1861 July 9th

July 9 1861 Tuesday

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

USA. The US House of Representatives resolved that it was not the duty of US soldiers to capture and return fugitive slaves. This decision was in contradiction to the Fugitive Slave Act but applied an advantageous new ruling that escaped slaves were contraband of war. As such, they could be held freely, and not returned to their owners, as a war measure.

USA. The Union Army at this time had 48 nominated General Officers – 6 Major-Generals (three each in the Regular Army and the US Volunteers), 7 Brigadier-Generals in the Regular Army plus one Brigadier-General of the Staff, and 34 Brigadier-Generals in the US Volunteers. Of this latter group, 28 were awaiting confirmation of their appointment.

CSA. Five new Brigadier-Generals were promoted in the Confederate Army, bringing the number in their General Officer corps up to 38 – 4 Generals, 2 Major-Generals, 2 Brigadier-Generals (Regular Army), and 30 Brigadier-Generals (Provisional Army). All but four of these were confirmed.

Florida. At Pensacola, enough carefully secreted materials were recovered to piece together a lighthouse for the Union’s first deep water port to be captured in Confederate territory. The Union Navy had been carefully shipping most lenses and apparatus from lighthouses around the Confederate coastline to the New York lighthouse depot for re-issue, although some were put back to use almost immediately.

Mississippi. A twenty-minute exchange of fire occurred between the Confederate garrison in Fort Twiggs on Ship Island and the screw steamer USS Massachusetts. Ship Island was later abandoned by the Confederates because it could not be adequately garrisoned or supplied past the Union blockade. The USS Massachusetts returned and took possession of Ship Island in September 1861.

Missouri. Skirmishes occurred at and near Monroe Station, involving the 16th Illinois Infantry under Colonel Robert F Smith.

North Carolina. The Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis captured the American brig Mary E Thompson of Bangor en route to Antigua, and the schooner Mary Goodell of New York en route to Buenos Aires.

Texas. USS South Carolina, Commander James Alden, seized and destroyed the schooner Tom Hicks with a cargo of lumber off Galveston.

Virginia. Incident at Belington.

Virginia. Skirmish at Vienna.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s forces reached the vicinity of Rich Mountain in western Virginia and halted at Roaring Creek.

Virginia. Union Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell’s Army of Northeastern Virginia was scheduled to march to Manassas Junction but a lack of supplies deferred the movement.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
West Indies Squadron: Garrett J Pendergrast
Western Gunboat Flotilla: John Rodgers
Potomac Flotilla: Stephen Clegg Rowan

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson

Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell

  • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson

  • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited

  • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
  • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Samuel Read Anderson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861.

Anderson, Samuel Read / Virginia Tennessee / Born 17 February 1804 Bedford, Virginia / Died Nashville, Tennessee 2 January 1883
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 1st Tennessee Infantry 1847 / Mustered Out USV 1848 / Major-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 10 May 1862 / Reappointed Brigadier-General PACS 19 November 1864 to rank from 7 November 1864 / No Record of Parole
Anderson’s Brigade Army of the Northwest 5 August 1861 / Anderson’s Brigade Army of the Northwest 8 September 1861-9 February 1862 / Anderson’s Brigade District of Aquia 9 February 1862 / 4th Brigade 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia April 1862-10 May 1862

CSA: Gideon Johnson Pillow promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861.

Pillow, Gideon Johnson / Tennessee / Born 8 June 1806 Williamson, Tennessee / Died Helena, Arkansas 8 October 1878
Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 1833-1836 / Brigadier-General USV 1 July 1846 / Major-General USA 13 April 1847 / Discharged USA 20 July 1848 / Major-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 21 October 1862 Cancelled 2 February 1862 / Resigned 10 October 1862 Rescinded 10 December 1862 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 10 February 1865 / Bureau of Prison Camps 14 February 1865 / Paroled Montgomery, Alabama 5 May 1865 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 12 September 1847 CIA Union Springs, Alabama 20 April 1865
Army of Liberation 23 June 1861-1 September 1861 / 1st Division Western Department 1 September 1861-October 1861 / 1st Division Western District 24 October 1861-9 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Central Kentucky 9 February 1862-15 February 1862 / 3rd Division Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 2 January 1863-16 January 1863 / Cavalry District of Northern Alabama 1 January 1864-10 February 1865 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 10 February 1865-30 March 1865

CSA: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861.

Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin / Tennessee / Born 20 October 1820 Nashville, Tennessee / Died 4 September 1886
Captain USV 1st Tennessee Infantry 1847 / Colonel USV 3rd Tennessee Infantry 1848 / Mustered Out USV 1848 / Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 10 March 1862 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Ezra Church 28 July 1864
1st Brigade Western District Western Department 7 September 1861-24 October 1861 / 2nd Division Western District Western Department 24 October 1861-9 March 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 12 March 1862-2 July 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 2 July 1862-15 August 1862 / 1st Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 15 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Right Wing Army of Mississippi 19 September-7 November 1862 / 1862 / 1st Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-29 September 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 29 September 1863-23 October 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 24 November 1862-2 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 2 December 1863-31 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee January 1864-18 July 1864 / II Corps Tennessee 19 July 1864-28 July 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 29 July 1864-15 August 1864 / I Corps Tennessee 15 August 1864-9 April 1865 / Cheatham’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Daniel Smith Donelson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861.

Donelson, Daniel Smith / Tennessee / Born 23 June 1801 Sumner, Tennessee / Died Montvale Springs, Tennessee 17 April 1863
USMA 1 July 1825 5/37 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1821 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1825 / Resigned USA 22 January 1826 / Major Tennessee Militia 1827 / Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 1829 / Colonel Tennessee Militia 1860 / Brigadier-General Adjutant-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 22 April 1863 to rank from 17 January 1863 Confirmed posthumously
3rd Brigade Army of the Northwest 8 September 1861-16 December 1861 / Fifth Sub-District of South Carolina 19 March 186-10 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 10 April 1862-2 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of Mississippi 2 July 1862-15 August 1862 / 1st Brigade Cheatham’s Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 18 August 1862-8 October 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Mississippi 8 October 1862-20 November 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-17 January 1863 / Department of East Tennessee 17 January 1863-17 April 1863

CSA: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer promoted Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861.

Zollicoffer, Felix Kirk / Tennessee / Born 19 May 1812 Bigbyville, Tennessee / KIA Mill Springs, Kentucky 19 January 1862
2nd Lieutenant Tennessee Militia 1836 Mustered Out USV 1836 / Brigadier-General Tennessee Militia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 9 July 1861
District of East Tennessee 26 July 1861-11 November 1861 / 1st Brigade District of East Tennessee 11 November 1861-19 January 1862

Confederate Seniority

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

  • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Western Department: Leonidas Polk

  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch

Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise

Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow

Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer

%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close