1862 April 25th

April 25 1862 Friday

New Orleans Surrendered, LA

Battle of Fort Macon, NC

Burnside’s Expedition to North Carolina

Peninsula Campaign – Siege of Yorktown

Operations at New Orleans

Confederate Evacuation of New Mexico

Alabama. Skirmish at Tuscumbia.

Surrender of New Orleans, Louisiana. New Orleans was of immense commercial importance and strategically extremely significant as the gateway to the Mississippi River. The population of this one city exceeded the combined population of the five next largest southern cities.

With the passage of Fort St Philip and Fort Jackson, the fall of New Orleans was inevitable. Union Captain David Glasgow Farragut USN and his West Gulf Blockading Squadron continued to steam up the Mississippi River after passing the defending forts. Although the Confederate flotilla under Commander John K Mitchell had attempted to stop the Union ships in various ways, most of the Union forces had successfully passed the forts by dawn and by 5 am they were steaming onward towards New Orleans. USS Varuna had been sunk and three light gunboats were left above the bar – one of these was tangled in the river obstacles, a second was without steam power after taking a shot in the boiler, and the third was badly damaged above the waterline.

The Union fleet rapidly silenced the Confederate batteries at Chalmette and anchored before New Orleans. High water in the river allowed the ships’ guns to dominate the city above the levee top and Captain Theodorus Bailey USN went ashore to demand the surrender. The defenceless city was surrendered by its civilian authorities.

Union troops under Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler were already marching overland from landing points on the Gulf of Mexico to become the occupying garrison. To avoid being cut off, the Confederate garrison of 4,000 men under Major-General Mansfield Lovell and other field troops of his Department No 1 evacuated the city. The defences at Fort Jackson and Fort St Philip would surrender three days later.

The Confederate state government decided to abandon the capital at Baton Rouge, moving first to Opelousas, and then on to Shreveport. All cotton in the area was set afire to prevent it from falling into Union hands.

Louisiana. CSS Mississippi, which had been launched on 19 April and described by Confederate naval officers as the strongest and most formidable war vessel ever built, was burned at New Orleans to prevent capture by the Union fleet. Had the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond completed her propulsion shaft on time, an operational CSS Mississippi might have strengthened immeasurably the defence of New Orleans.

Louisiana. The 1st Louisiana Native Guard was disbanded. This was a Confederate Louisiana militia of free persons of colour formed in 1861 in New Orleans.  Shortly after Louisiana’s secession, Governor Thomas Overton Moore issued pleas for troops on 17 April and 21 April 1861. In response to the governor’s request, a committee of ten prominent New Orleans free black men called a meeting at the Catholic Institute on 22 April 1861. At that time, an estimated 10,000 African American residents of Louisiana and New Orleans lived in freedom. About two thousand people attended the meeting where muster lists were opened, with about 1,500 free black men signing up. Governor Moore accepted the services of these men as part of the state’s militia. The new militia regiment was formed during May 1861, consisting mostly of free persons of colour, and Francophone Creoles (gens de couleur). While some members of the new regiment came from wealthy prominent free-black families, a majority of the men were clerks, artisans, and skilled labourers.

On 29 May 1861, Governor Moore appointed three white officers as commanders of the regiment, and company commanders were appointed from among the free blacks of the regiment. This militia unit was the first in North America to have African-American officers. The Native Guards were volunteers and supplied their own arms and uniforms. These were displayed in a grand review of troops in New Orleans on 23 November 1861, and again on 8 January 1862. They offered to escort Union prisoners captured at the First Battle of Bull Run through New Orleans. Confederate Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs declined the offer, but thanked them for the “promptness with which they answered the call.”

The Louisiana State Legislature passed a law in January 1862 that reorganized the militia to consist only of “free white males capable of bearing arms”. The Native Guards regiment was forced to disband by this law on 15 February 1862. However, Governor Moore reinstated the Native Guards on 24 March 1862 after the US Navy entered the Mississippi River. When Confederate forces under Major-General Mansfield Lovell evacuated New Orleans, the local militia units were left behind and ordered to disband by Louisiana State Militia Major-General John L Lewis after the Union ships arrived opposite the city. Lewis cautioned them to hide their arms and uniforms before returning home. About 10% of the militia members later joined the Union Army’s 1st Louisiana Native Guard, later renamed as the 73rd Infantry USCT.

