1861 July 10th

July 10 1861 Wednesday

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations 

USA. The US House of Representatives passed Bills authorising loans of $500,000,000 and 50,000 volunteers to suppress the Confederate rebellion. The closure of Confederate ports by blockade was also formally empowered in legislation.

Indian Territory. The Confederate government signed a peace treaty with the Creek Indian Nation.

Missouri. Union and Confederates forces skirmished at Monroe Station.

New Mexico Territory. Fort Breckenridge was abandoned by Union forces.

Tennessee. Government Postal services were suspended by Confederate authorities in Middle and West Tennessee.

Virginia. Confederate naval forces on the James River were placed under the command of Commander George Nichols Hollins CSN.

Virginia. USS Minnesota, Captain Silas Horton Stringham, captured the Confederate brig Amy Warwick in Hampton Roads.

Virginia. Incidents at Laurel Hill, Rich Mountain, Belington, and Camp Garnett. In preliminary skirmishes before the action at Rich Mountain, one Union soldier was reported killed and two wounded.

Union Organisation

USA: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN assumed command of the Potomac Flotilla of the US Navy, succeeding Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan USN.

Craven, Thomas Tingey / Born 20 December 1808 Washington, District of Columbia / Died Boston, Massachusetts 23 August 1887
Midshipman USN 1 May 1822 / Passed Midshipman USN 24 May 1828 / Lieutenant USN 27 May 1830 / Commander USN 16 December 1852 / Captain USN 7 June 1861 / Commodore USN 16 July 1862 / Rear Admiral USN 10 October 1866 / Retired USN 30 December 1869
Potomac Flotilla 27 June 1861-March 1862 / USS Yankee July 1861 / USS Harriet Lane October 1861 / USS Brooklyn December 1861 / San Francisco Navy Yard 1867-1868 / North Pacific Squadron 6 August 1868-28 June 1869

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Daniel Harvey Hill promoted Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861.

Hill, Daniel Harvey / South Carolina / Born 12 July 1821 York, South Carolina / Died Charlotte, North Carolina 24 September 1889
USMA 1 July 1842 28 /56 Artillery-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1842 / 3rd US Artillery 20 October 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 13 October 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Resigned USA 28 February 1849 / Colonel PACS 1st North Carolina Infantry 10 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 25 March 1862 to rank from 26 March 1862 / Resigned PACS 1 January 1863 Refused / Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 11 July 1863 Unconfirmed Expired 11 October 1863 / Reverted Major-General PACS 15 October 1863 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 5 May 1864-17 May 1864 / ADC (P G T Beauregard) 21 May 1864-13 June 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General 10 July 1864 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Big Bethel 10 June 1861
Department of South Carolina 27 May 1861-20 August 1861 / Department of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Army of the Peninsula 31 May 1861-17 June 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 17 July 1861-22 October 1861 / District of Pamlico 29 September 1861-16 November 1861 / Hill’s Division Army of the Peninsula November 1861 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northern Virginia 16 November 1861-January 1862 / Hill’s Division District of the Potomac January 1862-March 1862 / 4th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Centre Wing Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-10 July 1862 / Department of North Carolina 17 July 1862-19 September 1862 / Valley District 6 September 1862-29 December 1862 / Hill’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 January 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 January 1863-16 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 23 February 1863-26 February 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 28 May 1863-1 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 1 July 1863-13 July 1863 / II Corps Tennessee 24 July 1863-14 October 1863 / Hill’s Division Department of Richmond 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 10 July 1864 / District of Georgia 21 January 1865-10 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 22 February 1865-16 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 16 March 1865-8 April 1865 / Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Jones Mitchell Withers promoted Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861.

Withers, Jones Mitchell / Alabama / Born 12 January 1814 Madison, Alabama / Died Mobile, Alabama 13 March 1890
USMA 1 July 1835 44/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1835 / Resigned USA 5 December 1835 / Alabama Militia 1836 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Infantry 3 March 1847 / 13th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / Resigned USA 23 May 1848 / Colonel PACS 3rd Alabama Infantry 28 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 10 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 April 1862 / Resigned PACS 13 July 1863 / Reappointed Major-General PACS 21 July 1863 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 11 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835
Department of Norfolk 23 May 1861-26 May 1861 / District of Alabama 12 September 1861-27 January 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-30 June 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 30 June 1862-20 November 1862 / Withers’ Division Right Wing Army of Mississippi 18 August 1862-20 November 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 20 November 1862-13 August 1863 / District of Northern Alabama 6 February 1864-27 July 1864 / Reserve Forces of Alabama 30 April 1864-4 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers

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