1862 June 27th

June 27 1862 Friday

Battle of Gaines’ Mill, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Battle of Garnett’s and Golding’s Farm, VA (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Seven Days’ Battles

Naval Assault on Vicksburg

Alabama. USS Bohio, Acting Master W D Gregory, captured the sloop Wave, bound from Mobile to Mississippi City with a cargo of flour.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Waddell’s Farm.

Arkansas. A Confederate force set up an ambush at Stewart’s Plantation about eight miles from Village Creek. A Union forage train was captured.

Louisiana. Union reconnaissance to the Williams Bridge over the Amite River began

Mississippi. Union naval bombardment of Vicksburg continued.

Mississippi. Confederate General Braxton Bragg assumed full and permanent command of the Army of Mississippi, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, who was relieved for taking an unauthorised leave of sickness absence. Bragg discontinued the District of Northern Alabama, as this area was within the radius of operations of his own army. He also discontinued the Army of Mobile, which now existed in name only after the transfer of the majority of its forces to his own command.

North Carolina. Incident at Swift Creek Bridge.

North Carolina. USS Bienville, Commander James Robert Madison Mullany, captured the schooner Morning Star off Wilmington.

North Carolina. USS Cambridge, Commander W A Parker, chased the blockade runner Modern Greece ashore off Wilmington. The ship and its cargo of gunpowder, rifled artillery, and other weapons were destroyed.

Tennessee. Confederate-General Braxton Bragg sent a brigade by rail via Mobile and Atlanta from Tupelo, Mississippi, to reinforce the defence of Chattanooga. The 3,000 men took just under a week to complete the journey.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Hundley’s Corner, Savage Station, Mechanicsville, and Fair Oaks.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s Army of the Potomac was concentrating into a semi-circle east of Richmond. Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter’s V Corps moved at daybreak to its new position behind Boatswain’s Creek. McClellan urged Porter to hold Gaines’ Mill at all costs while the army changed its base of supply from the Pamunkey to the James River. Several of McClellan’s subordinates urged him to attack the two Confederate divisions of Major-General John Bankhead Magruder south of the river, but he feared reports about greater numbers of Confederates waiting for him. Magruder reinforced his anxiety when he ordered Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs to make an offensive diversion around Garnett’s and Golding’s Farm. Meanwhile, the Confederates pressed on with their attacks north of the Chickahominy near Gaines’ Mill.

Garnett’s and Golding’s Farm, Virginia, also known as Dispatch Station, or Oak Grove, or White House Landing. While the battle raged north of the Chickahominy River at Gaines’ Mill, Confederate Major-General John Bankhead Magruder continued his demonstrations south of the river by employing minor diversionary attacks. He was able to distract 60,000 Union troops with the 25,000 men of his command while the heavier action occurred north of the river.

Magruder demonstrated against the Union line at Garnett’s Farm and Golding’s Farm. During the morning Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs’ brigade attacked again near Simon Goulding’s or Golding’s Farm over the same ground as had seen fighting the preceding evening at Oak Grove. Toombs took it upon himself to order his fellow brigade commander, Colonel George Thomas Anderson to join him to strengthen the attack. Two of Anderson’s regiments, the 7th Georgia Infantry and 8th Georgia Infantry, preceded Toombs’ brigade into the assault.

Union Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith’s division (2/VI) was already withdrawing to escape artillery crossfire from a battery set up at James M Garnett’s Farm overnight and from across the Chickahominy River and the 49th Pennsylvania Infantry and 33rd New York Infantry formed the rearguard. Toombs launched his sharp attack at dusk against Smith’s division near Old Tavern at Garnett’s Farm. The attack was easily repulsed by a counter-attack from the Union brigade of Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock (1/2/VI), losing 156 men. Hancock, in turn, was driven back by nightfall a counter-attack.

Skirmishes also continued at Turkey Bend, Virginia, on the southern flank of the Union Army of the Potomac. Union Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman’s III Corps refused its new line along the river. Magruder’s diversion fixed in position the majority of the Union army. These were the only attacks launched south of the Chickahominy River, but they helped to convince McClellan that he was being subjected to attacks from all directions, increasing his anxiety and his determination to seek safety for his army at the James River.

