1862 July 18th

July 18 1862 Friday

Dix-Hill Prisoner of War Cartel agreed

Morgan’s First Kentucky Raid

Forrest’s First Tennessee Raid

USAThe Dix-Hill Cartel, pertaining to the exchange of prisoners of war, was drawn up by the US Congress. It was signed by Union Major-General John Adam Dix and Confederate Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill at Haxall’s Landing, Virginia, on 22 July  1862. The agreement established a scale of equivalents for captured officers to be exchanged for fixed numbers of enlisted men, and agents from each side were appointed to conduct the exchanges at specified locations. Prisoners could also be released on parole. The system began to break down when the Confederates classified Afro-American captives as fugitive slaves, requiring them to be returned to their owners instead of being exchanged. On 30 July 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued General Orders 252, which effectively suspended the Dix–Hill Cartel until the Confederate forces agreed to treat black prisoners the same as white prisoners.

At the outbreak of war, the Federal government adopted a strict policy toward captured Confederate soldiers, who were deemed to be rebels. The government wanted to avoid any action that might appear as an official recognition of the Confederate government in Richmond, including the formal transfer of military captives. Public opinion on prisoner exchanges began to change after the First Battle of Bull Run when about one thousand Union soldiers were captured.

In two meetings on 23 February 1862 and 1 March 1862, Wool and Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Howell Cobb had reached an agreement on prisoner exchanges and discussed many of the provisions later adopted in the Dix-Hill agreement. A cartel arrangement used between the United States and Great Britain in the War of 1812 provided a model for the negotiators to adapt.

The cartel agreement established a scale of equivalents to manage the exchange of military officers and enlisted personnel. For example, a naval captain or a colonel in the army would exchange for fifteen privates or common seamen, while personnel of equal ranks would transfer man for man. The agreement named two locations for the exchanges to occur, one at A M Aiken’s Landing, below Dutch Gap, in Virginia, and the other at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Each government appointed an agent to handle the exchange and parole of prisoners. The agreement also allowed the exchange or parole of captives between the commanders of two opposing forces.

In addition, the agreement permitted each side to exchange non-combatants, such as citizens accused of disloyalty, and civilian employees of the military. Authorities were to parole any prisoners not formally exchanged within ten days following their capture. The terms of the cartel prohibited paroled prisoners from returning to the military in any capacity including “the performance of field, garrison, police, or guard, or constabulary duty.

The cartel’s newly appointed agents, Confederate Robert Ould and Union Brigadier-General Lorenzo Thomas, conducted their first official prisoner exchange under the agreement’s terms with a transfer of 3,021 Union personnel for 3000 Confederates at Aiken’s Landing. The exchanges had effectively stopped by June 1863.

In January 1865 with the end of the war in sight, Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant permitted the resumption of exchanges after the Confederate authorities agreed to include all prisoners. By February, Grant was trying to exchange 3,000 prisoners a week, requesting that priority should go to disabled troops since “few of these will be got in the ranks again and as we can count upon but little reinforcement from the prisoners we get.” The Union Army is reported to have paroled or exchanged 329,963 Confederate prisoners of war, while the Confederacy paroled or exchanged about 152,015 Union prisoners of war.

Indiana. Raid on Newburg.

Kentucky. A Confederate cavalry raiding party, commanded by Colonel John Hunt Morgan entered the town of Henderson below Evansville and Newburg, Indiana. One group crossed the Ohio River to raid Newburg. Actions also occurred at Georgetown and Paris. Among them, Colonel Adam Rankin Johnson of 10th Kentucky Partisan Rangers led 12 men with two stovepipes disguised as “Quaker cannons” and gained the nickname of “Stovepipe” Jackson.

Missouri. Confederates raided near Memphis and ambushed a Union party, causing several casualties.

Tennessee. Incident at Murfreesboro.

Tennessee. The Confederate cavalry brigades of Colonel Joseph Wheeler and Colonel Frank Armstrong Crawford advanced from Tupelo towards Grand Junction and Tuscumbia, Alabama, to screen the movement of the Army of Mississippi to Chattanooga and to divert Union attention.

Union Organisation

USA: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield promoted Major-General USV 11 March 1863 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously. He was currently Brigadier-General USA.

Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno / Connecticut / Born 22 December 1803 New Haven, Connecticut / DOW Sharpsburg, Maryland 18 September 1862
USMA 1 July 1822 2/40 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5 March 1832 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 28 May 1853 / Brigadier-General USA 17 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Major-General USV 11 March 1863 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1822 Brevet Major 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 6 May 1861 / WIA Monterey 7 July 1846 MWIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Inspector-General USA 28 May 1853-27 April 1861 / Department of Washington 27 April 1861-17 August 1861 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Department of Virginia 3 March 1862-22 June 1862 / Suffolk Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 22 July 1862-8 September 1862 / XII Corps Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862

USA: Isaac Ingalls Stevens confirmed Major-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 posthumously.

