Shenandoah under Brigadier-General Samuel Wylie Crawford and Brigadier-General James Cooper (soon to be replaced by Brigadier-General Christopher Columbus Augur). Brigadier-General John Porter Hatch (later succeeded by Brigadier-General John Buford) commanded a cavalry brigade attached to the II Corps. The cavalry was stationed as a detached force twenty miles ahead of the Union camps at Culpeper Court House.

The left flank of the army was under Major-General Irvin McDowell at Falmouth on the Rappahannock River and was renamed III Corps (Virginia). It comprised most of the former I Corps (Potomac) currently assigned to McDowell’s discontinued Department of the Rappahannock. McDowell’s two divisions each had four brigades and they were led by Brigadier-General Rufus King and Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts. A cavalry brigade under Brigadier-General George Dashiell Bayard was attached to McDowell’s command. This force had already made one tentative advance southwards towards Richmond and been recalled to assist in suppressing the Confederates in the Shenandoah Valley.

To liberate Pope of the necessity from manage the military affairs and defences of the capital district, and to allow him to focus entirely on field operations, the Military District of Washington was taken from his control and reported directly to the War Department.

Virginia. Operation at White House Landing began. Fearing that a Confederate advance threatened to cut his lines of communications to his base at White House on the Pamunkey River, Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan notified Captain Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN that the relocation of provision transports from the Pamunkey to the James River was imperative for the existence of the Army. Goldsborough followed up previous reconnaissances to identify the most suitable landing stage for a new supply depot on the James River. Harrison’s Landing was selected as the mist secure and suitable site. Union Brigadier-General George Stoneman was charged with the destruction of stores and supplies a6 White House Landing that could not be removed by sea.

Beaver Dam Creek, also known as Mechanicsville, Ellerson’s Mill, Meadow Bridge, or Ellison’s Mill. This was the second of the Seven Days’ Battles. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s right flank remained north of the Chickahominy River where he awaited reinforcement from the direction of the Rappahannock River. McClellan left Brigadier-General Fitz-John Porter’s V Corps north of the river, unsupported except by Brigadier-General George Stoneman’s cavalry brigade. Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall’s 3rd Division was disposed along Beaver Dam Creek, with the brigades of Brigadier-General Truman Seymour, Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade, and Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds aligned from south to north. Brigadier-General George Sykes’ 2nd Division of Regular Army troops was placed to McCall’s left rear along the Chickahominy River. Brigadier-General George Webb Morell’s 1st Division was held in reserve with one of its brigades opposite New Bridge.

Confederate-General Robert Edward Lee’s plan was to demonstrate south of the Chickahominy with two divisions of Major-General John Bankhead Magruder’s command, using Magruder’s own division under major-General Lafayette McLaws and that of Major-General Benjamin Huger. The key attack north of the Chickahominy would be made by the divisions of Major-General James Longstreet, Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill, and Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill under Longstreet’s overall direction. They would be aided by the 18,500 men under Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s who had recently arrived from the Shenandoah Valley. Lee’s audacious plan concentrated about 65,000 Confederate troops against 30,000 Union defenders north of the Chickahominy, leaving only 25,000 men to protect Richmond against the other 60,000 men of the Union army south of the Chickahominy.

The Confederate cavalry under Brigadier-General James Ewell Brown Stuart had already reconnoitred Porter’s right flank as part of a daring circumnavigation of the entire Union army between 12 and 15 June to find its vulnerable northern flank. Stuart’s ride had given Lee invaluable information but it also alerted McClellan to the vulnerability of V Corps. McClellan was now aware of Jackson’s imminent arrival at Ashland Station, but he did nothing to reinforce Porter’s vulnerable corps north of the river.

Lee knew that he could not win a battle of attrition or survive a siege against the Union army so he had adopted an aggressive posture. He dangerously denuded other theatres of their forces to concentrate the maximum number of men for the defence of Richmond before the capital was brought under an inexorable and irresistible siege.