Louisiana. USS Katahdin, Lieutenant George Henry Preble, captured the schooner John Gilpin below New Orleans.

Missouri. Skirmish with jayhawkers at Monagan Springs on the Osage River.

New Mexico Territory. Incidents at Fort Bowie, Socorro, and Apache Pass.

Fort Macon, North Carolina. Union Naval forces bombarded Fort Macon, a third-system casemated masonry fort built on the eastern end of Bogue Bank, in the Outer Banks, 35 miles southeast of New Bern. It was intended to defend the entrance to the ports of Beaufort and Morehead City. Begun in 1826, it was completed and received its first garrison in 1834. The fort was outdated, inadequately armed and poorly supplied and obsolete against modern rifled artillery. The garrison of the fort numbered about 430 officers and men, commanded by Colonel Moses J White. Sickness had reduced this number, White was unpopular with his men and the people of Beaufort, and morale in the garrison was low. A few men deserted during the siege but only one man died from sickness.

Union Brigadier-General John Grubb Parke began the bombardment of Fort Macon at dawn from batteries previously concealed among the sand dunes. At first, the gunners in the fort manned their pieces and replied vigorously, but they were unable to inflict damage on the Union guns which were protected by the dunes. The defenders were also distracted by the appearance of four vessels from the Union Blockading Squadron: the steamers USS Daylight, USS State of Georgia, and USS Chippewa, and the barque USS Gemsbok. Until this time, the Navy had not been involved in the siege but Commander Samuel Lockwood USN responded to the sound of gunfire and brought his section of the fleet into action. The weather was not good for a naval bombardment; a strong wind caused the vessels to rock and disrupted their aim so after about an hour the fleet withdrew. The Confederate return fire managed to hit two of the vessels but did little damage and slightly wounded one man. The US Navy also supplied a pair of floating batteries for the attack but only one of them got into action in the uneven seas.

The initial fire from the army’s mortars on shore was inaccurate but after midday, virtually all of the mortar shots had been corrected and were falling on target. They were aided by the messages of Union Lieutenant William J Andrews, a Signals Officer, who reported the fall of shot. Before long, nineteen Confederate guns had been dismounted. The walls of the fort began to crumble and in mid-afternoon White began to fear that the magazine would be breached. At 4.30 pm he raised the white flag. Parke demanded unconditional surrender but agreed not to renew the bombardment until he could consult with Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside. Burnside reasoned that White could hold out at least one more day but that further bombardment would only cause unnecessary loss of life and cause greater damage to the valuable fort. He, therefore, agreed to offer lenient terms of parole. These were accepted and the surrender was concluded.

On the Union side one man was killed and three wounded. On the Confederate side, seven were killed, two died of wounds and sixteen were wounded. Around 480 prisoners were paroled.

ORDER OF BATTLE: FORT MACON, GA

Union Department of North Carolina: Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside
Coast Division: Major-General Ambrose Everett Burnside
3rd Brigade Coast Division (North Carolina): Brigadier-General John Grubb Parke
Naval Forces Pamlico Sound (section): Commander Samuel Lockwood USN
USS Daylight, USS State of Georgia, USS Chippewa, USS Gemsbok

Confederate Department of North Carolina: Major-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
District of Pamlico: Brigadier-General Robert Ransom
Garrison of Fort Macon: Colonel Moses J White

South Carolina. USS Santiago de Cuba, Commander Daniel Bowly Ridgely, captured the blockade-runner Ella Warley at sea 120 miles off Port Royal.

Tennessee. Skirmish on the Corinth Road.

Tennessee. Confederate Commander Charles H McBlair CSN notified the Confederate Navy Department that as a result of the passage of the forts below New Orleans that he intended to take a second unfinished ironclad, the ram CSS Arkansas, currently building at Memphis, up the Yazoo River to be completed. McBlair also reported that arrangements had been made to destroy the CSS Tennessee on the stocks to prevent her capture if Memphis fell to the enemy.

