1861 September 10th

September 10 1861 Monday

Battle of Carnifex Ferry, VA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Lucas Bend, MO

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

Kentucky. Union Brigadier-General George Henry Thomas was ordered to take command at Camp Dick Robinson and to prepare the recruits for a campaign in eastern Kentucky.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Columbus ended.

Missouri. Union Brigadier-General John Alexander McClernand began a reconnaissance to Norfolk.

Lucas Bend, Missouri. The gunboats USS Conestoga (Lieutenant Seth Ledyard Phelps) and USS Lexington (Commander Stembel) covered a troop advance and silenced the guns of a Confederate battery. They also put an 8-inch shot through the side and wheel-house of the gunboat CSS Jackson (formerly the steamer Yankee) at Lucas Bend and forced the ship to retire on one engine.

North Carolina. USS Pawnee (Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan) captured the schooner Susan Jane off Beaufort in Hatteras Inlet .

North Carolina. USS Cambridge (Commander W A Pqrker0 captured the British blockade-running schooner Revere off Beaufort with a cargo of salt and herring.

Virginia. The 79th New York Infantry and 5th Wisconsin Infantry began a reconnaissance to Lewinsville.

Virginia. Incidents at Little River Turnpike, Gauley Bridge, and Gauley River.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Joseph Jones Reynolds’ brigade was guarding the Staunton-Parkersburg road and held entrenchments on the summit of Cheat Mountain and in the Tygart Valley. The Union 14th Indiana Infantry under Colonel Nathan Kimball was holding the summit of Cheat Mountain, seven miles distant along the mountain trail and eighteen miles by wagon road through Huttonsville. The remainder of Reynolds’ force was at Elkwater. Reynolds’s brigade blocked the line of advance that Confederate General Robert Edward Lee intended to follow with the Army of the Northwest, which was led locally by Brigadier-General William Wing Loring. Lee overrode Loring’s opinion that poor weather had produced impassable roads and enforced inactivity in the region. Loring was ordered to advance despite the conditions and he soon found two concealed routes to attack Reynolds’ main position. Loring’s main force had three brigades under Colonel Jesse S Burks, Brigadier-General Daniel Smith Donelson, and Colonel William Gilham. They advanced along the valley towards Elkwater to the west of Cheat Mountain.

Meanwhile, Confederate Colonel Albert Rust had discovered a way to envelop the Cheat Mountain position from the west and he was directed to make a surprise attack with his 2,000 men. To complete the manoeuvre, a further brigade under Brigadier-General Samuel Read Anderson was to penetrate two and a half miles deeper behind Kimball on Cheat Mountain while Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson’s brigade waited to occupy the summit along the Monterey road. The advancing force set out to their objectives through the rugged mountain terrain.

Carnifex Ferry, Virginia. After the Confederate forces under Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd had crossed the Gauley River in August and routed the inexperienced 7th Ohio Infantry of Colonel Erastus Barnard Tyler at Kessler’s Cross Lanes, Floyd encamped near Carnifex Ferry. The Confederates began throwing up entrenchments on the Henry Patterson farm (located on the rim of the Gauley River Canyon near Summersville).

Concerned about Floyd’s drive to reclaim the Kanawha Valley, Union Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans decided to move southwards from Clarksburg to support Tyler’s exposed regiment. Union Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Kelley was left to defend the Upper Potomac, while Brigadier-General Joseph Jones Reynolds protected the Cheat Mountain district.

Rosecrans’ advance was made by the brigades of Brigadier-General Henry Washington Benham, Colonel Robert Latimer McCook, and Colonel Eliakim Parker Scammon. Moving into position during the afternoon, Rosecrans advanced from Sutton against Floyd’s campsite at Carnifex Ferry and attacked. Benham’s brigade and the 10th Ohio Infantry were the only part of the force to deliver an attack against the well organised defences at about 3 pm. Several unsuccessful assaults were made in heavy woodland by these five Union regiments but most of the 7,000 men available nearby at Sutton could not reach the field. By nightfall, Rosecrans had called off the attack as he could not bring all his troops into action.

