1862 July 15th

July 15 1862 Tuesday

Yazoo River, MS

Apache Pass, NMT

Morgan’s First Kentucky Raid

Forrest’s First Tennessee Raid

CSA. Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs died. He had been the most senior Confederate general at the outbreak of war, having resigned as a Brigadier-General in the US Regular Army with a distinguished record. Already aged 71 when he joined Confederate service, his age hampered his performance and he resigned on 11 October 1861.

Arkansas. Union cavalry defeat a Confederate force in a skirmish at Fayetteville.

District of Columbia. The Union submarine Alligator was held at the Washington Navy Yard. Its commander, Union Lieutenant Thomas O Selfridge USN, travelled to the New York Navy Yard to recruit new volunteers for the crew from the receiving ship USS North Carolina. Expecting no response, he was surprised to find there were many volunteers to serve aboard the dangerous prototype.

Indian Territory. Reconnaissance to Fort Gibson began.

Mississippi. Incident at Vicksburg.

Mississippi. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant conferred with Major-General Henry Wager Halleck about changes to the Union high command in the western theatre. Halleck announced his own appointment to the position of General-in-Chief and described the ensuing changes he proposed for the western theatre. Grant was to receive the command of most of the theatre, including the Army of the Tennessee and the Army of the Mississippi, and also of a reorganised Department covering northern Mississippi, west Tennessee and Kentucky west of the Cumberland River. This decision, endorsed by US President Abraham Lincoln who valued Grant’s pugnacity, gave Grant primacy for impending operations between the Mississippi and the Appalachians. The primary objective would be to complete the conquest of the Mississippi River valley.

Yazoo River, Mississippi. The USS Carondelet, Commander Henry Walke, USS Tyler, Lieutenant William Gwin, and the steam ram USS Queen of the West, took a crew of army sharpshooters on a reconnaissance of the Yazoo River to investigate reports of the construction of an enemy ironclad warship.

The Confederate ironclad ram CSS Arkansas had escaped in an incomplete state from its yards at Memphis to Greenwood on the Yazoo River and then moved to Yazoo City where the facilities were better to complete and arm the vessel. The CSS Arkansas, commanded by Lieutenant Isaac Newton Brown CSN, had set off at 3 am from Haines Bluff to engage the Union fleet. After continual breakdowns, the CSS Arkansas maintained very slow progress. At daylight it was still in the Yazoo and entered Old River, a ten-mile lake cut off from the river when it spotted the three Union warships approaching in line abreast, with USS Carondelet in the centre. The unarmed USS Queen of the West turned immediately and fled. The other two warships opened fire with their bow guns to no effect and then turned to escape with their stern guns protecting their flight.

CSS Arkansas concentrated its fire on the USS Carondelet and partially disabled it. The Confederate ironclad was unharmed by the Union guns, although one sailor was decapitated when he raised an iron port to look outside. USS Tyler dropped back to help the USS Carondelet and opened fire with riflemen. Brown was directing the ship from outside the casemate and was wounded but stayed in command to direct the fire. The CSS Carondelet veered into the shore and was abandoned by its crew and the sharpshooters when steam escaped from its boilers.

Entering the Mississippi, CSS Arkansas remained on the tail of the USS Tyler. The Union fleet was surprised by the arrival of the ironclad. The CSS Arkansas ran through the fire from the Union fleet, evading the Union rams by keeping close to the wooden ships, and attempted to find refuge under the guns of the Vicksburg batteries. One Union gunboat was hit and its boiler burst, forcing the crew to abandon the ship.

The CSS Arkansas was fired on from numerous ships and was badly damaged. One 11-inch shot penetrated the armour and annihilated sixteen men in a single gun crew and a rifle shot killed eleven more. The iron prow was broken off, a whole section of iron plating was torn away and the over-worked engines threatened to explode. CSS Arkansas successfully gained the Mississippi and turned southward to reach the protection of the Confederate shore batteries at Vicksburg, with sixty casualties aboard.

Union Captain David Glasgow Farragut USN attempted to pursue CSS Arkansas with his seagoing warships but it was too dark by the time they reached Vicksburg to see the enemy properly. Fearful for his two gunboats, the mortar flotilla, and USS Brooklyn which were still south of Vicksburg, Farragut was determined to run the batteries to rejoin them with his main fleet. As the fleet passed by Vicksburg during the night, it was pounded by the shore batteries and each ship exchanged a broadside with the shattered CSS Arkansas, which was tied up under the bluffs. One shot from USS Hartford smashed through the ironclad’s armour and wrecked the engine room. The Union fleet continued downriver below Vicksburg although USS Winona, Lieutenant Edward T Nichols, and USS Sumter, Lieutenant Henry Erben, were damaged in the process. The Union lost 5 men killed and 16 wounded while the Confederates had at least 10 more men killed and 15 wounded.