Virginia. USS Maratanza, under Commander George H Scott, began shelling Gloucester and Yorktown, in support of Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s advance.

Virginia. Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks advanced to occupy Harrisonburg in the Shenandoah Valley.

Virginia. Confederate Major-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson weighed his options for an aggressive diversionary operation in the Shenandoah Valley. He had three ideas. The first was to reinforce Brigadier-General Edward Johnson further south and to strike at Union Major-General John Charles Frémont who was approaching from western Virginia. The second was to combine with Major-General Richard Stoddert Ewell and to attack Union Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks in the Shenandoah Valley. The third choice was to make a flanking march around Massanutten Mountain and to attack Banks from the rear. He selected the first option and Ewell’s division was summoned from Gordonsville to replace his own division as a screening force in the valley while he headed southwards for Staunton.

Union Organisation

USA: William Alexander Hammond promoted Brigadier-General USA 25 April 1862 Surgeon-General of the US Army.

Hammond, William Alexander / Maryland / Born 28 August 1828 Annapolis, Maryland / Died Washington. District of Columbia 5 January 1900
Assistant Surgeon USA 29 June 1849 / Resigned USA 31 October 1860 / Assistant Surgeon USA 28 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USA Surgeon-General 25 April 1862 / Dismissed 18 August 1864 / Acquitted and Reinstated Brigadier-General USA Retired 27 August 1879
Surgeon-General 25 April 1862-18 August 1864

USA: George Henry Thomas promoted Major-General USV April 26 1862 to rank from April 25 1862.

Thomas, George Henry / Virginia / Born 31 July 1816 Newsom’s Depot, Virginia / Died San Francisco, California 28 March 1870
USMA 1 July 1840 12/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant 30 April 1844 / Captain USA 24 December 1853 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 12 May 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 25 April 1861 / Colonel USA 3 May 1861 / 5th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Major-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 27 October 1863 / Mustered Out USV 27 October 1863 / Major-General USA 16 January 1865 to rank from 15 December 1864 / Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 6 November 1841 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 19 January 1862 Unconfirmed Brevet Lieutenant-General USA 21 February 1868 Withdrawn Brevet Brigadier-General USA 21 February 1868 Withdrawn / WIA Clear Fork, Texas 26 August 1860
1st Brigade 1st Division Department of Pennsylvania 10 June 1861-19 July 1861 / 1st Brigade Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-28 August 1861 / 2nd Division Department of the Cumberland November 1861-2 December 1861 / 1st Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-29 September 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-9 January 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 9 January 1863-28 October 1863 / Department of the Cumberland 17 October 1863-27 June 1865 / Army of the Cumberland 19 October 1863-1 August 1865 / Military Division of the Tennessee 27 June 1865-6 August 1865 / Department of the Tennessee 6 August 1866-11 March 1867

USA: George Cadwalader promoted Major-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Cadwalader, George / Pennsylvania / Born 16 May 1806 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 3 February 1879
Brigadier-General Pennsylvania Militia 1844 / Brigadier-General USA March 3 1847 Discharged USA 20 July 1848 / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 19 April 1861 / Discharged Pennsylvania Militia 19 July 1861 / Major-General USV 25 April 1862 / Resigned USV 5 July 1865 / Brevet Major-General USA 13 September 1847
1st Division Department of Pennsylvania 11 July 1861-25 July 1861 / Department of Annapolis 15 May 1861-15 May 1861 / District of Brandywine 31 July 1864-18 August 1864 / Department of the Susquehanna 22 November 1864-1 December 1864 / Department of Pennsylvania 1 December 1864-27 June 1865 / District of Philadelphia 1 December 1864-16 December 1864

USA: Samuel Wylie Crawford promoted Brigadier-General USV 25 April 1862.