Although Floyd held his positions, the strength of the Union artillery convinced him to retreat during the night across Carnifex Ferry to the south side of the Gauley River. After dark, the Confederates retired from camp Gauley toward Dogwood Gap. They subsequently moved eastward to Meadow Bluff near Lewisburg. Floyd, seeking to deflect the blame for the retreat, placed the responsibility on his co-commander Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise who was encamped twelve miles distant. Floyd and Wise each refused to march to the aid of the other, furthering the dissension that marked the Confederate high command in western Virginia.

While the Union attack was a tactical failure, it nevertheless assured Union control of the Kanawha Valley. This small but significant victory was an important factor in the successful vote for the separation of the new state of West Virginia from Virginia.

Casualties on both sides combined were about 250, alternatively, the Confederate Army of the Kanawha numbered between 3,500 and 5,800 men and reported 20 casualties. Union casualties were reported as 17 killed and 141 or 142 wounded. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: CARNIFEX FERRY, VA

Union Department of the Ohio: Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans
Army of Occupation: Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans
1st Brigade (Occupation): Brigadier-General Henry Washington Benham
2nd Brigade (Occupation): Colonel Robert Latimer McCook
3rd Brigade (Occupation): Colonel Eliakim Parker Scammon

Confederate Department of the Potomac: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of the Kanawha: Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd
Floyd’s Brigade (Kanawha): Brigadier-John Buchanan Floyd

Union Organisation

USA: James Wolfe Ripley confirmed Brigadier-General USA 10 September 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 Chief of Ordnance

Ripley, James Wolfe / Connecticut / Born 10 December 1794 Windham, Connecticut / Died Hartford, Connecticut 15 March 1870
USMA 1 July 1814 12/30 Artillery / Cadet USMA 8 May 1813 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Artillery 1 June 1814 / Battalion Quartermaster 28 December 1816-1 June 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 April 1818 / 4th US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Captain USA 1 August 1825 / Ordnance 30 May 1832 / Major USA 7 July 1838 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 December 1854 / Colonel USA Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Ordnance 10 September 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Retired USA 15 September 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 15 September 1863 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 30 May 1848 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 July 1861
Member of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862 / Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861-15 September 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
Potomac Flotilla: Thomas Tingey Craven

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited

Department of the East: Vacant

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

Western Department: John Charles Frémont

  • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
  • District of North Missouri: John Pope
  • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
  • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Western Department was extended to include Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and Arkansas.

CSA: General Albert Sidney Johnston assumed command of the Western Department, succeeding Major-General Leonidas Polk.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

CSA: The Indian Territory was discontinued as an autonomous military command and designation and the region was subordinated to the Western Department as the District of the Indian Territory.

CSA: The District of the Indian Territory was established in the Western Department.

CSA: Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch assumed command of the District of the Indian Territory.

McCulloch, Benjamin / Tennessee-Texas / Born 11 November 1811 Rutherford, Tennessee / KIA Pea Ridge, Arkansas 7 March 1862
2nd Lieutenant Army of Texas 1835 / 1st Lieutenant Army of Texas 21 April 1836 / 1st Lieutenant Texas Rangers 1838-1839 / Captain 1st Texas Rangers 26 April 1846 / Major-General Texas Militia April 1846 / Mustered Out USV 30 July 1846 / Major USV Quartermaster 16 July 1847 / Resigned 6 September 1847 / Major-General Texas Militia 1861 / Colonel Texas Cavalry 14 February 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 May 1861 / CIA Ciudad Mier 1842
Indian Territory 13 May 1861-10 September 1861 / Forces in Missouri 2 July 1861-3 August 1861 / Western Army 4 August 1861-19 January 1862 / District of the Indian Territory 10 September 1861-21 November 1861 / 1st Division Army of the West 19 January 1862-7 March 1862

CSA: The District of East Tennessee was transferred and subordinated to the Western Department.

CSA: Brigadier-General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer retained command of the District of East Tennessee.

Zollicoffer, Felix Kirk / Tennessee / Born 19 May 1812 Bigbyville, Tennessee / KIA Mill Springs, Kentucky 19 January 1862
2nd Lieutenant Tennessee Militia 1836 Mustered Out USV 1836 / Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861
District of East Tennessee 26 July 1861-11 November 1861 / 1st Brigade District of East Tennessee 11 November 1861-19 January 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • District of Aquia: vacant

Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes interim Joseph Reid Anderson awaited

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough temporary Paul Octave Hébert awaited

  • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston

  • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd

Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson

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