1861 May 9th

May 9 1861 Thursday

San Lucas Springs, TX

Gloucester Point, VA

Camp Jackson Operations

France. The delegation of William L Yancey, Pierre A Rost and A Dudley Mann met Napoleon III of France to seek recognition for the Confederate government. No commitment was made by the French to intervene unless they were joined by the British government. Further solicitation of the British government proved fruitless despite persistent efforts. Subsequently, several months later, Yancey was recalled, while Mann and Rost were sent to Spain and Belgium.

Great Britain. Former US Navy officer James Dunwoody Bulloch was ordered by the Confederate government to travel to Great Britain to purchase ships, guns, and ammunition.

CSA. The Confederate Congress authorised President Jefferson Finis Davis to raise such forces for the duration of the war as was deemed expedient.

District of Columbia. The steamers Philadelphia, Baltimore, Powhatan, and Mount Vernon were armed by the Union authorities to provide an improvised naval defence on the Potomac River.

Maryland. The US Naval Academy was transferred from Annapolis to Newport, Rhode Island, for the duration of the war.

Maryland. Union troops heading for Washington, DC, landed at Locust Point near Baltimore and were conveyed through the city on a branch line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

Texas. Union Lieutenant-Colonel Reeves was in command of six companies of the 8th US Infantry near San Lucas Springs, about 22 miles west of San Antonio. They were compelled to surrender to a pro-Confederate Texan force commanded by Confederate Colonel Earl Van Dorn. Along with the infantry, several officers on leave were also captured and paroled.

Gloucester Point, Virginia. The steamer USS Yankee was fired on by Confederate batteries at Gloucester Point on the York River near Yorktown. This was the first exchange of fire by the Union Navy against pro-Confederate forces in the state of Virginia, which had not yet officially seceded and joined the Confederacy. More Confederate batteries were erected around Norfolk, at Craney Island, Sandy Point, the Hospital, Fort Norfolk, and the Bluffs.

Virginia. The USS Cumberland, USS Pawnee, USS Monticello, and USS Yankee began to enforce the blockade off Fort Monroe.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of the Ohio was extended to include the parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia north of the Kanawha River and west of the Greenbrier River, and on a line drawn from the Greenbrier River to the southwest corner of Maryland, then to the Pennsylvania border and to the northeast corner of McKean County in Pennsylvania, to its existing area of Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana. These areas were detached from the Department of the East and the Department of Pennsylvania.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Vacant
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan awaited
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Edmund Brooke Alexander temporary

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn
  • Forces in Richmond: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham

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