1861 September 11th

September 11 1861 Tuesday

Cheat Mountain Campaign, West Virginia

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

Kentucky. The Kentucky House of Representatives adopted a resolution, by a vote of 71 to 26, directing Governor Beriah Magoffin to issue a proclamation ordering Confederate troops to evacuate Kentucky soil. The governor vetoed the resolution, which was nevertheless passed over his veto . The governor then issued the required proclamation.

Missouri. Incident at Lexington.

Missouri. US President Abraham Lincoln revoked Major-General John Charles Frémont’s unauthorised military proclamation of emancipation in Missouri. Frémont had come under increasing pressure for decisive action, as the Confederates controlled half of Missouri and guerrillas were causing havoc by cutting railroads and telegraph lines, burning bridges, raiding farms, and attacking Union forces. Confederate sympathies in the stronger slave-holding counties needed to be reduced or suppressed. Thousands of Union loyalists had taken refuge in Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. Frémont came under the influence of radical abolitionists in his camp and of his wife Jessie to free the slaves of those Confederates who were causing trouble in loyal Union counties. Frémont was persuaded that the Confederates were in rebellion and so no longer protected by the Constitution; it was, therefore, deemed legal to confiscate rebel property, including their slaves.

On 30 August 1861, Frémont, without notifying President Lincoln, had issued a controversial proclamation putting Missouri under martial law. The edict stipulated that civilians in arms would be subject to court-martial and execution, the property of those who aided secessionists would be confiscated, and the slaves of rebels would be emancipated. Lincoln, fearing that Frémont’s emancipation order would push Missouri and other slave-holding states (such as Kentucky and Maryland) towards the Confederate cause, asked Frémont to revise the order. Frémont refused to do so and sent his wife to plead the case. Lincoln responded by publicly revoking the proclamation. Frémont’ wife Jessie Benton Frémont pleaded his cause in Washington, DC, but caused more harm than good to her husband’s case during an antagonistic interview with the President.

Meanwhile, Lincoln sent Postmaster-General Montgomery Blair, Brigadier-General Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, and Major-General David Hunter to act as advisers to Frémont, whose administration and military command were accused of widespread corruption, incompetence, and inefficiency. Lincoln would finally relieve Frémont of command on 2 November 1861, after a War Department report detailed Frémont’s inadequacies as a military commander and his extreme political interference.

Missouri. The 13th Missouri Infantry, Van Horn’s Battalion of the US Reserve Corps, and the 27th Missouri Mounted Infantry arrived at Lexington to strengthen the Union garrison of 23rd Illinois Infantry, after having previously evacuated Warrensburg in the face of Confederate Major-General Sterling Price’s relentless advance. Union Colonel James A Mulligan now commanded a garrison of 3,500 men. He constructed extensive fortifications at College Hill around the town’s Masonic College, cutting down trees to make lines of fire and erecting earthworks around the dormitory and classroom buildings. The Union pickets were driven in before nightfall and two 6-pounder guns were placed by the Confederates to command the covered bridge which gave access into the town.

Further Union reinforcements were sent under Major Samuel Davis Sturgis (4th US Cavalry), and Mulligan hoped to hold his enlarged position with their help. Sturgis’ men were ambushed by pro-Confederate forces, who were alerted by a secessionist telegraph-tapper, and compelled to retreat. Price arrived outside Lexington later in the day but did not make an immediate assault.

Texas. USS South Carolina, Commander James Alden, captured the ship Soledeid Cos with a cargo of coffee off Galveston.

Virginia. Operation at Cheat Mountain began. Confederate Brigadier-General William Wing Loring’s advancing force encountered Union forces near Cheat Mountain around Conrad’s Mill. Skirmishes occurred at Cheat Summit, Cheat Mountain Pass, Gauley Bridge, Elkwater, and Point Mountain Turnpike.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Lewinsville from the Chain Bridge at Washington, DC, ended. A skirmish at Lewinsville resulted in a Union loss of 6 killed and 10 wounded. Confederate Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart’s 1st Virginia Cavalry was engaged with men from Union Brigadier’s General William Farrar Smith’s brigade, including the 79th New York Infantry, who had only recently had their colours restored a mutiny.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

Commander-in-Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes interim Joseph Reid Anderson awaited
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Henry Eustace McCulloch temporary Paul Octave Hébert awaited
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson

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