Total casualties for both sides on both 27th and 28th June were 329 to 368 for the Union and 461 Confederates. (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: GARNETT’S & GOLDING’S FARM, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Wynn Davidson

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Toombs’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs
D R Jones’ Brigade, Jones’ Division, Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel George Thomas Anderson

Gaines’ Mill, Virginia, also known as Cold Harbor, Kinney’s Farm, Hanover Court House, Boatswain’s Swamp, or the Chickahominy. This was the third of the Seven Days’ Battles. After his failure to destroy the isolated Union V Corps under Brigadier-General Fitz-John Porter at Mechanicsville on 26 June, Confederate-General Robert Edward Lee renewed his attack, launching the largest Confederate attack of the war so far with about 57,000 men in six divisions. Despite the mismanaged and costly action at Beaver Dam Creek, Lee refused to call off his offensive and re-cross to safety south of the Chickahominy. He ordered a resumption of the attack in the morning, relying again on a turning movement by Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson to dislodge the defenders from their new defensive line at Gaines’ Mill and Boatswain’s Creek.

The divisions of Major-General James Longstreet, Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill, and Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill pressed forward at first towards the supposedly abandoned Union lines at Beaver Dam Creek. A P Hill made his attack across Beaver Dam Creek early in the morning and found the Union line lightly defended. A P Hill’s advance uncovered the New Bridge and communications were successfully restored between the two halves of the Confederate army across the Chickahominy. Continuing eastwards, A P Hill approached Gaines’ Mill, where his lead brigade, under Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg, was held up by fierce resistance by Colonel Thomas Cass’ 9th Massachusetts Infantry. By early afternoon, A P Hill finally ran into strong opposition from the main line of Union Brigadier-Fitz John Porter’s V Corps, strongly placed along Boatswain’s Creek where the swampy terrain was a major obstacle against the attack. The Union line was well-chosen, with hillsides behind where rows of infantry could fire, and with artillery behind them.

Hill attacked with the brigades of Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg, Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch, Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender, Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson, Brigadier-General James Jay Archer, and Brigadier-General Charles William Field but failed to make headway through heavy fire across the swamp. Major-General James Longstreet’s division arrived on Hill’s right flank and Hill attacked again with three brigades at 2.30 pm but both divisions faced challenging obstacles in the terrain.

Lee ordered Longstreet and A P Hill to delay any further attacks until Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson could arrive on their left flank. For the second time in the Seven Days campaign, however, Jackson was late. Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s division had reached Cold Harbor and was then forced to wait as Jackson’s troops had mistaken the road. D H Hill advanced against the Union right flank and was held off by the 6,000 Regular soldiers in the division of Brigadier-General George Sykes. D H Hill also backed off to await Jackson’s arrival.

Jackson had left Walnut Grove Church with a guide who had instructions to lead his column to Old Cold Harbor. The guide chose the shortest route but when Jackson saw that this would take him to Gaines’ Mill, a place he needed to avoid by outflanking, he counter-marched for four miles. Jackson joined D H Hill position at about 3 pm but, not realising that the attacks of Longstreet and A P Hill had already been halted, he held his own command and D H Hill’s division inactive out of fear of advancing into the fire of friendly troops. Receiving urgent messages from Lee, Jackson finally began his assault at 4.30 pm. Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell’s veteran division attempted to advance against the powerful Union position but was repelled promptly with heavy casualties. Jackson’s own division under Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder advanced into the gap between Ewell and A P Hill but made equally little progress.

Meanwhile, Longstreet was ordered to conduct a diversionary attack to stabilise the lines until Jackson could arrive and launch the decisive attack from the north. In Longstreet’s attack, Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett’s brigade attempted a frontal assault and was beaten back under severe fire with heavy losses. Porter’s line was saved by Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum’s division (1/VI) moving into position to bolster his defence.

At dusk, the Confederates decided to mount another attack in order not to waste entirely their numerical advantage. All of the Confederate brigades except two of A P Hill’s had now reached the battleground, although some were already exhausted beyond making another attack. Brigadier-General John Bell Hood led his fresh brigade in a ferocious attack where others had failed to pass, and he broke into the Union lines. He was promptly reinforced by the brigade of Colonel Evander McIvor Law and the Union defences broke. Hood forced a gap in the line and then Pickett’s brigade extended the breach in its seconded advance of the day. Two entire Union regiments surrendered and fourteen guns were overrun. As the collapse spread to each side, Ewell’s division pushed ahead and overran eight more guns and the Union force broke into headlong retreat.

Union reinforcements in the form of Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher (2/1/II) and Brigadier-General William Harrison French’s brigade (3/1/II) were sent across the Chickahominy by McClellan but they arrived too late to halt the retreat. They did manage to reinforce Sykes’ Regular division (2/V) in covering the withdrawal. A futile charge to protect the retreat by a battalion of the 5th US Cavalry under Captain Charles J Whiting was repulsed with the loss of all but one of its officers.

If Jackson’s march had been more direct and timely, the mass assault that Lee unleashed at 7 pm could have occurred three or four hours earlier. This would have put Porter’s V Corps in grave jeopardy, beyond immediate reinforcement or the safety of the cover of falling darkness.

