1861 May 10th

May 10 1861 Friday

Camp Jackson, MO

Camp Jackson Operations

USA.  US President Abraham Lincoln directed all officers of the US Army to renew their Oath of Allegiance.

Maryland. The Maryland House of Delegates passed a series of resolutions reported by the Committee on US Relations declaring that Maryland should protest against the war, and implored US President Abraham Lincoln to make peace with the Confederate States; also, that “the State of Maryland desires the peaceful and immediate recognition of the independence of the Confederate States.”

Maryland. Massachusetts State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler captured the experimental Winans Steam Gun near the Relay House.

Missouri. Riot at St Louis.

Camp Jackson, Missouri. Claiborne Fox Jackson, the pro-Confederate Governor of Missouri, wanted the state to secede and join the Confederacy. There was a strong pro-secession population but overall sentiment in the state was initially for neutrality. An elected State convention did not pass a secession ordinance, as Jackson had hoped it might. However, pro-secession elements did not let this setback dissuade them. They had already seized the small Union armoury at Liberty in April and planned to confiscate a much more sizable stock of weapons located at the St Louis Arsenal. US Regular Army Captain Nathaniel Lyon was convinced that Governor Jackson was plotting treason and decided to secure the St Louis Arsenal for the Union and also to capture the pro-Confederate militia as they drilled at nearby Camp Jackson in Lindell Grove. He led four volunteer regiments (mainly German militia units) along with a battalion of the 2nd US Infantry to take possession of weapons at the St Louis Arsenal and safeguard Union property from the substantial pro-Confederate elements in the state. He captured Camp Jackson and the secessionist militia of General of State Militia Daniel M Frost. Frost was in a hopeless situation against better-drilled and equipped troops and surrendered between 635 and 1,000 prisoners. Lyon marched the prisoners through St Louis, inadvertently inciting a deadly riot. A hostile crowd pelted the Union volunteers but after a drunken civilian shot and wounded a Union officer, Colonel Boernstein ordered his regiment and an artillery detachment under Lieutenant Rufus Saxton to open fire, killing 28 people and breaking up the secessionist assembly. The action drew great protests from Missourians, and even representatives of the City of St Louis petitioned Lincoln for Lyon’s dismissal. However, Lyon’s action was supported by most of St Louis’ Unconditional Unionists, including Congressman Francis Preston Blair Jr. Lyon was an avowed abolitionist, a vocal advocate of President Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party and, although he was directed without authority by US Representative Francis Preston Blair, he was a willing conspirator. With the latent pro-Confederate sentiments of the state inflamed, the Missouri legislature promptly passed a bill creating the Missouri State Guard, which commenced forming from a core of the state militia.

Virginia. Virginia State Major-General Robert Edward Lee was appointed to command the state forces of Virginia.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Vacant
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan awaited
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Edmund Brooke Alexander temporary

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn
  • Forces in Richmond: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Colonel Joseph King Fenno Mansfield 28 May 1853 Department of Washington
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander 3 March 1855 Department of the West temporary
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey Brown 28 April 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania
  • State Major-General George Brinton McClellan Department of the Ohio awaited
  • State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler Department of Annapolis awaited

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson 21 April 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Colonel John Bankhead Magruder 16 May 1861 Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel William Wing Loring Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • State Major-General Walter Gwynn 10 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke 21 April 1861 Department of Alexandria & Alexandria Line
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • Colonel Christopher Quarles Tompkins Forces in the Kanawha Valley


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