1861 October 27th

October 27 1861 Saturday

East Kentucky Operations

Atlantic Ocean. The CSS Sumter captured and burned the American schooner Trowbridge, after removing five months’ supply of provisions.

Spring Hill, Missouri. A Union force commanded by Major-General John Charles Frémont was advancing toward Springfield. They encountered a retreating Confederate force near Spring Hill, commanded by State Major-General Sterling Price. After the resulting skirmish, the Confederates continued their retreat. Anxious to keep his command, Frémont reported that the Confederates were advancing towards Springfield rather than retreating and believed he had saved the town.

Missouri. Skirmish at Plattsburg.

South Carolina. Although preparations for the naval expedition to Port Royal in South Carolina proceeded throughout the summer and early autumn, the original schedule proposed by the administration could no longer be met. Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont USN felt that the Navy Department was rushing him into action without proper preparation. Despite his reservations, the force was assembled. The soldiers and their transports left from Annapolis, Maryland, while the sailors and warships left New York. The two branches rendezvoused at Hampton Roads.

The War Department provided 12,000 to 13,000 troops commanded by Brigadier General Thomas West Sherman. Sherman’s force was organised into three brigades, under Brigadier General Egbert Ludovicus Vielé, Brigadier General Isaac Ingalls Stevens, and Brigadier General Horatio Gouverneur Wright. Final planning was carried out by Du Pont, Sherman, Wright, and the US Army Quartermaster-General Brigadier General Montgomery Cunningham Meigs.

Bad weather delayed departure from Hampton Roads for another week, during which time Du Pont and Sherman agreed the final arrangements. Among the issues to be settled was the definite target. Until this time, the decision of whether to strike at Bull’s Bay or Port Royal had not been finalised. Only after he was sure that the latter location would meet the future needs of the fleet, and that Bull’s Bay was suitable, did Du Pont finally commit the expedition to the attack on Port Royal.

In an effort to maintain secrecy, Du Pont had not told anyone other than his immediate staff the destination. He gave each ship’s captain a sealed envelope, to be opened only at sea. Efforts at secrecy notwithstanding, almost everything about the expedition except for its target was made known to the entire world, including the Confederacy on the day of its departure. The Confederate government issued orders for commanders at all coastal fortifications and defences to be alert to an impending attack.

The Union fleet of 17 warships and all of the army transports put out to sea from Fortress Monroe and Hampton Roads. The fully combined fleet of 74 (or 77) vessels was the largest assembly of ships that had ever sailed under the American flag.

Texas. USS Santee, Captain Henry Eagle, captured the brig Delta off Galveston.

Virginia. A boat expedition from USS Louisiana led by Lieutenant Alfred Hopkins surprised and burned three Confederate vessels at Chincoteague Inlet.

Union Organisation

USA: Thomas Leonidas Crittenden promoted Brigadier-General USV 27 October 1861 to rank from 27 September 1861.

Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas / Kentucky / Born 15 May 1819 Russellville, Kentucky / Died Annandale, Staten Island, New York 23 October 1893
Private USV Kentucky Volunteers 17 August 1836 / Mustered Out USV 18 September 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 3rd Kentucky Infantry 4 October 1847 / Mustered Out USV 21 July 1847 / Brigadier-General USV 27 October 1861 to rank from 27 September 1861 / Major-General USV 17 July 1862 / Resigned USV 13 December 1864 / Colonel USA 32nd US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 17th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Retired USA 19 March 1881 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867
5th Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-29 September 1862 / II Corps Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / II Corps Cumberland 24 October 1862-7 November 1862 / Left Wing XIV Corps Cumberland 7 November 1862-9 January 1863 / XXI Corps Cumberland 9 January 1863-19 February 1863 / XXI Corps Cumberland 19 March 1863-15 July 1863 / XXI Corps Cumberland 17 August 1863-10 October 1863 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 12 May 1864-9 June 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of the Ohio: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg awaited
  • Department of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: James Heyward Trapier
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Earl Van Dorn
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • District of Galveston: John Creed Moore
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of Arizona: John Robert Baylor
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Henry Alexander Wise
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Clifford Pemberton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Philip St George Cocke
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Daniel Marsh Frost

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