1861 May 14th

May 14 1861 Tuesday

USA. Responding to public clamour and the recommendations of Major-General Winfield Scott, and following the rebuff by Robert Edward Lee who had joined the Confederacy, US President Abraham Lincoln appointed George Brinton McClellan as the second-ranking General in the US Army. McClellan was already the highest officer in the Ohio militia and had a high reputation, despite having resigned from the Army in 1857. The necessary expansion of the general officer corps of the US Regular Army led very soon to the appointment also of John Charles Fremont as a Major-General and the promotion of Irvin McDowell and Joseph King Fenno Mansfield as Brigadier-Generals. McClellan and Fremont both had high reputations but their appointments at such a high grade demonstrated both Lincoln’s boldness in seeking to strengthen the pool of senior officers – and his vulnerability to public opinion.

Maryland. Governor Hicks issued a call to raise four regiments to serve the Union within the state of Maryland and for the defence of the capital.

Maryland.  Massachusetts State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler seized a supply of weapons and a schooner loaded with arms in Baltimore.

Missouri. The Missouri State Legislature had passed the “Military Bill” on 11th May 1861 in direct response to the action at Camp Jackson in St Louis the previous day. The final version of the act was approved on 14th May and authorised Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to disband the old Missouri Volunteer Militia and to reform it as the Missouri State Guard, It was intended to be a secessionist force to resist a feared invasion by the Union Army. It also outlawed or prohibited other militia organizations except those authorized by the Guard’s district commanders. This latter provision was intended to prevent pro-Union Missourians from organising “Home Guard” companies in the areas outside the metropolitan St Louis area. This prohibition affected the predominantly Unionist German United States Reserve Corps regiments which had mustered in St Louis above and beyond the Missouri requirement under the Federal Militia Act of 1792. The law did allow for the formation of new local Home Guards for youths under 18 and men over 45. It also specified that the language of all spoken commands was to be English, thereby excluding the large ethnic German population, which held predominantly Unionist and anti-slavery views. The act divided the state into nine Military Districts based on the Federal Congressional Districts and made men ages 18 to 45 years of age eligible for service in the Missouri State Guard unless officially exempted. While each district raised a “division”, they were organised effectively as standard brigades. Each district’s division was to be commanded by a State Guard Brigadier-General who was a resident of the district and elected by the commissioned officers of the district. An act was passed on 15th May to permit the appointment of a Major-General to act as the field commander of the Missouri State Guard. The first commander thus appointed was Sterling Price, a former governor and one of the most influential men in Missouri. The first eager recruits for the Missouri State Guard had assembled in Jefferson City by mid-May. However, after the Price–Harney agreement on 20th May between Price and Union Brigadier-General William Selby Harney, the movement of Guardsmen to the state capitol was halted. The State Guard continued to be recruited in their home districts.

Virginia. Union Colonel Justin Dimick and the garrison of Fortress Monroe seized a well just outside the fort because the fort did not have enough water for its garrison. Union forces also occupied the Mill Creek Bridge which was needed for access to the Peninsula from the fort and the nearby Clark farm. The fort soon could not hold all of the arriving reinforcements so the Union forces established Camp Troy, soon to be renamed Camp Hamilton, on Segar farm on the Hampton side of Mill Creek, within range of the guns of Fort Monroe.

Virginia. A force of Virginia militiamen commanded by Confederate Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson seized a train of railroad cars and locomotives on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Harper’s Ferry. They were diverted to Winchester to supplement the Confederate rolling stock.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby assumed temporary command of the Department of New Mexico, succeeding the vacancy created by the resignation of Colonel William Wing Loring to join the Confederacy.

Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg | Kentucky-Indiana | Born 9 November 1817 Piatt’s Landing, Kentucky | USMA 1839 30/31 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1839 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 18 June 1846 Major USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 Colonel USA 19th US Infantry May 14 1861 Brigadier-General USV April 11 1862 to rank from March 31 1862 Major-General USV May 7 1864 Brigadier-General USA 28 July 1866 Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 | WIA Alabama 1865 | KIA Modoc War 11 April 1873 | 14 May 1861 – 2 July 1861 Department of New Mexico, 9 November 1861 – 17 September 1862 Department of New Mexico, 7 May 1864 – 3 November 1864 Military Division of West Mississippi, 25 November 1864 – 31 May 1865 Military Division of West Mississippi, 18 February 1865 – 2 June 1865 Army of West Mississippi, 17 May 1865 – 27 June 1865 Department of the Gulf, 3 June 1865 – 27 June 1865 Army of the Gulf, 27 June 1865 Department of Louisiana

USA: George Brinton McClellan promoted Major-General USA 14 May 1861.

