1861 May 16th

May 16 1861 Thursday

CSA. The Confederate Congress authorized the recruiting of 400,000 men for the Provisional Army of the Confederate States. A $10 enlistment bounty was authorised for volunteers.

CSA. Legislation was passed by the Confederate which stated that “the five general officers provided by existing laws for the Confederate States shall have the rank and denomination of ‘General’, instead of ‘Brigadier-General’, which shall be the highest military grade known to the Confederate States”. This ruling applied immediately to Samuel Cooper. It applied subsequently to Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert Edward Lee, Joseph Eggleston Johnston and Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard. Samuel Cooper was appointed Adjutant-General and Inspector-General of the Provisional Army of the Confederate States of America, with headquarters in Richmond, Virginia. Cooper was the most senior General in Confederate service but he was not appointed as General-in Chief. President Jefferson Finis Davis retained direct command of the Army as President.

New York. Commander James Harmon Ward USN set out from the New York Navy Yard with three vessels, the USS Thomas Freeborn, USS Reliance and USS Resolute, to form the first active force of the “Flying Flotilla” or Potomac Flotilla. The Flotilla eventually employed between fifteen and twenty-five vessels in the defence of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

Ohio. Commander John Rodgers USN was ordered to establish a naval force to control the strategically vital western rivers. Rodgers purchased three river steamers at Cincinnati for conversion to gunboats; they were renamed as the USS Tyler, USS Lexington and USS Conestoga. This Union Western Gunboat Flotilla was placed under the command of the Union Army rather than the US Navy so that it could operate in direct support of the armies on western rivers. Rodgers was the first commander and he was responsible for the construction and organisation of the fleet.

Tennessee. The state of Tennessee was officially admitted to the Confederacy.

Virginia. Incident at Fort Darling.

Union Organisation

USA: The Western Gunboat Flotilla was formed under the command of the Union Army to operate in support of the armies on western rivers.

USA: Commander John Rodgers USN assumed command of the Western Gunboat Flotilla.

USA: Major-General John Adams Dix assumed command of the Department of Annapolis, succeeding State Major-General George Cadwalader.

USA: John Adams Dix promoted Major-General USV 16 May 1861

Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Ensign USA 1813 / 2nd Lieutenant March 1814 / Captain USA Resigned USA 1828 / Major-General USV May 16 1861 Resigned USV November 30 1865 / Died 21 April 1879 / 16 May 1861 – 31 May 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Department of Maryland, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Pennsylvania, 22 March 1862 – 7 June 1862 Middle Department, 2 June 1862 – 5 April 1863 Department of Virginia, 22 July 1862 – 14 July 1863 VII Corps Virginia, 18 July 1863 – 9 April 1865 Department of the East, 19 April 1865 – 14 July 1865 Department of the East

USA: William Starke Rosecrans promoted Brigadier-General USA 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861.

Rosecrans, William Starke | Ohio | Born 6 September 1819 Little Taylor Run, Ohio | USMA 1842 5/56 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 3 April 1843 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 3 March 1853 Resigned USA 1 April 1854 Colonel Chief Engineer Ohio Volunteers April 23 1861 Colonel USV 23rd Ohio 10 June 1861 Brigadier-General USA 16 June 1861 Major-General USV September 17 1862 backdated on 25 October 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 Mustered out USV 15 January 1866 Resigned USA 28 March 1867 Retired 2 March 1889 | Died 11 March 1898 | 23 July 1861 – 20 September 1861 Department of the Ohio, 23 July 1861 – 18 September 1861 Army of Occupation, 19 September 1861 – 10 March 1862 Department of Western Virginia, 11 March 1862 – 28 March 1862 Mountain Department, 26 June 1862 – 24 October 1862 Army of the Mississippi, 1 July 1862 – 19 October 1862 District of Corinth, 24 October 1862 – 19 October 1863 Department of the Cumberland, 24 October 1862 – 18 October 1863 Army of the Cumberland, 24 October 1862 – 8 January 1863 XIV Corps Cumberland, 22 January 1864 – 8 December 1864 Department of the Missouri

USA: Benjamin Franklin Butler promoted Major-General USV 16 May 1861

Butler, Benjamin Franklin / New Hampshire / Born 5 November 1818 Deerfield, New Hampshire / Massachusetts Militia 1840 / Brigadier-General Massachusetts Militia 17 April 1861 / Colonel 8th Massachusetts Militia April 1861 / Major-General USV May 16 1861 Resigned USV November 30 1865 / Died 11 January 1893 / 27 April 1861 – 14 May 1861 Department of Annapolis, 22 May 1861 – August 15 1861  Department of Virginia, 1 October 1861 – 19 February 1862 Department of New England, 23 February 1862 – 16 December 1862 Department of the Gulf, 23 February 1862 – 14 December 1862 Army of the Gulf, 28 August 1863 – 26 July 1864 Department of Virginia and North Carolina, 18 November 1863 – 1 May 1864 XVIII Corps Virginia and North Carolina, 28 April 1864 – 7 January 1865 Army of the James, 7 September 1864 – 13 December 1864 Department of Virginia and North Carolina, 24 December 1864 – 17 January 1865 Department of Virginia and North Carolina

USA: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks promoted Major-General USV 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss | Massachusetts | Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts | Major-General USV May 16 1861 Mustered out 24 August 1865 | Died 1 September 1894 | 1 June 1861 – 18 July 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of the Shenandoah, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 V Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Shenandoah, 26 June 1862 – 3 September 1862 II Corps Virginia, 7 September 1862 – 26 October 1862 Military District of Washington, 8 November 1862 – 22 September 1864 Department of the Gulf, 15 December 1862 – 22 September 1864 Army of the Gulf, 16 December 1862 – 19 August 1863 XIX Corps Gulf, 18 March 1865 – 2 June 1865 Department of the Gulf, 22 April 1865 – 2 June 1865 Army of the Gulf

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: John Adams Dix
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Samuel Cooper promoted Brigadier-General ACSA and Adjutant-General and Inspector General of the Confederate States’ Army 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861

Cooper, Samuel | New York | Born June 12 1798 New Hackensack, New York | USMA 1815 36/40 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA Light Artillery 15 November 1817 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 6 July 1821 4th US Artillery 31 December 1824 Captain USA 4th US Artillery 11 June 1836 Chief Clerk War Department 1836 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Staff 3 March 1847 Colonel USA Adjutant General 15 July 1852 Resigned USA 7 March 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General ACSA August 31 1861 to rank from May 16 1861 Paroled 3 May 1865 | Died 3 December 1876 | 16 May 1861 – 9 April 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General

Commander-in-Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson interim, Joseph Eggleston Johnston awaited
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn
  • Forces in Richmond: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 Department of Annapolis
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby 14 May 1861 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston May 15 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry interim
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 14 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson 21 April 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry interim
  • Colonel John Bankhead Magruder 16 May 1861 Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel William Wing Loring Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • State Major-General Walter Gwynn 10 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke 21 April 1861 Department of Alexandria & Alexandria Line
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • Colonel Christopher Quarles Tompkins Forces in the Kanawha Valley

 

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