The defeat of Porter’s corps meant that it was impossible for McClellan to protect or restore his supply lines to the Pamunkey or York River. McClellan met his corps commanders at Savage’s Station during the night but it was not for a conference. Rather, he ordered the premeditated retreat of the army to its newly established supply base on the James River, where it could be supported by the guns of the fleet. Moreover, McClellan announced that he would abandon his advance on Richmond altogether and focus on rescuing his army from what he believed was a much larger enemy. By 8 pm his decision was bolstered by news of constant Confederate action south of the Chickahominy, extending from the Grapevine Bridge to the edges of White Oak Swamp. These reports of Union Major-General John Bankhead Magruder’s diversionary efforts at Garnett’s and Golding’s Farm over-estimated the determination of the Confederates to attack.

Union casualties from the 34,214 men engaged were 6,837 (894 killed, 3,107 wounded, and 2,836 captured or missing). Of the 57,018 Confederates engaged, the losses totalled at least 7,993 (1,483 killed, 6,402 wounded, 108 missing or captured). Other counts suggest as many as 8,500 Confederate casualties. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: GAINES’ MILL, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Israel Bush Richardson
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Harrison French
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Webb Morell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Henry Martindale
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sykes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel Robert C Buchanan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major Charles S Lovell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Gouverneur K Warren
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin
1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George William Taylor
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph J Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Newton

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Thomas John Jackson
G W Smith’s Division: Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting
Hood’s Brigade, G W Smith’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General John Bell Hood
Whiting’s Brigade, G W Smith’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Evander M Law
Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder
Winder’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder
Burks’ Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel John R Jones
Taliaferro’s Brigade, Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel S V Fulkerson
Lawton’s Brigade Jackson’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Alexander Robert Lawton
Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Elzey’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Arnold Elzey
Trimble’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Taylor’s Brigade, Ewell’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Taylor
D H Hill’s Division, Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill
Ripley’s Brigade, D H Hill’s Division: Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roswell Sabine Ripley
Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General James Longstreet
Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Richard Heron Anderson
Kemper’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Lawson Kemper
RH Anderson’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Colonel Micah Jenkins
Pickett’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General George Edward Pickett
Wilcox’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Pryor’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Roger Atkinson Pryor
Featherston’s Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Featherston
A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Major-General Ambrose Powell Hill
Field’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Charles William Field
Gregg’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Maxcy Gregg
Anderson’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Joseph Reid Anderson
Branch’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Archer’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General James Jay Archer
Pender’s Brigade, A P Hill’s Division, Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: Brigadier-General William Dorsey Pender

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin

Department of the South: David Hunter

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Army of Virginia: John Pope

  • I  Corps Virginia: John Charles Frémont
  • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Braxton Bragg arrived to command the Western Department, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

CSA: General Braxton Bragg assumed full and permanent command of the Army of Mississippi.

Bragg, Braxton / North Carolina / Born 22 March 1817 Warrenton, North Carolina / Died Galveston, Texas 27 September 1876
USMA 1 July 1837 5/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / Regt Adjutant 19 November 1837-8 March 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 3 January 1856 / Colonel Louisiana Militia / ADC (T O Moore) / Major-General Louisiana Militia 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 7 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 12 September 1861 / General ACSA 12 April 1862 to rank from 6 April 1862 / Paroled Monticello, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 February 1847
Department of Louisiana 22 February 1861-21 March 1861 / Forces in New Orleans 22 February 1861-16 April 1861 / Department of West Florida 7 March 1861-14 October 1861 / Forces in Pensacola 7 March 1861-3 October 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 7 October 1861-28 February 1861 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 4 March 1862-2 April 1862 / Army of Pensacola 22 October 1861-26 January 1862 / II Corps (Second Grand Division) Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-28 March 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 May 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of Mississippi 30 March 1862-7 April 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 May 1862-5 July 1862 / Western Department 17 June 1862-24 October 1862 / Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-28 September 1862 / Western Department 3 November 1862-25 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 25 July 1863-21 December 1863 / Military Adviser to the President 24 February 1864-31 January 1865 / Defences of Wilmington 24 October 1864-11 November 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 11 November 1864-6 March 1865 /Defences of Augusta 22 November 1864-2 December 1864 / Defences of Savannah 2 December 1864 / Defences of Charleston December 1864 / Defences of Wilmington January 1865 / II Corps Tennessee 22 February 1865-8 April 1865

CSA: The District of North Alabama was discontinued and incorporated into the Western Department.

CSA: The Army of Mobile was discontinued and its field forces incorporated into II Corps (Mississippi).

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin

  • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary

  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Braxton Bragg

  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
    • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
    • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
    • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
  • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
    • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
    • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Army of the West: Dabney Herndon Maury temporary

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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