ORDER OF BATTLE: YAZOO, RIVER, MS

Union Department of the Mississippi: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck
Department of the Missouri: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck
District of West Tennessee: Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Army of the Tennessee (Army of West Tennessee): Major-General George Henry Thomas
Union Mississippi River Squadron: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
USS Carondelet, USS Tyler, USS Queen of the West

Confederate Western Department: General Braxton Bragg
District of the Mississippi: Major-General Earl Van Dorn
Confederate Yazoo River Flotilla: Lieutenant Isaac Newton Brown CSN, CSS Arkansas

Apache Pass, New Mexico Territory, also known as Apache Canyon or Adobe Pass. Union Captain Thomas L Roberts and the vanguard of the California Column entered Apache Pass at noon, with orders to establish a supply depot for the main column. After passing about two-thirds of the way through the pass, Roberts’ force of infantry, cavalry and a battery was attacked by some 500 Apache warriors led by Mangas Coloradas and Cochise. The Americans were fatigued from crossing the hot Arizona desert and were desperate to reach the spring at Apache Pass, which was now held by Chiricahua warriors. Short of water and unable to return to Tucson without water, Roberts chose to fight.

The Apaches had constructed several breastworks of stone on the hills alongside the road and set up an ambush, waiting until the Americans came to within thirty to eighty yards of their positions before they opened fire. After a few more moments under heavy fire, Roberts ordered a retreat and his force withdrew to the mouth of Apache Pass. They regrouped and unlimbered two mountain howitzers for a second advance. Roberts ordered his infantry to take the hills overlooking the pass, while the howitzers stayed in the pass. The Union skirmishers moved forward and occupied an abandoned Butterfield Overland Mail station for cover from accurate Apache rifle fire. The infantrymen were now about 600 yards from the spring, which was overlooked by hills from the east and south. Apache riflemen held breastworks on both hills. Roberts moved his howitzers forward and commenced an ineffective uphill fire. The artillery moved forward again under heavy fire. Once the guns were within effective range they bombarded the Apaches until nightfall, when they fled and finally allowed the Union access to the spring. Roberts made a return march to bring up his reserve detachment. The Union force lost two men killed and three or four wounded. It was reported that an over-estimated 66 Apache warriors were killed.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Wallace’s Cross Roads near Decatur, Alabama.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Middletown and Orange Court House.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer James L Lardner USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Charles Henry Davis USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant-Commander Samuel Magaw USN

General–in-Chief: Henry Wager Halleck awaited, Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi : Henry Wager Halleck
    • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
      • District of Missouri: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of Southwest Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
        • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • District of Northwest Missouri: vacant
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Sub-District of Jackson: John Alexander McClernand
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
    • District of Corinth: William Starke Rosecrans
      • Army of the Mississippi: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • Middle Department: John Ellis Wool
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: John Gray Foster
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: George Washington Bowie
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
      • V Corps Potomac: Fitz John Porter
      • VI Corps Potomac: William Buel Franklin
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Adams Dix
  • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Army of Virginia: John Pope
    • I  Corps Virginia: Franz Sigel
    • II Corps Virginia: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • III Corps Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs died.

Twiggs, David Emanuel / Georgia / Born 14 February 1790 Richmond, Georgia / Died Augusta, Georgia 15 July 1862
Captain USA 8th US Infantry 12 March 1812 / Major USA 28th US Infantry 21 September 1814 / Discharged USA 15 June 1815 / Captain USA 7th Infantry 2 December 1815 / 1st US Infantry 14 December 1821 / Major USA 14 May 1825 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 15 July 1831 / Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 / Brigadier-General USA 30 June 1846 / Defected to Confederacy 19 February 1861 / Dismissed USA 1 March 1861 / Major-General PACS 22 May 1861 / Retired PACS 11 October 1861 / Brevet Major USA 2 December 1815 to rank from 21 September 1814 Brevet Major-General USA 23 September 1846
Department of Texas 7 November 1860-18 February 1861 / Department of Louisiana 22 March 1861-15 April 1861 / District of Louisiana 17 April 1861-27 May 1861 / Department No 1 27 May 1861-7 October 1861

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Vacant

  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • Longstreet’s Right Wing  Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Jackson’s Left Wing Northern Virginia: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Hugh Weedon Mercer
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Stephen Walker
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Abingdon: Humphrey Marshall
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Paul Octave Hébert temporary
    • District of Arkansas: Thomas Carmichael Hindman
    • District of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana: Paul Octave Hébert
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch
      • Eastern Sub-District of Western Texas: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Vacant
    • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Braxton Bragg
    • District of the Mississippi: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Earl Van Dorn
      • 1st Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Ruggles
      • 2nd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Nelson Rector Beall
      • 3rd Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Martin Luther Smith
    • Gulf District: John Horace Forney
    • Army of Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee temporary
      • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps Mississippi: Samuel Jones
      • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Sterling Price
  • Forces in Richmond: Gustavus Woodson Smith

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck
John Ellis Wool

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Edwin Vose Sumner*
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Joseph Hooker
Silas Casey
Fitz John Porter
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Philip Kearny
Israel Bush Richardson
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
John Sedgwick
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

William Selby Harney
(Edwin Vose Sumner)
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)

Brigadier-General USV

Andrew Porter
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
James Samuel Wadsworth
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
George Dashiell Bayard
Henry Prince
Abram Sanders Piatt
Thomas Turpin Crittenden
Maximilian Weber
Pleasant Adam Hackleman
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
Henry Bohlen
John Curtis Caldwell
Isaac Peace Rodman
Neal S Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
John Gibbon
George William Taylor
Erastus Barnard Tyler
James Birdseye McPherson
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
James Madison Tuttle
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Green Clay Smith
William Bowen Campbell
Philip Henry Sheridan

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Heron Anderson

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Wade Hampton
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Samuel Garland
John Creed Moore
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
George Burgwyn Anderson
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell

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