1861 November 1st

November 1 1861 Thursday

Port Royal Expedition

East Kentucky Operations

USA. The high command of the Union armies experienced a radical reformation. Following an extended effort by Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan to secure the removal of the superannuated General-in-Chief, Major-General Winfield Scott finally retired from active military command. Scott was acknowledged as the greatest commander of the US Army of the 19th Century to date but McClellan was nevertheless able to manipulate his retirement. McClellan exhibited the youth and dynamism demanded by the public and was chafing under the apparent slowness of his superior officer. To the public, Scott appeared old, infirm, rigid, pompous, and out of touch. Scott accepted that he was incapable of field command due to age and infirmity but his strategic acumen was sound. His so-called “Anaconda Plan”, devised at the outbreak of war, remained the guiding strategic vision of the Union high command until it was successfully fulfilled in 1865.

McClellan was appointed in Scott’s place as General-in-Chief in supreme command of the US Army and the Union armies. McClellan combined this role with active field command of the Department and Army of the Potomac. The following day, the inept Major-General John Charles Frémont would be replaced in the Western Department.

McClellan enjoyed the title of General-in-Chief but he did not question or revise Scott’s original “Anaconda Plan” as the over-arching strategic vision. McClellan’s primary and almost exclusive focus was the capture of the Confederate capital and his attention remained fixed almost exclusively on Virginia.

With Scott’s departure, only three Major-Generals were now active in the US Army – McClellan, Frémont, and Halleck. Frémont – next in seniority behind McClellan – would be given a new command in the spring of 1862, only to fail again. Halleck directed the major operations in the West but for, the time being at least, McClellan held supreme authority and enjoyed the confidence of the President, the Army, and the people. His prominence depended on acheiving success promptly in the eastern theatre.

No more Major-Generals would be appointed in the US Regular Army until 1863, and that only when James Ellis Wool was retrospectively promoted on his retirement on 1 August 1862 to rank from 16 May 1862. Ulysses Simpson Grant would not be promoted to the grade until 7 July 1863, in recognition of and backdated to his victory at Vicksburg on 4 July 1863.

Missouri. Expedition from Rolla began.

Missouri. Skirmish at Renick.

Missouri. Union forces under Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth and Brigadier-General Franz Sigel reported that Confederate advanced guard was at Wilson’s Creek, nine miles from their own camps, with the enemy’s main body on the road marching from the headquarters of Missouri State Major-General Sterling Price at Cassville.

South Carolina. The Union expeditionary fleet approaching Port Royal maintained its formation as it moved down the coast until it had passed Cape Hatteras. As it passed into South Carolina waters, however, the wind increased to gale force and, in the mid-afternoonm, Captain Samuel Francis Du Pont USN ordered the fleet to disregard the order of sailing and for each to ship to make its own way. Most of the ships managed to ride out the storm, but some had to abort their mission and return home for repairs, while others were lost. The gunboat USS Isaac Smith had to jettison most of her guns in order to stay afloat. Three ships carrying food and ammunition (Union, Peerless, and Osceola) were sunk or driven ashore without loss of life. Confederate authorities deduced from observation that the objective of the large Union naval expedition that left Hampton Roads, Virginia on 27-28 October 1861 was Port Royal.

Texas. Incident at Peosi River.

Texas. A Confederate force commanded by Colonel Henry Eustace McCullough engaged a group of Indians at the Peosi River and drove them away.

Virginia. Skirmishes at Gauley Bridge and Cotton Hill. A Confederate force commanded by Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd opened fire with artillery on the Union camp of Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans at Cotton Hill, near Gauley Bridge. The Confederates attempted to dislodge the Union troops from their position for two days but had no means of crossing the New River. The Confederates held their ground and Rosecrans planned a movement to force their withdrawal.

Union Organisation

USA: Winfield Scott retired as General-in-Chief of the US Army.

Scott, Winfield / Virginia / Born 13 June 1786 Laurel Branch, Virginia / Died West Point, New York 29 May 1866
Captain USA Light Artillery 3 May 1808 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Artillery 6 July 1812 / Colonel USA 12 March 1813 / Adjutant-General 18 March 1813-18 July 1813 / 18 March 1813 / Brigadier-General USA 9 March 1814 / Major-General USA General-in-Chief of the US Army 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 / Major-General USA Retired 1 November 1863 to rank from 25 June 1841 / Retired USA 1 November 1861 / CIA Queenston Heights, Canada 13 October 1812 Exchanged January 1813 WIA Fort George, Canada 27 May 1814 WIA Lundy’s Lane, Canada 25 July 1814 WIA Contreras 19 August 1847 / Brevet Major-General USA 25 July 1814 Brevet Lieutenant-General USA 29 March 1847
General-in-Chief 25 July 1841-1 November 1861

USA: George Brinton McClellan was appointed Commanding General or General-in-Chief of the US Army, succeeding Major-General Winfield Scott.