Stevens, Isaac Ingalls / Massachusetts / Born 25 March 1818 North Andover, Massachusetts / KIA Chantilly, Virginia 1 September 1862
USMA 1 July 1839 1/31 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1839 / 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1840 / Resigned USA 16 March 1853 / Colonel USV 79th New York Infantry 30 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 September 1861 / Major-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Mexico City 13 September 1847
2nd Brigade Smith’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-26 October 1861 / 2nd Pde Port Royal Expedition 26 October 1862-15 March 1862 / 2nd Division Department of the South 15 March 1862-22 July 1862 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 July 1862-3 August 1862 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of Virginia 3 August 1862-1 September 1862

USA: John Gray Foster promoted Major-General USV 18 July 1862.

Foster, John Gray / New Hampshire / Born 27 May 1823 Whitefield, New Hampshire / Died Nashua, New Hampshire 2 September 1874
USMA 1 July 1846 4/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 May 1848 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 April 1854 / Captain USA 1 July 1860 / Brigadier-General USV 23 October 1861 / Major-General USV 18 July 1862 / Major USA 3 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 7 March 1867 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 1 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 26 December 1860 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 February 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 12 March 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
1st Brigade Burnside’s North Carolina Expedition 20 December 1861-2 April 1862 / 1st Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 6 July 1862-29 March 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 24 December 1862-29 March 1863 / Department of North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / XVIII Corps North Carolina 16 April 1863-15 July 1863 / VII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-20 July 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 July 1863-29 July 1863 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 18 August 1863-28 August 1863 / XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 16 August 1863-2 May 1864 /Department of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Army of the Ohio 9 December 1863-8 February 1864 / Department of the South 26 May 1864-9 February 1865 / Department of Florida 27 June 1865-6 August 1865

USA: John Grubb Parke promoted Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862.

Parke, John Grubb / Pennsylvania / Born 22 September 1827 Coatesville, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 16 December 1900
USMA 1 July 1849 2/43 Topographical Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1845 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 April 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 / Captain USA 9 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 November 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 / Engineers 3 March 1863 / Major USA 17 June 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4 March 1879 / Colonel USA 17 March 1884 / Superintendent of USMA 28 August 1887-24 June 1889 / Retired USA 2 July 1889 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 26 April 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 12 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
3rd Brigade North Carolina Expedition December 1862-2 April 1862 / 3rd Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 July-3 August 1862 / 3rd Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 3 August 1862-3 September 1862 / 3rd Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 17 September 1862-4 October 1862 / Chief of Staff IX Corps September 1862-7 November 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of the Potomac 7 November 1862-25 January 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 19 March 1863-4 April 1863 / IX Corps Tennessee 5 June 1863-25 August 1863 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio September 1863-January 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 15 September 1863-17 September 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 26 January 1864-16 March 1864 / Chief of Staff IX Corps Ohio 16 March 1864-24 May 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 19 March 1864-14 April 1864 / Chief of Staff IX Corps Potomac 24 May 1864-19 August 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 14 August 1864-31 August 1864 / Army of the Potomac 1 September 1864-10 September 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 10 September 1864-31 December 1864 / Department of the Potomac 30 December 1864-11 January 1865 / Army of the Potomac 30 December 1864-11 January 1865 / IX Corps Potomac 12 January 1865-24 January 1865 / 24 January 1865-2 February 1865 Army of the Potomac / IX Corps Potomac 2 February 1865-24 April 1865 / Army of the Potomac 22 February 1865-28 February 1865 / IX Corps Washington 24 April 1865-17 June 1865 / District of Alexandria 26 April 1865-7 June 1865 / Department of Washington 7 June 1865-26 June 1865 / IX Corps Washington 26 June 1865-1 August 1865 / XXII Corps Washington 7 June 1865-26 June 1865

USA: Jesse Lee Reno promoted Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously.

Reno, Jesse Lee (Renault) / Virginia-Pennsylvania / Born 20 June 1823 Wheeling, (West) Virginia / KIA South Mountain, Maryland 14 September 1862
USMA 1 July 1846 8/59 Ordnance / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / Ordnance 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Captain USA 1 July 1860 / Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 CIA Mount Vernon, Alabama 4 January 1861 Exchanged
Reno’s Brigade North Carolina Expedition December 1861-7 January 1862 / Reno’s Brigade Department of North Carolina 7 January 1862-2 April 1862 / 2nd Division Department of North Carolina 2 April 1862-6 July 1862 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 22 July 1862-3 August 1862 / 2nd Division IX Corps Army of Virginia 3 August 1862-3 September 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 3 September 1862-14 September 1862

USA: Horatio Gouverneur Wright promoted Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 negated 12 March 1863 and revoked 24 March 1863.