Crawford, Samuel Wylie / Pennsylvania / Born 8 November 1829 Franklin, Pennsylvania / Died 3 November 1892
Assistant Surgeon USA 10 March 1851 / Surgeon USA 24 December 1860 / Major USA 13th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of the Ohio September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 25 April 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Infantry 17 February 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 2nd US Infantry 22 February 1869 / 2nd US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Retired USA 19 February 1873 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 3 March 1875 to rank from 19 February 1873 / Brevet Colonel USV 2 July 1863 Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Virginia February 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Spotsylvania 8 May 1864 WIA Weldon Railroad 18 August 1864
1st Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 27 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 18623 September 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 3 September 1862-12 September 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-15 September 1862 / 1st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1862-17 September 1862 / Pennsylvania Reserves Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 1 June 1863-28 June 1863 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-28 August 1863 / V Corps Potomac 7 October 1863-15 October 1863 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 1 November 1863-20 February 1864 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 30 April 1864-2 June 1864 / 2nd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 2 June 1864-5 June 1864 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 5 November 1865-2 January 1865 / V Corps Potomac 2 January 1865-27 January 1865 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 27 January 1865-28 June 1865

USA: Henry Walton Wessells promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Wessells, Henry Walton / Connecticut / Born 20 February 1809 Litchfield, Connecticut / Died 12 January 1889
USMA 1 July 1833 29/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 June 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 6th US Infantry 6 June 1861 / Colonel USV 8th Kansas 29 September 1861 / Resigned USV 7 February 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Commissary-General for Prisoners of War 11 November 1864-1 February 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 18th US Infantry 16 February 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 1 January 1871 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 20 April 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862 CIA Plymouth 19 April 1864 Exchanged 3 August 1864
2nd Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 19 May 1862-24 My 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 24 May 1862-7 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-26 September 1862 / Wessells’ Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia 26 September 1862-24 December 1862 / 1st Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 28 December 1862-2 January 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 2 January 1863-12 March 1863 / 4th Division XVIII Corps Department of North Carolina 14 April 1863-3 May 1863 / District of Albemarle 23 April 1863-21 August 1863 / Sub-District of Albemarle 21 August 1863-19 April 1864

USA: Milo Smith Hascall promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Hascall, Milo Smith / New York-Indiana / Born 5 August 1829 Le Roy, New York / Died Oak Park, Illinois 30 August 1904
USMA 1 July 1852 14/43 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 31 March 1853 / Resigned USA 30 September 1853 / Captain Indiana Militia ADC (T A Morris) 27 April 1861 / Colonel USV 17th Indiana Infantry 12 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Resigned USV 27 October 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853
15th Brigade Army of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 15th Brigade 4th Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-9 March 1862 / 15th Brigade 6th Division Army of the Ohio 9 March 1862-29 September 1862 / 15th Brigade 6th Division II Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 15th Brigade 6th Division II Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Left Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-31 December 1862 / 1st Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-19 February 1863 / District of Indiana 15 April 1863-5 June 1863 / 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 6 August 1863-12 March 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 12 March 1864-16 April 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 16 April 1864-16 May 1864 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 16 May 1864-18 May 1864 / 2nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 18 May 1864-11 October 1864

USA: Leonard Fulton Ross promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Ross, Leonard Fulton / Illinois / Born 18 July 1823 Lewistown, Illinois / Died Lewistown, Illinois 17 January 1901
Private USV 4th Illinois Infantry 18 July 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USV 4 September 1846 / Mustered Out USV 26 May 1847 / Colonel USV 17th Illinois Infantry 25 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 28 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Resigned USV 22 July 1863
3rd Brigade 1st Division District of Cairo 15 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division District of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 11 March 1862-1 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 15 April 1862-14 May 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 14 May 1862-12 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Tennessee 2 June 1862-July 1862 / 2nd Division District of Corinth 24 October 1862-1 November 1862 / 8th Division Left Wing XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 11 November 1862-18 December 1862 / 8th Division XVI Corps Army of the Tennessee 18 December 1862-26 December 1862 / 13th Division XIII Corps Army of the Tennessee 8 February 1863-25 May 1863

