1861 June 1st

June 1 1861 Saturday

Aquia Creek, VA (CWSAC Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Fairfax Court House, VA

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

Great Britain. Great Britain refused to receive in port any prizes taken by armed vessels or privateers of the United States or the belligerent Confederate States.

North Carolina. USS Union, Commander J R Goldsborough, captured the Confederate schooner F W Johnson with a cargo of railroad iron off the coast.

Virginia. Skirmish at Arlington Mills.

Virginia. Union Colonel Thomas Armstrong Morris arrived in Grafton with a brigade of volunteers. This finally secured the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Morris approved Colonel Benjamin Franklin Kelley’s plan to make a two-pronged attack against the Confederate forces in Philippi, about thirty miles from the vital railroad junction at Grafton. The principal advance would be made by 1,600 men led by Kelley himself, and would include six companies of his own regiment, nine from the 9th Indiana Infantry under Colonel Robert Huston Milroy, and six from the 16th Ohio Infantry. In order to deceive the enemy into believing their objective was Harper’s Ferry, they departed eastwards by train. They de-trained at the small village of Thornton and marched south on a back road (on the same side of the river as Philippi) intending to arrive at the rear of the town. Meanwhile, the 7th Indiana Infantry under Colonel Ebenezer Dumont was sent to Webster, about three and a half miles southwest of Grafton. There they would combine with the 6th Indiana under Colonel Thomas Turpin Crittenden and the 14th Ohio Infantry under Colonel James Blair Steedman. The combined column, with a total of 1,400 men and two 6-pounder guns under the command of Dumont (with the assistance of Colonel Frederick West Lander, acting as a volunteer aide-de-camp to Major-General George Brinton McClellan), would march directly south from Webster on the Turnpike. In this way, the Union force would execute a double envelopment of the Confederates at Philippi.

Virginia. Incident at Arlington Mills.

Aquia Creek, Virginia. The bombardment of the Confederate batteries at Aquia Creek was resumed by USS Thomas Freeborn, USS Anacostia, USS Resolute and the sloop USS Pawnee for almost five hours. They fired over 500 rounds but the Confederates reported the deaths only of a chicken and a horse. Both the USS Thomas Freeborn and USS Pawnee took minor damage but no crewmen were seriously wounded or killed. Following the battle the Confederates reinforced the defences, constructing a third battery on the bluff and a fourth across the mouth of Aquia Creek at Brent Point. (CWSAC Limited Battle – Inconclusive)

Fairfax Court House, Virginia. In the early morning, a detachment of 50 men of Company B 2nd US Cavalry under Lieutenant C H Tompkins entered Fairfax Court House and engaged the Warrenton Rifles in the first land conflict between organised military units on land in the Civil War. Confederate Captain John Quincy Marr was struck by a stray bullet and became the first Confederate officer killed in the Civil War

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks assumed command of the Department of Annapolis, arriving on 11 June 1861, succeeding Major-General John Adams Dix.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Died Waltham, Massachusetts 1 September 1894
Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
Banks’ Division Department of Annapolis May `1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Annapolis 11 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-3 March 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-23 September 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Department of the Gulf 8 November 1862-23 September 1864 / Army of the Gulf 15 December 1862-22 September 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 December 1862-19 August 1863 / Department of the Gulf 18 March 1865-3 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 22 April 1865-2 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Western Gunboat Flotilla: John Rodgers
Potomac Flotilla: James Harmon Ward

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson

Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Department of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham temporary Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

  • Army of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham interim Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard awaited

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of the Peninsula: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

  • Army of the Peninsula: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary

Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch

Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles

Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker

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