1862 June 25th

June 25 1862 Wednesday

Battle of Oak Grove, VA CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Start of Vicksburg Canal, MS

Seven Days’ Battles

Naval Assault on Vicksburg

Arkansas. Skirmish at Yellville on the Little Red River.

District of Columbia. US President Abraham Lincoln returned to the capital from West Point after his visit to confer with former Commander-in-Chief, the retired Major-General Winfield Scott. Lincoln had in mind a new plan to restore unity of command across the Union forces in northern and western Virginia.

Florida. Skirmish near Pensacola.

Mississippi. A Union brigade of 3,000 men under Brigadier-General Thomas Williams began the construction of a canal through a peninsula on the Mississippi River opposite Vicksburg. The troops had accompanied the ascent of the Union fleet to Vicksburg.

Mississippi. Confederate General Braxton Bragg was given authority over almost the entire western theatre between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians. His Western Department was extended to incorporate Department No 1 and gained control of all the field forces in the region.

South Carolina. Union gunboats entered the South Santee River in South Carolina.

Tennessee. A group of Confederate cavalry arrived at Lafayette Station about a mile from Germantown. The cavalry set up an ambush and attacked an incoming train which they derailed and burned.

Virginia. Skirmish at Mungo Flats.

Virginia. Skirmish at Ashland.

Virginia. The first US submarine Alligator arrived at City Point. It anchored near USS Galena. The target of its first submerged operation was selected as the Petersburg Railroad Bridge over the Appomattox River.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee enacted his reorganisation of the Army of Northern Virginia for his intended attack that would become the Seven Days’ Battles. Major-General John Bankhead Magruder’s Command would have a defensive role east of Richmond, protecting the capital against any Union advance. Major-General James Longstreet’s Command would comprise a striking force to drive along the northern bank of the Chickahominy River. Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s Command would include his own troops – no longer named the Army of the Valley – reinforced by two more divisions for an outflanking move around the Union northern flank.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson arrived near Richmond with his forces from the Shenandoah Valley. His two divisions were commanded by Brigadier-General Charles Sidney Winder and Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell. His command was increased by adding the divisions of Brigadier-General William Henry Chase Whiting and Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan had been reassured by the War Department that Jackson was still in position at Gordonsville, Port Republic, Harrisonburg, and Luray, and has indeterminate intentions either to march to Richmond, Washington, or Baltimore. Jackson’s presence within striking distance of McClellan’s northern flank was not yet suspected.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION DEPARTMENT OF THE POTOMAC

Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
II Corps (Potomac): Major-General Edwin Vose Sumner
1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Major-General Israel Bush Richardson
1st Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Curtis Caldwell
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Henry French
2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Sedgwick
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Colonel Alfred Sully
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Wallace Burns
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Bradford Carr
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Bell Birney
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Hiram Gregory Berry
IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes
1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Darius Nash Couch
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Albion Parris Howe
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Joseph Abercrombie
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Innis Newton Palmer
2nd Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John James Peck
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Morris Naglee
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Potomac): Colonel Henry W Wessells
V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Fitz John Porter
1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major-General George Webb Morrell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Barnes
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Charles Griffin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Butterfield
2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Sykes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Lieutenant-Colonel Robert C Buchanan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Major C S Lovell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Colonel Gouverneur Kemble Warren
3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Archibald McCall
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Fulton Reynolds
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George Gordon Meade
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, V Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Truman Seymour
VI Army Corps (Potomac): Brigadier–General William Buel Franklin
1st Division, VI Army Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Henry Warner Slocum
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Army Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General George William Taylor
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Army Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph J Bartlett
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Army Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Newton
2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Farrar Smith
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Winfield Scott Hancock
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Wynn Davidson
Cavalry Reserve: Brigadier-General Philip St George Cooke
Engineer Brigade: Brigadier-General Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Garrison, White House: Brigadier-General Silas Casey
Artillery Reserve (Potomac): Colonel Henry Jackson Hunt
Siege Train: Colonel Robert Ogden Tyler

Oak Grove, Virginia, also known as Henrico, King’s Schoolhouse, French’s Field, Meadow Bridge or The Orchard. This was the first of the Seven Days’ Battles. Following the stalemate at Fair Oaks (Seven Pines), Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s Army of the Potomac remained around the eastern outskirts of Richmond.

The new commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert Edward Lee, had used the three and a half weeks after Fair Oaks to reorganise and reinforce his army, to extend his defensive lines before Richmond, and to plan offensive operations against McClellan’s larger army.

McClellan had received intelligence that Lee was preparing to attack and that the arrival of reinforcements from the Shenandoah Valley under Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson may be imminent. McClellan decided to take the initiative himself before Lee could strike. Anticipating the risk that Jackson’s forces were marching from the north, he increased cavalry patrols along the likely avenues of approach.

McClellan planned to advance his siege artillery about a mile and a half closer to the city by taking the high ground on Nine Mile Road around Old Tavern. In preparation for that advance, he planned an attack on Oak Grove, south of Old Tavern and the Richmond and York River Railroad. This would put his army in position ready for an attack from two directions against Old Tavern.