USA: John White Geary promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Geary, John White / Pennsylvania / Born 30 December 1819 Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania / Died Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 18 February 1873
Lieutenant Pennsylvania Militia 1835 / Captain USV 2nd Pennsylvania Infantry 21 December 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 7 January 1847 / Colonel USV 3 November 1847 / Mustered Out USV 21 July 1848 / Colonel USV 28th Pennsylvania Infantry 28 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Major-General USV 15 January 1865 to rank from 12 January 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Brevet Major-General USV 15 January 1865 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Bolivar Heights 16 October 1861 CIA Leesburg 8 March 1862 Exchanged WIA Cedar Mountain 9 August 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863
Geary’s Brigade Potomac River Army of the Potomac September 1862-25 February 1862 / Geary’s Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 25 February 1862-8 March 1862 / Geary’s Brigade V Corps Army of the Potomac 20 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Geary’s Brigade Department of the Rappahannock 6 May 1862-25 May 1862 / Geary’s Brigade Military District of Washington 25 May 1862-26 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-16 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division II Corps Army of Virginia 16 July 1862-19 August 1862 / 2nd Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 15 October 1862-25 September 1863 / 2nd Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1864-27 January 1864 / 2nd Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 18 February 1864-14 April 1864 / 2nd Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 14 April 1864-9 November 1864 / 2nd Division XX Corps Army of Georgia 9 November 1864-1 June 1865

USA: Alfred Howe Terry promoted Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862.

Terry, Alfred Howe / Connecticut / Born 10 November 1827 Hartford, Connecticut / Died New Haven, Connecticut 16 December 1890
Connecticut Militia 18491856 / Colonel USV 2nd Connecticut Infantry 7 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 7 August 1861 / Colonel USV 7th Connecticut 17 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Major-General USV 20 April 1865 to rank from 15 January 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 20 January 1865 to rank from 15 January 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Major-General USA 3 March 1886 / Retired USA 5 April 1888 / Brevet Major-General USV 26 August 1864 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Forces Hilton Head X Corps Department of the South 29 October 1862-12 May 1863 / 1st Division Folly Island X Corps Department of the South 6 July 1863-10 July 1863 / 1st Division James Island X Corps Department of the South 10 July 1863-17 July 1863 / Forces Morris Island X Corps Department of the South 17 July 1863-18 October 1863 / Forces Morris Island X Corps Department of the South 10 November 1863-15 January 1864 / Northern District of the South 15 January 1864-25 April 1864 / 1st Division X Corps Army of the James 4 May 1864-11 June 1864 / X Corps James 28 April 1864-4 May 1864 / X Corps James 14 June 1864-21 June 1864 / 1st Division X Corps Army of the James 21 June 1864-18 July 1864 / X Corps James 18 July 1864-23 July 1864 / 1st Division X Corps Army of the James 23 July 1864-10 October 1864 / X Corps James 10 October 1864-4 November 1864 / X Corps James 18 November 1864-3 December 1864 / 1st Division XXIV Corps Army of the James 3 December 1864-6 December 1864 / XXIV Corps James 6 December 1864-2 January 1865 / Terry’s Provisional Corps Virginia and North Carolina 6 January 1865-17 January 1865 / Terry’s Provisional Corps Virginia 18 January 1865-30 January 1865 / Terry’s Provisional Corps North Carolina 31 January 1865-23 March 1865 / X Corps North Carolina 23 March 1865-13 May 1865 / Department of Virginia 14 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of Dakota 11 August 1866-17 May 1869

USA: Major-General USV Charles Ferguson Smith died of dysentery and the consequences of an injury sustained during the Shiloh campaign.