McClellan, George Brinton / Pennsylvania / Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Orange, New Jersey 29 October 1885
USMA 1 July 1846 2/59 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1846 / Engineers 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 24 April 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 16 January 1857 / Major-General Ohio Militia 23 April 1861 / Major-General USA 14 May 1861 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 Relieved 22 July 1862 / Resigned USA 8 November 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1 Lt USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Contreras 19 August 1847
Department of the Ohio 3 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Department of Virginia 1 June 1861 Declined / Army of Occupation 14 June 1861-23 July 1861 / Military Division (Department) of the Potomac 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Department of the Potomac 17 August 1861-5 November 1862 / Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-9 November 1862 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of Virginia 2 September 1862-11 September 1862

USA: George Washington Cullum promoted Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 to rank from 1 November 1861.

Cullum, George Washington / New York-Pennsylvania / Born 25 February 1809 New York City, New York / Died New York, New York 29 February 1892
USMA 1 July 1833 3/43 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / Engineers 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 20 April 1836 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA ADC 9 April 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Colonel USA ADC 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 12 November 1861 to rank from 1 November 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1863 / Superintendent of USMA 8 September 1864-28 August 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Colonel USA 7 March 1867 Retired USA 13 January 1874 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
ADC General-in-Chief 9 April 1861-1 November 1861 / Chief of Staff and Chief Engineer Department of the Mississippi 19 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Chief of Staff General-in-Chief 11 July 1862-12 March 1864 / Chief of Staff to Chief of Staff of US Army 12 March 1864-8 September 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Samuel Francis Du Pont USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William McKean USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of the Cumberland: William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New England: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan
  • Department of the Ohio: Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
  • Department of the Pacific: George Wright
    • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
    • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Western Kentucky: Charles Ferguson Smith
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • District of Southeast Missouri: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts
  • Department of Western Virginia: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of Eastern Kentucky was established in the Western Department, to defend the Cumberland Gap and eastern Kentucky.

CSA: Brigadier-General Humphrey Marshall assumed command of the Army of Eastern Kentucky.

Marshall, Humphrey / Kentucky / Born 13 January 1812 Frankfort, Kentucky / Died Louisville, Kentucky 28 March 1872
USMA 1 July 1832 42/45 Mounted Rifles / Cadet USMA 1 September 1828 / US Mounted Rangers 1 July 1832 / 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 / Resigned USA 30 April 1833 / Captain Kentucky Militia / Major Kentucky Militia / Lieutenant-Colonel Kentucky Militia / Colonel USV 1st Kentucky Cavalry 9 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 7 July 1847 / Brigadier-General PACS 30 October 1861 / Resigned PACS 16 June 1862 / Reappointed Brigadier-General PACS 20 June 1862 to rank from 30 October 1861 Unconfirmed / Resigned PACS 17 June 1863 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 3rd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 4 March 1833 to rank from 1 July 1832 /
Army of Eastern Kentucky 1 November 1861-8 March 1862 / District of Abingdon 2 May 1862-9 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Judah Philip Benjamin

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell
  • Department of Alabama and West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • District of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • Army of Pensacola Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: James Heyward Trapier
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • District of Cape Fear: Joseph Reid Anderson
    • District of Pamlico: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Aquia: Robert Augustus Toombs
    • District of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Potomac: Earl Van Dorn
      • II Corps Potomac: Gustavus Woodson Smith
    • Valley District: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
      • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
    • District of Galveston: John Creed Moore
    • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn
  • Western Department: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • First Geographical Division: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • District of the Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
    • Army of Central Kentucky: Albert Sidney Johnston
    • Army of Eastern Kentucky: Humphrey Marshall
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
    • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • District of Arizona: John Robert Baylor
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott RET
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Edwin Denison Morgan

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée
Alexander McDowell McCook
Oliver Otis Howard
Eleazar Arthur Paine
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Charles Davis Jameson
Ebenezer Dumont
Robert Huston Milroy
Lewis Wallace
Willis Arnold Gorman
Daniel Butterfield
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
William Nelson
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
Winfield Scott Hancock
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
George Wright
Isaac Ingalls Stevens
Thomas Williams
George Sykes
William Henry French
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
William Wallace Burns
John Porter Hatch
David Sloane Stanley
William Kerley Strong
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Scott Negley
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
Joseph Bennett Plummer
John Gray Foster
George Washington Cullum

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

Leonidas Polk
Braxton Bragg
Earl Van Dorn
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Benjamin Huger
James Longstreet
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Edmund Kirby Smith

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
Henry Rootes Jackson
Henry Alexander Wise
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
John Clifford Pemberton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert
Joseph Reid Anderson
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Leroy Pope Walker
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
James Ewell Brown Stuart
Lafayette McLaws
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Adley Hogan Gladden
John Porter McCown
Lloyd Tilghman
Nathan George Evans
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Philip St George Cocke
Robert Emmett Rodes
Richard Taylor
Louis Trezevant Wigfall
James Heyward Trapier
Samuel Gibbs French
William Henry Carroll
Hugh Weedon Mercer
Humphrey Marshall
Daniel Marsh Frost

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