Lee’s plan was sound but risky and complex, requiring careful execution and timing. Jackson was to leave Ashland at 3 am; he would connect with Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch’s brigade which was posted four miles out at Half Sink to meet and guide him. Once Branch’s division commander, A P Hill, heard the sound of Jackson’s guns, he was to force a crossing of the Chickahominy at Meadow Bridge and then head southeast onto the supposed enemy flank at Mechanicsville. Hill was to clear the Union pickets from Mechanicsville and then move onwards to Beaver Dam Creek. Hill’s advance would open the bridges for Longstreet to follow in support with the divisions of Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill and Longstreet himself. These strong divisions were to cross the bridge and pass onwards through Mechanicsville, with D H Hill moving across to support Jackson’s flanking column and Longstreet moving to reinforce A P Hill’s advance. The two leading divisions were to overwhelm Porter’s Corps, and move onwards in the direction of Cold Harbor, thereby cutting the Union line of communications and railroad to White House on the Pamunkey River. Lee expected Jackson’s flanking movement to force Porter to abandon his line behind the creek, thereby avoiding the need for A P Hill and Longstreet to make a frontal attack on the Union entrenchments. If they could advance as far as New Bridge, four miles from Mechanicsville, they could restore communications with Magruder’s and Huger’s divisions south of the Chickahominy. South of the Chickahominy, Magruder and Huger were to demonstrate vigorously, deceiving the four Union corps on their front.

Lee’s intricate plan went awry immediately even though his men were in position by 8 am and awaiting Jackson’s flank attack. Jackson’s men, fatigued from their recent campaign and lengthy march, were at least four hours behind schedule. They only neared Merry Oaks on the Virginia Central Railroad at 9 am. Jackson sent word through Branch to A P Hill of his approach. By 3 pm, Jackson was only just approaching Totopotomoy Creek from the north, perhaps as much as six hours behind time. By 3 pm, A P Hill had grown impatient of the delay and without authority threw his division, reinforced by one of D H Hill’s brigades, into a series of frontal assaults against Porter’s corps behind Beaver Dam Creek. Jackson’s approach had now been detected by Porter, who moved two of Morell’s brigades from reserve (under Brigadier-General Charles Griffin and Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale) to extend and protect his vulnerable right flank at nightfall.

Longstreet and D H Hill were delayed in getting across the river to help A P Hill by the need to rebuild the turnpike bridge. McCall concentrated in prepared positions along Beaver Dam Creek around Ellerson’s Mill. His 14,000 infantry were well-entrenched and supported by 32 guns. They repulsed repeated Confederate attacks from the direction of Mechanicsville and inflicted severe casualties. By 5 pm, all of the Confederate attacks had been driven back from Beaver Dam Creek with heavy casualties by McCall’s division.

Everything depended on Jackson’s flank attack unlocking the Union defences but he and his command arrived too late in the afternoon. At 5 pm Jackson was only at Pole Green Church, still three miles from his intended destination. Unable to find A P Hill or D H Hill, Jackson did not proceed any further. Although a major battle was raging within earshot he ordered his troops to bivouac at Hundley’s Corner for the evening.

Meanwhile, Longstreet’s and D H Hill’s divisions had finally marched up behind A P Hill. Lee told A P Hill to hold his ground but Hill felt he had the discretion to launch one further attack with the brigades of Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender and Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley on his left flank. This further attack soon before sundown was brave but suicidal. Firing continued until almost 10 pm but this assault was also beaten back with more futile casualties.

Although Jackson had not attacked, his presence near Porter’s flank nevertheless prompted McClellan to order Porter to withdraw after dark from Beaver Dam Creek to a new line five miles to the east, near Gaines’ Mill behind Boatswain’s Swamp. Porter abandoned his positions and retreated along the north bank of the Chickahominy, crossing Powhite Creek about three miles to his rear. He then began to dig in on the eastern bank of Boatswain’s Swamp, where there was a strong defensive position.

Despite feeling pleased with the performance of his army, McClellan was concerned that the Confederate strength on his right flank would threaten his supply line, the Richmond & York River Railroad north of the Chickahominy, and he implemented his contingency plan to shift his base of supply to the James River. He also believed that the demonstrations by Huger and Magruder on his main front proved that he was heavily outnumbered. McClellan’s decisions extricated Porter from immediate danger but it also meant that McClellan no longer had access to a railroad to supply his army or to bring forward his siege artillery.McClellan would have to abandon for the time being his plans for a regular siege of Richmond.

