1861 May 31st

May 31 1861 Friday

Aquia Creek, VA

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Missouri. Union Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon assumed command of the Department of the West, succeeding Brigadier-General William Selby Harney, whose pro-Southern sympathies had brought his loyalty into question. He continued the process of recruiting and arming volunteers to secure the state of Missouri for the Union.

Harney was the fifth-ranking General in the US Regular Army but he had failed to prevent the organisation of pro-Confederate forces or protect Unionists in Missouri. His loyalty to the Union as a Tennessee native was questioned and he was summoned to Washington, DC. He was captured en route to Washington and was offered a Confederate command, which he declined. His captors released him and allowed him to continue on to Washington. Harney remained in Washington, serving in various administrative positions. It was impossible to offer him a field command, so he was permitted to retire honourably on August 1st 1863, in recognition of a long and distinguished career.

Aquia Creek, Virginia. The USS Pawnee added its guns to the continuing naval bombardment of the Confederate batteries at Aquia Creek.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon assumed command of the Department of the West, succeeding Brigadier-General William Selby Harney.

Lyon, Nathaniel / Connecticut / Born 14 July 1818 Ashford, Connecticut / USMA 1841 11/52 Infantry / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 2nd US Infantry 11 June 1851 / Brigadier-General Missouri Volunteers 12 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / WIA Mexican War 1848 / KIA Wilson’s Creek 10 August 1861 / 23 April 1861 – 28 April 1861 Department of the West, 31 May 1861 – 2 July 1861 Department of the West, 2 July 1861 – 10 August 1861 Army of the West, 3 July 1861 -24 July 1861 Western Department

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of Alexandria was discontinued and its territory incorporated into the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: The Department of the Potomac was established, comprising the area of the former Department of Alexandria

CSA: Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was appointed to command the Department of the Potomac, arriving on 2nd June 1861.

CSA: The Army of the Potomac transferred from the Department of Alexandria to the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac, arriving on 2nd June 1861.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant | Louisiana | Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana | USMA 1838 2/45 Artillery – Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 Engineers 7 July 1838 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 18 June 1839 Captain USV Engineers 3 March 1853 Resigned USA 20 February 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 Paroled 1 May 1865 | WIA x 2 Chapultepec 1847 | Died 20 February 1893 | 3 March 1861 – 26 May 1861 Department of South Carolina, 3 March 1861 – 27 May 1861 Forces in Charleston, 31 May 1861 – 19 July 1861 Department of the Potomac, 31 May 1861 – 20 July 1861 Army of the Potomac, 25 September 1861 – 3 October 1861 I Corps Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 29 January 1862 District of the Potomac, 5 March 1862 – 29 March 1862 Army of Mississippi, 6 April 1862 – 26 June 1862 Western Department, 6 April 1862 – 6 May 1862 Army of Mississippi, 29 August 1862 – 7 October 1862 Department of South Carolina and Georgia, 7 October 1862 – 19 April 1864 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 18 April 1864 – 13 May 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 20 May 1864 – 26 September 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 27 September 1864 – 1 October 1864 Defences of Petersburg, 3 October 1864 – 16 December 1864 Military Division of the West, 14 January 1865 – 22 January 1865 Army of Tennessee

CSA: Brigadier-General Milledge Luke Bonham assumed temporary command of the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: Brigadier-General Milledge Luke Bonham retained interim command of the Army of the Potomac.

Bonham, Milledge Luke | South Carolina | Born 25 December 1813 Edgefield, South Carolina | Captain USV Staff South Carolina 1836 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 12th US Infantry March 1847 Colonel USA 12th US Infantry August 1847 Honourably Discharged USA 1848 Major-General South Carolina Militia 1848 Major-General South Carolina 10 February 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 23 April 1861 Resigned PACS 29 January 1862 Brigadier-General PACS 20 February 1865 Surrendered 26 April 1865 | Died 27 August 1890 | 21 May 1861 – 30 May 1861 Department of Alexandria, 21 May 1861 – 23 May 1861 Alexandria Line, 24 May 1861 – 1 June 1861 Army of the Potomac, 31 May 1861 – 1 June 1861 Department of the Potomac

CSA: Major-General David Emanuel Twiggs arrived to command Department No 1.

Twiggs, David Emanuel | Georgia | Born 14 February 1790 | Captain USA 8th US Infantry 12 March 1812 Major USA 12th US Infantry 1814 1st US Infantry 1825 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 1831 Colonel USA 2nd US Dragoons 8 June 1836 Brigadier-General USA 30 June 1846 Dismissed 1 March 1861 Major-General Confederate States Army March 22 1861 | Died 15 July 1862 | 1 January 1861 – 17 February 1861 Department of Texas 22 March 1861 – 15 April 1861 Department of Louisiana, 17 April 1861 – 27 May 1861 District of Louisiana, 27 May 1861 – 17 October 1861 Department No 1

CSA: Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill assumed temporary command of the Department of the Peninsula, succeeding Colonel John Bankhead Magruder.

CSA: Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill assumed temporary command of the Army of the Peninsula, succeeding Colonel John Bankhead Magruder.

Hill, Daniel Harvey | South Carolina | Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina | USMA 1842 28/56 Artillery – Infantry | 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 3 March 1847 Resigned USA 28 February 1849 Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina May 1861 Brigadier-General PACS July 10 1861 Major-General PACS March 25 1862 to rank from March 26 1862 Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) July 11 1863 Expired October 11 1863 reverted to Major-General PACS Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 1 May 1865 | Died 24 September 1889 | 27 May 1861 – 20 August 1861 Department of South Carolina, 31 May 1861 – 16 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula, 31 May 1861 – 16 June 1861 Army of the Peninsula, 17 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of Fredericksburg, 29 September 1861 – 15 November 1861 District of Pamlico, 14 March 1862 – 4 May 1862 Centre Wing Northern Virginia, 17 July 1862 – 19 September 1862 Department of North Carolina, 6 September 1862 – 28 December 1862 Valley District, 14 January 1863 – 16 February 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 23 February 1863 – 26 February 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 28 May 1863 – 30 June 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 1 July 1863 – 12 July 1863 Department of Richmond, 24 July 1863 – 14 October 1863 II Corps Tennessee, 21 January 1865 – 10 April 1865 District of Georgia, 22 February 1865 – 26 February 1865 Army of Tennessee, 16 March 1865 – 8 April 1865 I Corps Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham temporary Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
    • Army of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
    • Army of the Peninsula: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 Department of Annapolis
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861 Department of Virginia
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby 14 May 1861 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania

 Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of the Potomac awaited & Army of the Potomac awaited
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston May 15 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 14 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861 Department of the Potomac temporary & Army of the Potomac interim
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel Daniel Harvey Hill May 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of the Peninsula temporary & Army of the Peninsula temporary
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • State Brigadier-General Benjamin Huger Department of Norfolk
  • Colonel Christopher Quarles Tompkins Forces in the Kanawha Valley
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond

 

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