McClellan, George Brinton | Pennsylvania | Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania | USMA 1846 2/59 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 24 April 1847 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1853 Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 15 January 1857 Major-General Ohio Volunteers 23 April 1861 Major-General USA May 14 1861 Commanding General of the US Army November 1 1861 Relieved temporarily as Commanding General 17 March 1862 permanently 22 July 1862 Resigned USA November 8 1864 | Died 29 October 1885 | 3 May 1861 – 22 July 1861 Department of the Ohio, 14 June 1861 – 22 July 1861 Army of Occupation, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Military Division (Department) of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Department of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Army of the Potomac, 1 November 1861 – 10 July 1862 General-in-Chief, 2 September 1862 – 11 September 1862 Army of Virginia

USA: John Charles Frémont promoted Major-General USA 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861.

Frémont, John Charles / Georgia / Born 21 January 1813 Savannah, Georgia / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 1838 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 29 January 1845 / Major USV California Volunteers 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Mounted Rifles 1846 Resigned USA 15 March 1848 / Major-General USA July 3 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Relieved of duty 28 June 1862 Resigned USA June 4 1864 / Major-General USA Retired 1890 / Died 13 July 1890 / 3 July 1861 – 1 November 1861 Western Department, 24 September 1861 – 23 October 1861 Western Army, 11 March 1862 – 26 June 1862 Mountain Department, 26 June 1862 – 27 June 1862 I Corps Virginia

USA: Irvin McDowell promoted Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861

McDowell, Irvin | Ohio | Born 15 October 1818 Columbus, Ohio | USMA 1838 23/45 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 7 October 1842 Staff 13 May 1847 Brigadier-General USA 14 May 1861 Major-General USV March 16 1862 to rank from March 14 1862 Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 Major-General USA 25 November 1872 Retired USA 15 October 1882 | Died 4 May 1885 | 27 May 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia, 8 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Army of Northeastern Virginia, 25 July 1861 – 19 August 1861 Army of the Potomac, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 I Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Rappahannock, 26 June 1862 – 4 September 1862 III Corps Virginia, 21 May 1864 – 27 June 1865 Department of the Pacific, 27 June 1865 Department of California

USA: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield promoted Brigadier-General USA 17 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861

Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno | Connecticut | Born 22 December 1803 New Haven, Connecticut | USMA 1822 2/40 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1822 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 5 March 1832 Captain USA Engineers 7 July 1838 Colonel USA Inspector General 28 May 1853 Brigadier-General USA May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Major-General USV March 11 1863 to rank posthumously from July 18 1862 | DOW Antietam September 18 1862 | 27 April 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Washington, 15 September 1862 – 16 September 1862 XII Corps Potomac

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Joseph Eggleston Johnston promoted Brigadier-General ACSA May 15 1861 to rank from May 14 1861.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston | Virginia | Born February 3 1807 Longwood, Virginia | USMA 1829 13/46 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 Resigned USA 31 May 1837 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 Captain USA Topographical Engineers 21 September 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles April 9 1847 Mustered out USV 28 August 1848 Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster General June 28 1860 Resigned USA 22 April 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 General ACSA August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 2 May 1865 | Died 21 March 1891 | Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861, 24 April 1861 – 7 May 1861 Forces in Richmond, 15 May 1861 -3 July 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 20 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 19 July 1861 Army of the Shenandoah, 20 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of the Potomac, 21 July 1861 – 14 March 1862 Army of the Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 30 May 1862 Department of Northern Virginia, 14 March 1862 – 30 May 1862 Army of Northern Virginia, 4 November 1862 – 16 December 1863 Military Division of the West, 4 July 1863 – 23 August 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 2 December 1863 – 22 December 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 16 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Department of Tennessee, 27 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Army of Tennessee, 22 February 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 22 February 1865 – 26 March 1865 Department of Tennessee and Georgia, 27 February 1865 – 15 March 1865 Army of Tennessee, 6 March 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 22 February 1865 – 9 April 1865 Army of the South, 9 April 1865 – 26 April 1865 Army of Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn
  • Forces in Richmond: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Forces in the Kanawha Valley: Christopher Quarles Tompkins

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby 14 May 1861 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania
  • State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler Department of Annapolis awaited

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston May 15 1861 to rank from May 14 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson 21 April 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Colonel John Bankhead Magruder 16 May 1861 Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel William Wing Loring Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • State Major-General Walter Gwynn 10 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke 21 April 1861 Department of Alexandria & Alexandria Line
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • Colonel Christopher Quarles Tompkins Forces in the Kanawha Valley
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