About 15,631 Union troops were engaged ay Beaver Dam Creek, taking only 361 casualties (49 killed, 207 wounded, 105 missing). The Confederates committed 16,356 men out of the intended force of 56,000 and their loss was between 1,365 and 1,484 men in A P Hill’s division and Ripley’s brigade alone. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: BEAVER DAM CREEK, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Webb Morell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sykes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel Robert C Buchanan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major Charles S Lovell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Gouverneur K Warren
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas John Jackson
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Ripley’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Field’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles William Field
Gregg’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg
Anderson’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson
Branch’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Archer’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Pender’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender

Union Organisation

USA: The Mountain Department was discontinued and its field forces assigned to the Army of Virginia.

USA: The District of the Gap was discontinued.

USA: The District of the Kanawha was discontinued.

USA: The Cheat Mountain District was discontinued.

USA: The Railroad District was discontinued.

USA: The Department of the Rappahannock was discontinued and its field forces assigned to the Army of Virginia.

USA: The Department of the Shenandoah was discontinued and its field forces assigned to the Army of Virginia.

USA: The Military District of Washington was transferred from the Department of the Rappahannock and re-established as an independent territorial command reporting to the War Department.

USA: Brigadier-General James Samuel Wadsworth retained command of the Military District of Washington.

Wadsworth, James Samuel / New York / Born 30 October 1807 Geneseo, New York / DOW Wilderness, Virginia 8 May 1864
Major-General New York Militia May 1861 / ADC (I McDowell) 8 June 1861-19 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 9 August 1861 / Major-General USV 5 May 1864 Withdrawn / Brevet Major-General USV 6 May 1864 posthumously / MWIA & CIA Wilderness 6 May 1864
2nd Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861 / Wadsworth’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-12 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 March 1862-17 March 1862 / Military District of Washington 17 March 1862-7 September 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 27 December 1862-2 January 1863 / I Corps Potomac 2 January 1863-4 January 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 4 January 1863-27 February 1863 / I Corps Potomac 1 March 1863-9 March 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 9 March 1863-15 June 1863 / I Corps Potomac 12 March 1864-13 March 1864 / 4th Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-6 May 1864

USA: The Army of the Mississippi transferred from the Department of the Mississippi to the District of West Tennessee.

USA: Major-General William Starke Rosecrans assumed command of the Army of the Mississippi, succeeding Major-General John Pope.

Rosecrans, William Starke / Ohio / Born 6 September 1819 Little Taylor Run, Ohio / Died Redondo Beach, California 11 March 1898
USMA 1 July 1842 5/56 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 April 1843 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Resigned USA 1 April 1854 / ADC (G B McClellan) 23 April 1861-June 1861 / Colonel Chief Engineer Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Colonel USV 23rd Ohio Infantry 12 June 1861 / Mustered Out USV 17 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USA 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 / Major-General USV 17 September 1862 to rank from 25 October 1862 adjusted to rank from 21 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Resigned USA 28 March 1867 / Brigadier-General USA 27 February 1889 / Retired USA 1 March 1889 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Rosecrans’ Brigade Army of Occupation May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of the Ohio 23 July 1861-19 September 1861 / Army of Occupation 23 July 1861-19 September 1861 / Department of Western Virginia 19 September 1861-11 March 1862 / Mountain Department 11 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Right Wing Army of the Mississippi May 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of the Mississippi 26 June 1862-24 October 1862 / District of Corinth 1 July 1862-20 October 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Tennessee 24 September 1862-20 October 1862 / Department of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-17 October 1863 / Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-19 October 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 24 October 1862-8 January 1863 / Department of the Missouri 22 January 1864-2 December 1864

USA: The Army of Virginia was established, operating under the direct control of the War Department within the territorial area of, but independently of the Department of the Potomac, comprising the field forces formerly in the Department of the Rappahannock, the Department of the Shenandoah and the Mountain Department.

USA: Major-General John Pope assumed command of the Army of Virginia.

