1861 May 30th

May 30 1861 Thursday

Aquia Creek, VA

Chesapeake Bay Blockade

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

USA. US Secretary of War Simon Cameron ordered Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler at Fortress Monroe not to surrender any fugitive slaves to disloyal owners. This confirmed Butler’s improvised “Contraband” ruling and provided the precedent for escaped slaves to be allowed into Union camps without fear of being returned to their owners. Fugitive slaves provided significant manpower for building fortifications, and other logistical roles until they were accepted in increasing numbers into armed service from 1862 onwards.

CSA. The highly regarded Albert Sidney Johnston was appointed General.in the Confederate Army to rank from this date. However, he was still travelling from California and was not confirmed or assigned to command until after his safe arrival in Confederate territory in August 1861. He was the only one of the original Confederate Generals to be appointed directly to this highest grade without previously holding the grade of Brigadier-General ACSA.

California. Incident at Keatuck Creek.

Virginia. After securing Fairmont in western Virginia, the Union 1st Virginia advanced and seized the important railroad junction of Grafton, about 15 miles to the southwest. As the Union columns advanced Confederate Colonel George A Porterfield’s poorly armed 800 recruits retreated to Philippi, about 17 miles south of Grafton. A covered bridge spanned the Tygart Valley River at Philippi and was an important feature of the vital Beverly to Fairmont Turnpike. Porterfield prepared to defend this valuable asset.

Virginia. The hull of the scuttled and burned USS Merrimack was raised by Confederates at the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk. Only its hull remained intact but this was to form the basis for building the ironclad warship CSS Virginia.

Virginia. USS Quaker City, Acting Master S W Mather, seized the schooner Lynchburg, en route to Richmond with a cargo of coffee.

Aquia Creek, Virginia. The USS Thomas Freeborn returned with the USS Anacostia (a 200-ton vessel with 2 guns) and the smaller USS Resolute to engage the Confederate batteries at Aquia Creek. They fired for several hours with little effect. The largest guns of the squadron were 32-pounders, which had little effect against the earthwork defences.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Albert Sidney Johnston promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 186

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs awaited
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Alexandria: Milledge Luke Bonham
    • Army of the Potomac: Milledge Luke Bonham
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker

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