Wright, Horatio Gouverneur / Connecticut / Born 6 March 1820 Clinton, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 July 1899
USMA 1 July 1841 2/52 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 February 1848 / Captain USA 1 July 1855 / ADC (S P Heintzelman) June 1861-July 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 September 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 Negated 12 March 1863 Revoked 24 March 1863 / Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 November 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Colonel USA 4 March 1879 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 30 June 1879 / Retired USA 6 March 1884 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 November 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 12 May 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Norfolk 20 April 1861 Exchanged 24 April 1861 WIA Spotsylvania 9 May 1864 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
3rd Brigade Port Royal Expedition 19 September 1861-15 March 1862 / 1st Division Department of the South April 1862-July 1862 / Department of the Ohio 19 August 1862-25 March 1863 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 May 1863-16 December 1863 / District of Western Kentucky 25 March 1864-4 April 1864 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 April 1864-9 May 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 9 May 1864-6 August 1864 / Washington Defence Force 12 July 1864-6 August 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-16 October 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 18 October 1864-19 October 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 19 October 1864-6 December 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 6 December 1864-16 January 1865 / VI Corps Potomac 11 February 1865-28 June 1865 / Department of Texas 27 June 1865-6 August 1865 / Chief of Engineers USA 30 June 1879-6 March 1884

USA: Fitz-Henry Warren confirmed Brigadier-General USV July 18 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862.

Warren, Fitz-Henry / Massachusetts / Born 11 January 1816 Brimfield, Massachusetts / Died Brimfield, Massachusetts 21 June 1878
Colonel USV 1st Iowa Cavalry 13 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 14 August 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Southwest Missouri February 1863-March 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 12 December 1863-28 January 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 30 January 1864-8 February 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 8 February 1864-11 March 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 11 March 1864-3 April 1864 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 5 April 1864-23 May 1864 / District of Baton Rouge 31 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Forces in Texas Military Division of West Mississippi 13 June 1864-1 August 1864

USA: Charles Cruft confirmed Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862.

Cruft, Charles / Indiana / Born 12 January 1826 Terre Haute, Indiana / Died Terre Haute, Indiana 23 March 1883
Colonel USV 31st Indiana Infantry 20 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA 5 March 1865 / WIA Fort Donelson 15 February 1862 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Richmond 30 August 1862
13th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1862-2 December 1861 / 13th Brigade 5th Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-14 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division District of Cairo Army of West Tennessee 14 February -17 February 1862 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division District of West Tennessee 11 March 1862-5 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 4th Division District of West Tennessee 6 April 1862-6 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade Army of Kentucky 24 August 1862-28 September 1862 / 22nd Brigade 4th Division II Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 22nd Brigade 4th Division II Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Left Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-5 January 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-21 March 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 21 April 1863-15 June 1863 / 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 15 July 1863-17 August 1863 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 August 1863-9 October 1863 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 October 1863-21 November 1863 /1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 15 January 1864-13 February 1864 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 13 February 1864-14 March 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 March 1864-10 June 1864 / Provisional Division District of Etowah 12 November 1864-15 March 1865 / 2nd Division District of Etowah 15 March 1865-17 May 1865 / 4th Division Dost of East Tennessee 17 May 1865-June 1865

USA: Frederick Salomon confirmed Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862.

Salomon, Frederick (Friedrich) / Prussia / Born 7 April 1826 Strobeck, Prussia / Died Salt Lake City, Utah 8 March 1897
Lieutenant Prussian Army / Captain USV 5th Missouri Infantry 19 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 14 August 1861 / Colonel USV 9th Wisconsin Infantry 26 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
1st Brigade Department of Kansas 24 August 1862-12 October 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Frontier 12 October 1862=December 1862 / 1st Brigade 13th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 8 February 1863-25 May 1863 / 13th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 25 May 1863-28 July 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps District of Eastern Arkansas 25 May 1863-28 July 1863 / District of Eastern Arkansas 28 July 1863-19 September 1863 / 3rd Division XVI Corps Army of Arkansas 8 October 1863-6 January 1864 / 3rd Division VII Corps Army of Arkansas 6 January 1864-11 May 1864 / 1st Division VII Corps Army of Arkansas 11 May 1865-25 July 1864 / 1st Division VII Corps Army of Arkansas 25 September 1864-1 August 1865

USA: Cadwallader Colden Washburn confirmed Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862.