Pope, John / Kentucky-Illinois / Born 16 March 1822 Louisville, Kentucky / Died Sandusky, Ohio 23 September 1892
USMA 1 July 1842 17/56 Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 9 May 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1855 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 1 July 1856 / Brigadier-General USV 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 17 July 1862 from 14 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 26 October 1886 / Retired USA 16 March 1886 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
District of North Missouri 29 July 1861-9 November 1861 / 2nd Division Western Army 29 September 1861-3 December 1861 / District of Central Missouri 3 December 1861-12 February 1862 / Army of Western Missouri 3 December 1861-12 February 1862 / District of North Missouri 26 December 1861-10 March 1862 / Army of the Mississippi 23 February 1862-26 June 1862 / District of the Mississippi 27 February 1862-21 April 1862 / Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / Department of the Northwest 6 September 1862-28 November 1862 / Department of the Northwest 13 February 1863-30 January 1865 / Military Division of the Missouri 30 January 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of the Missouri 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Third Military District 11 March 1867-26 December 1867 / Department of the Lakes 1 February 1868-6 May 1870

USA: I Corps (Virginia) was established in the Army of Virginia. It included the field forces formerly in the Mountain Department.

USA: Major-General John Charles Frémont assumed command I Corps (Virginia).

Frémont, John Charles / Georgia / Born 21 January 1813 Savannah, Georgia / Died New York, New York 13 July 1890
Instructor US Navy 1833-1835 / Professor US Navy 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 29 January 1845 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Major USV California Volunteers 23 July 1846 / Resigned USA 27 October 1846 / Dismissed USA 31 January 1847 Revoked / Resigned USV 15 March 1848 / Major-General USA 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Relieved 28 June 1862 / Resigned USA 4 June 1864 / Major-General USA Retired 28 April 1890 / Brevet Captain USA 31 July 1844
Western Department 3 July 1861-2 November 1861 /Western Army 24 September 1861-23 October 1861 / Mountain Department 29 March 1862-26 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-28 June 1862

USA: II Corps (Virginia) was established in the Army of Virginia. It included the field forces formerly in the Department of the Shenandoah.

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks assumed command II Corps (Virginia).

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Died Waltham, Massachusetts 1 September 1894
Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
Banks’ Division Department of Annapolis May `1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Annapolis 11 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-3 March 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-23 September 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Department of the Gulf 8 November 1862-23 September 1864 / Army of the Gulf 15 December 1862-22 September 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 December 1862-19 August 1863 / Department of the Gulf 18 March 1865-3 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 22 April 1865-2 June 1865

USA: III Corps (Virginia) was established in the Army of Virginia. It included the field forces formerly in the Department of the Rappahannock.

USA: Major-General Irvin McDowell assumed command III Corps (Virginia).

McDowell, Irvin / Ohio / Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio / Died 4 May 1885
USMA 1 July 1838 23/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 October 1842 / Assistant Adjutant-General 13 May 1847 / Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1862 to rank from 14 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 25 November 1872 / Retired USA 15 October 1882 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1838 Brevet Captain USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Major USA 31 March 1856 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Department of Northeastern Virginia 27 May 1861-17 August 1861 / Army of Northeastern Virginia 8 July 1861-15 August 1861 / Army of the Potomac 15 August 1861-19 August 1861 / McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / I Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / III Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the Pacific 21 May 1864-27 June 1865 / Department of California 27 June 1865-31 March 1868 / Fourth Military District 4 June 1868-4 July 1868 / Department of the West 16 July 1868-16 December 1872

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: John Charles Frémont
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Dabney Herndon Maury assumed temporary command of the Army of the West, succeeding Brigadier-General John Porter McCown.

Maury, Dabney Herndon / Virginia / Born 21 May 1822 Fredericksburg, Virginia / Died Peoria, Illinois 11 January 1900
USMA 1 July 1846 37/42 Mounted Rifles / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1847 / US Mounted Rifles 19 February 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 27 January 1853 / Regt Adjutant 15 September 1858-10 April 1860 / Assistant Adjutant-General 17 April 1860 / Dismissed USA 25 June 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 21st Mississippi Infantry 28 August 1861 / Colonel PACS Assistant Adjutant-General October 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 6 December 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 March 1862 to rank from 12 March 1862 / Major-General PACS 4 November 1862 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain 17 April 1860 / WIA Camargo 1846 WIA Cerro Gordo 17 April 1847
Assistant Adjutant-General Department of Alabama and West Florida January 1862-March 1862 / Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General Army of the West March 1862-April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Army of the West April 1862-May 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the West May 1862-27 June 1862 / Army of the West 26 June 1862-5 July 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the West 3 July 1862-October 1862 / 3rd Division Army of West Tennessee October 1862-December 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Mississippi 30 December 1862-15 April 1863 / Gulf District 4 November 1862-7 December 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 15 February 1863-11 May 1863 / Gulf District 1 April 1863-25 July 1864 / Department of Alabama and East Mississippi 26 July 1864-15 August 1864 / / Gulf District 15 August 1864-21 November 1864 / Department of Alabama Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 22 November 1864-12 December 1864 / Gulf District 12 December 1864-4 May 1865

CSA: The 1st Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana was established. It comprised Louisiana east of the Mississippi River and the Gulf counties of Mississippi.