Known locally for a stand of tall oak trees, Oak Grove was the site of Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill’s assault at Seven Pines nearly a month earlier and had seen numerous clashes between pickets since that time. Between the two armies was a small, dense forest, 1,200 yards wide and bisected by the headwaters of White Oak Swamp. The Union attack was planned to advance westwards along the axis of the Williamsburg Road in the direction of Richmond. Two divisions of the III Corps were selected for the assault, commanded by Major-General Joseph Hooker and Brigadier-General Philip Kearny. Facing them was the Confederate division of Major-General Benjamin Huger.

At 8.30 am, three Union brigades stepped off in an orderly line of battle. From right to left, they were commanded by Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles (Excelsior Brigade), Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover, both from Hooker’s division, and Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson from Kearny’s division. Although Robinson and Grover made good progress on the left and in the centre, Sickles’ New Yorkers encountered difficulties moving through their abattis, and then through the upper portions of the swamp, and then they met stiff Confederate resistance, all of which threw the Union line out of alignment. Huger took advantage of the confusion by launching a counter-attack with the brigade of Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright against Grover’s brigade. Adding to the confusion, one of Wright’s Georgia regiments was wearing red Zouave uniforms. Many of Grover’s men believed that only the Union Army had similarly-dressed Zouave units so they were reluctant to fire on their own men. When they finally realised that Union troops could not be approaching from the direction of Richmond, they opened fire. At a crucial moment in the battle, the 25th North Carolina Infantry of Brigadier-General Robert Ransom’s brigade, in their first combat engagement, delivered a perfectly synchronised volley of rifle fire against Sickles’ brigade, breaking up its delayed attack and sending the 71st New York Infantry into a panicked retreat.

Informed of Sickles’ reverse, the Union III Corps commander, Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman, ordered reinforcements forward and also notified McClellan, who was attempting to manage the battle by telegraph from three miles away. McClellan, unaware of most details of the engagement, suddenly became alarmed and at 10.30 am ordered Heintzelman’s attacking formations to withdraw back to their entrenchments, an order that mystified his subordinates on the scene. McClellan telegraphed that he would come to the front in person, and this caused a hiatus in the action for two and a half hours.

At 1 pm, seeing that the situation was not as bad as he had feared, McClellan ordered his men forward again to retake the ground for which they had already fought once that day. The fighting lasted until nightfall. The attacks gained 600 yards at a cost of 626 Union and 541 Confederate casualties

The vigorous Confederate defence and slow progress persuaded McClellan that the Confederates had not weakened their lines in front of Richmond. He reported his concerns for an imminent attack on his right flank. His spoiling attack at Oak Grove was not pressed with enough determination to deflect Lee from the offensive which he had set in motion north of the Chickahominy. (CWSAC – Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

ORDER OF BATTLE: OAK GROVE, VA

Union Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Brinton McClellan
III Corps (Potomac): Major-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman
2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Joseph Hooker
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Daniel Edgar Sickles
3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Philip Kearny
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, III Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Cleveland Robinson

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
Magruder’s Command: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder
Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command: Major-General Benjamin Huger
Wright’s Brigade, Huger’s Division, Magruder’s Command: Brigadier-General Ambrose Ransom Wright
Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Ransom’s Brigade, Holmes’ Division, Magruder’s Command: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Lawrence Lardner
Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Charles Henry Davis
Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

  • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
  • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
  • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant

Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt

Middle Department: John Ellis Wool

  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood

Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont

  • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
  • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

Department of the Pacific: George Wright

  • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
  • District of Oregon: Justis Steinburger
  • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
    • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
    • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin

Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell

  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth

Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Department of the South: David Hunter

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Department No 1 was discontinued and its territory incorporated into the Western Department.

CSA: The eastern border of the Western Department was redefined as the line of the railroad from Chattanooga via Atlanta and West Point and then following the Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico.

CSA: Brigadier-General John Porter McCown arrived to assume temporary command of the Army of the West, succeeding Major-General Earl Van Dorn.

McCown, John Porter / Tennessee / Born 19 August 1815 Sevierville, Tennessee / Died Little Rock, Arkansas 22 January 1879
USMA 1 July 1840 10/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 September 1843 / Regt Quartermaster 29 March 1847-12 January 1849 / Captain USA 9 January 1851 / Resigned USA 17 May 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA Artillery 9 May 1861 / Colonel PACS Tennessee Artillery 17 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 12 October 1861 / Major-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 10 March 1862 / Paroled Salisbury, North Carolina 12 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 18 April 1847
2nd Brigade Western District 7 September 1861-24 October 1861 / Army of the West 20 June 1862-25 June 1862 / 3rd Division Western District 24 October 1861-28 February 1862 / McCown’s Command Western District 28 February 1862-April 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the West April 1862-27 June 1862 / McCown’s Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 27 June 1862-3 July 1862 / McCown’s Division Department of East Tennessee 3 July 1862-November 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 24 August 1862-22 September 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 27 September 1862-20 October 1862 / District of the Tennessee 27 September 1862-22 February 1863 / 3rd Division Hardee’s Corps Army of Tennessee November 1862-February 1863

CSA: Right Wing Northern Virginia was discontinued and renamed Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia.