Washburn, Cadwallader Colden / Maine / Born 22 April 1818 Livermore, Maine / Died Eureka Springs, Arkansas 15 May 1882
Colonel USV 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry 6 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Major-General USV 13 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 25 May 1865 / CIA Memphis 21 August 1864 Exchanged
Cavalry 3rd Division District of Arkansas 2 November 1862-21 January 1863 / Cavalry 2nd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 8 February 1863-3 April 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry District of Corinth 31 March 1863-9 June 1863 / Cavalry Division District of Eastern Arkansas May 1863-June 1863 / XIII Corps Tennessee 28 July 1863-28 July 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 7 August 1863-15 September 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 15 September 1863-19 October 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 19 October 1863-25 October 1863 / 1st Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 26 October 1863-25 November 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 26 October 1863-8 January 1864 / District of West Tennessee 17 April 1864-28 November 1864 / District of Vicksburg 8 December 1864-11 February 1865 / District of West Tennessee 4 March 1865-25 May 1865

USA: Francis Jay Herron confirmed Brigadier-General USV July 16 1862 to rank from July 18 1862.

Herron, Francis Jay / Pennsylvania / Born 17 February 1837 / Died New York, New York 8 January 1902
Captain Iowa Militia 1861 / Captain USV 1st Iowa Infantry 14 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 20 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 9th Iowa Infantry 24 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 18 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 27 June 1865 / Medal of Honor 7 March 1862 / WIA & CIA Pea Ridge 16 July 1862 Exchanged 20 March 1862
Herron’s Division Army of Southwest Missouri 1 October 1862-12 October 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the frontier 12 October 1862-February 1863 / Army of the Frontier 30 March 1863-5 June 1863 / Herron’s Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 11 June 1863-28 July 1863 / 2nd Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 28 July 1863-7 August 1863 / 2nd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 7 August 1863-28 September 1863 / 2nd Division XIII Corps Department of the Gulf 3 January 1864-3 June 1864 / Forces in Texas Military Division of West Mississippi 11 June 1864-6 August 1864 / District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson 6 August 1864-3 October 1864 / Northern District of Louisiana 14 February 1865-27 June 1865

USA: George Foster Shepley promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 July 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862.

Shepley, George Foster / Maine / Born 1 January 1819 Saco, Maine / Died Portland, Maine 20 July 1878
Colonel USV 12th Maine Infantry 16 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 July 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 / Military Governor of Louisiana 3 June 1862-4 March 1864 / Resigned USV 1 July 1865
3rd Brigade New Orleans Expedition Department of the Gulf 31 March 1862-10 May 1862 / District of Eastern Virginia 27 May 1864-11 February 1865 / Chief of Staff XXV Corps Army of the James 11 February 1865-3 April 1865

USA: Captain John Adolphus Dahlgren USN was appointed Chief of the US Navy Ordnance Bureau from 22 July 1862.

Dahlgren, John Adolphus Bernard / Born 13 November 1809 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 12 July 1870
Merchant Seaman 28 March 1825 / Midshipman USN 1 February 1826 / Passed Midshipman USN 28 April 1832 / Lieutenant USN 8 March 1837 / Commander USN 14 September 1855 / Captain USN 16 July 1862 / Rear Admiral USN 7 February 1863
Washington Navy Yard 22 April 1861-22 July 1862 / Chief of Bureau of Ordnance 22 July 1862-24 June 1863 / USS Wabash July 1863 / USS Catskill July 1863 / USS Augusta Dinsmore July 1863 / South Atlantic Blockading Squadron 6 July 1863-February 1864 / USS Montauk August 1863 / USS Philadelphia August 1863 / USS Weehawken August 1863 / USS Harvest Moon February 1864 / USS Philadelphia January 1865 / USS Pawnee June 1865 / South Atlantic Blockading Squadron May 1864-12 June 1865 / USS Powhatan December 1866 / South Pacific Squadron 12 December 1867-14 July 1868 / Chief of Bureau of Ordnance 22 July 1868-23 July 1869

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck awaited, Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
        • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of East Tennessee was extended by adding the parts of Georgia north of Atlanta and West Point.

CSA: The Western Department (Department No 2) was extended to include all of Mississippi, Eastern Louisiana, and Western Florida.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Cape Fear: William Henry Chase Whiting
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Right Wing  Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Left Wing Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary Theophilus Hunter Holmes awaited
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Vacant
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
    • Army of Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee temporary
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Sterling Price
  • Forces in Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Philip Kearny
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith
Alexander McDowell McCook
William Nelson
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield*
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Jesse Lee Reno

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
(Joseph King Fenno Mansfield)
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Wright
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Alfred Pleasonton
Jacob Ammen
Joshua Woodrow Sill
Catharinus Putnam Buckingham
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Saloman
James Streshly Jackson
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
John Cochrane
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
Conrad Feger Jackson
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst von Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
James Blair Steedman
George Foster Shepley

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close