CSA: Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles assumed temporary command of the 1st Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana.

Ruggles, Daniel / Massachusetts / Born 31 January 1810 Barre, Massachusetts / Died 1 June 1897
USMA 1 July 1833 34/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 February 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 7 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 21 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 21 April 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 27 April 1861 / Colonel Infantry Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865 / Chief of Bureau of Prison Camps 24 March 1865-April 1865 / Paroled Augusta, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847
Potomac Line 22 April 1861-5 June 1861 / District of Aquia 19 July 1861-21 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 21 August 1861-12 October 1861 / District of North Alabama 22 February 1862-27 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-10 May 1862 / First Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / District of the Mississippi 5 September 1862-1 October 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the West July 1862-August 1862 / District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 October 1862-2 September 1863 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865-May 1865

CSA: The 2nd Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana was established. It comprised all counties in Mississippi below the 32nd parallel except those along the Gulf coast.

CSA: Brigadier-General William Nelson Rector Beall assumed command of the 2nd Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana.

Beall, William Nelson Rector / Kentucky-Arkansas / Born 20 March 1825 Bardstown, Kentucky / Died McMinnville, Tennessee 25 July 1883
USMA 1 July 1848 30/38 Infantry-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1844 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1848 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 April 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Captain USA 27 March 1855 / Resigned USA 20 August 1861 / Captain ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General 29 January 1862 / Major PACS Commissary of Subsistence 13 February 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 12 April 1862 to rank from 11 April 1862 / Captain PACS Artillery 15 September 1862 / Quartermaster POWs 6 December 1864 / Special Parole 6 December 1864 confirmed New York, New York 2 August 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1848 / CIA Port Hudson 9 July 1863
Cavalry Western Department 23 April 1862 / Beall’s Brigade District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana April 1862 / Second Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 June 1862-1 October 1862 / District Three of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 October 1862-27 December 1862 / Beall’s Brigade District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 27 December 1862-9 July 1863

CSA: The 3rd Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana was established. It comprised all counties in Mississippi between the 32nd parallel and 33rd parallel.

CSA: Brigadier-General Martin Luther Smith assumed command of the 3rd Sub-District of the District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana.

Smith, Martin Luther / New York-Florida / Born 9 September 1819 Danby, New York / Died Savannah, Georgia 29 July 1866
USMA 1 July 1842 16/56 Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 November 1843 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Captain USA 1 July 1856 / Resigned USA 1 April 1861 / Major ACSA Engineers 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 21st Louisiana Infantry 30 January 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 March 1862 to rank from 11 April 1862 / Major-General PACS 4 November 1862 / Chief of Engineer Bureau 9 March 1864-2 April 1864 / Paroled Athens, Georgia 8 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 30 May 1848 / CIA Vicksburg 4 July 1863 Exchanged February 1864
Smith’s Brigade District of Mississippi and East Louisiana May 1862-26 June 1862 / Third Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 June 1862-1 October 1862 / District Two of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 October 1862-1 December 1862 / 2nd Division Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana December 1862-April 1863 / 4th Division Army of Mississippi April 1863-4 July 1863 / Defences of Vicksburg 28 December 1862-4 July 1863 / Chief of Engineer Bureau CSA 9 March 1864-2 April 1864 / Chief Engineer Army of Northern Virginia 5 April 1864-20 July 1864 / Chief Engineer Army of Tennessee 20 July 1864-17 October 1864 / Chief Engineer Military Division of the West 17 October 1864-23 November 1864 / Chief Engineer District of the Gulf 23 November 1864-21 December 1864 / Chief Engineer Army of Tennessee 4 December 1864-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim Braxton Bragg awaited
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Dabney Herndon Maury temporary
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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