CSA: Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia was established in the Army of Northern Virginia, comprising the former Right Wing Northern Virginia.

CSA: Major-General James Longstreet assumed command of Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia.

Longstreet, James / South Carolina / Born 8 January 1821 Edgefield, South Carolina / Died Gainesville, Georgia 2 January 1904
USMA 1 July 1842 54/56 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8th US Infantry 4 March 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 February 1847 / Regt Adjutant 8 June 1847-1 July 1849 / Captain USA 7 December 1847 / Major USA Paymaster 19 July 1858 / Resigned USA 1 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel ACSA 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 to rank from 9 October 1862 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 8 September 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Wilderness 6 May 1864
4th Brigade Army of the Potomac 2 July 1861-14 October 1861 / 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 14 October 1861-5 February 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862 / I Corps Potomac 10 January 1862-14 March 1862 / Right Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-25 June 1862 / Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia 25 June 1862-13 July 1862 / Right Wing Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-3 September 1862 / Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia 4 September 1862-5 November 1862 / I Corps Northern Virginia 6 November 1862-20 September 1863 / Department of North Carolina 26 February 1863-28 May 1863 / Department of Southern Virginia 26 February 1863-1 April 1863 / Department of Richmond 26 February 1863-1 April 1863 / Right Wing Tennessee 19 September 1863-20 September 1863 / District of East Tennessee 3 December 1863-8 March 1864 / District of East Tennessee 18 March 1864-11 April 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 7 April 1864-6 May 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 17 October 1864-9 April 1865

CSA: The Army of the Valley was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of Northern Virginia as part of Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia.

CSA: Left Wing Northern Virginia was discontinued and renamed Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia.

CSA: Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia was established in the Army of Northern Virginia, comprising the former Left Wing Northern Virginia.

CSA: Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson assumed command of Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan / Virginia / Born 21 January 1824 Clarksburg, Virginia / DOW Guinea’s Station, Virginia 10 May 1863
USMA 1 July 1846 17/59 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / Resigned USA 29 February 1852 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Major Topographical Engineer Virginia Militia 25 April 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861 / Colonel Virginia 21 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 27 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 MWIA Chancellorsville 2 May 1863
Forces in Harper’s Ferry 29 April 1861-23 May 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of the Shenandoah 15 May 1861-20 July 1861 / 1st Brigade Valley District Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-28 October 1861 / Army of the Valley 22 August 1861-25 June 1862 / Valley District 22 October 1861-6 September 1862 / Jackson’s Command (II Corps) Northern Virginia 25 June 1862-13 July 1862 / Left Wing (II Corps) Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-3 September 1862 / Jackson’s Command (II Corps) Northern Virginia 4 September 1862-5 November 1862 / II Corps Northern Virginia 6 November 1862-2 May 1863

CSA: Reserve Northern Virginia was discontinued and renamed Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia.

CSA: Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia was established in the Army of Northern Virginia.

CSA: Major-General John Bankhead Magruder assumed command of Magruder’s Command.

Magruder, John Bankhead / Virginia / Born 1 May 1807 Port Royal, Virginia / Died Houston, Texas 18 February 1871
USMA 1 July 1830 15/42 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 1 July 1830 / 1st US Artillery 11 August 1831 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 March 1836 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 20 April 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Colonel PACS Artillery 16 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1830 Brevet Major USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / Major-General Mexican Imperial Army/ WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Forces in Richmond 8 May 1861-21 May 1861 / Hampton Line 21 May 1861-26 May 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 26 May 1861-31 May 1861 / Army of the Peninsula 26 May 1861-31 May 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 17 June 1861-12 April 1862 / Army of the Peninsula 17 June 1861-12 April 1862 / Magruder’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 12 April 1862-May 1862 / Reserve Northern Virginia 4 May 1862-25 June 1862 / Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia 25 June 1862-14 July 1862 / District of Texas 10 October 1862-27 November 1862 / District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 29 November 1862-4 August 1864 / District of Arkansas 4 August 1864-28 January 1865 / II Corps Trans-Mississippi 4 August 1864-31 March 1865 / District of Arkansas 31 January 1865-14 February 1865 / District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 20 March 1865-26 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary

  • Army of Mobile: William L Powell

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin

  • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
  • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
  • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Longstreet’s Command Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Magruder’s Command Northern Virginia: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

  • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

  • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall

Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary

  • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Sub-District of Houston: George M Flournoy
  • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • Trans-Mississippi District: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim Braxton Bragg awaited

  • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
  • Army of Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
    • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
    • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
    • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
    • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Army of the West: John Porter McCown temporary

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson

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