Smith, Charles Ferguson / Pennsylvania / Born 24 April 1807 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Savannah, Tennessee 25 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1825 19/37 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1820 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1825 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 May 1832 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 1 April 1838-1 September 1843 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 25 November 1854 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 9 September 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1825 Brevet Major USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 23 September 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 20 August 1847
Department of Washington 9 April 1861-19 April 1861 / District of Western Kentucky 8 September 1861-31 January 1862 / 2nd Division District of Cairo 1 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Division District of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / District of West Tennessee 11 March 1862-17 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee 17 March 1862-5 April 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Rear Admiral Charles H Bell USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Lieutenant Robert Harris Wyman USN

Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

  • Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
      • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of the Mississippi: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
      • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
    • District of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
      • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
    • District of Cairo: William Kerley Strong
      • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
  • Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck
    • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Northeast Missouri: John Montgomery Glover
    • District of Northwest Missouri: Benjamin Franklin Loan
    • District of Kansas: Samuel Davis Sturgis
  • Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • Army of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Middle Department: John Adams Dix
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont
    • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
    • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
    • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Central and Northern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
      • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
      • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
      • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes
  • Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell
    • Military District of Washington: James Samuel Wadsworth
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the South: David Hunter
    • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
    • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
    • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Samuel Jones
    • Army of Mobile: William L Powell
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan
  • Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Army of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
    • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
    • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
      • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
      • Centre Wing Northern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton
    • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Maxcy Gregg
      • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Daniel Smith Donelson
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
    • District of Lewisburg: Henry Heth
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
    • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
    • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
    • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
      • I Corps (Mississippi): Leonidas Polk
      • II Corps (Mississippi): Braxton Bragg
      • III Corps (Mississippi): William Joseph Hardee
      • Reserve Corps (Mississippi): John Cabell Breckinridge
    • Army of the West: Earl Van Dorn
  • District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley
    • Army of New Mexico: Henry Hopkins Sibley
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
Don Carlos Buell
John Pope
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Charles Ferguson Smith DEC
Lewis Wallace
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
Cassius Marcellus Clay
George Henry Thomas
George Cadwalader

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
(Irvin McDowell)
Robert Anderson
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Thomas West Sherman
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum
Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
Christopher Columbus Augur
Schuyler Hamilton
Jesse Lee Reno
George Washington Morgan
Julius Stahel
John McAllister Schofield
Thomas Jefferson McKean
John Grubb Parke
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis

James Henry Lane
John McAuley Palmer
William High Keim
James Abram Garfield
Lewis Golding Arnold
Frederick Steele
William Scott Ketchum
Abner Doubleday
John Wynn Davidson
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
David Bell Birney
Thomas Francis Meagher
Henry Morris Naglee
Andrew Johnson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
Daniel Tyler
William Hemsley Emory
Andrew Jackson Smith
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
Hiram Gregory Berry
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
Richard James Oglesby
John Cook
John McArthur
Robert Latimer McCook
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
John Alexander Logan
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Gordon Granger
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Grenville Mellen Dodge
Robert Byington Mitchell
James Gilpatrick Blunt
Francis Engle Patterson
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Amiel Weeks Whipple
Cuvier Grover
George Lucas Hartsuff
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
James Henry Van Alen
Carl Schurz
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
Leonard Fulton Ross
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith
George Bibb Crittenden
John Clifford Pemberton
Richard Stoddert Ewell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones  Mitchell Withers
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Alexander Wise
David Rumph Jones
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
Richard Griffith
Alexander Peter Stewart
William Montgomery Gardner
Richard Brooke Garnett
William Mahone
Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
Edward Johnson
Maxcy Gregg
Raleigh Edward Colston
Henry Heth
Johnson Kelly Duncan
Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
John George Walker
John King Jackson
George Edward Pickett
Bushrod Rust Johnson
James Patton Anderson
Howell Cobb
George Wythe Randolph
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
James Ronald Chalmers
Joseph Lewis Hogg
Ambrose Powell Hill
James Johnston Pettigrew
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Charles Sidney Winder
Robert Ransom
John Bell Hood
Daniel Marsh Frost
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
William Duncan Smith
James Edwin Slaughter
Charles William Field
John Horace Forney
Paul Jones Semmes
Lucius Marshall Walker
Seth Maxwell Barton
Dabney Herndon Maury
John Bordenave Villepigue
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Stevens Bowen
Benjamin Hardin Helm
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Lewis Addison Armistead
Joseph Finegan
Martin Luther Smith
Franklin Gardner
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
Roger Atkinson Pryor
Henry Little
John Echols
George Earl Maney
Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
John Stuart Williams

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