1861 July 3rd

July 3 1861 Wednesday

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

Cuba. CSS Sumter, Commander Raphael Semmes, captured and burned the American ship Golden Rocket near the coastal Isle of Pines.

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln promoted John Charles Frémont to the grade of Major-General in the US Regular Army, backdating his promotion to the same date as that of George Brinton McClellan. Frémont had been a Republican candidate for the Presidency and had great political influence, as well as having a reputation for audacity and courage earned before the war. Frémont immediately rose to the third place in the Union hierarchy behind Commanding General Winfield Scott and Major-General George Brinton McClellan. While McClellan took the most important command in the east at Washington, DC, Frémont was assigned to lead the immense western theatre from his headuqarters at St Louis, Missouri. The new Western Department was established to comprise Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and the Indian Territory, and the New Mexico Territory was also absorbed after its autonomous Department was discontinued. While Frémont’s reputation and popularity were high, ineptitude and controversy would characterise his period in command of this strategically vital command.

Arkansas. The Military Board of Arkansas called for 10,000 men to repel a possible future invasion by Union forces.

Missouri. Pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson and State Major-General Sterling Price combined their forces in Lamar and started to organise effective command for the Missouri State Guard. The army grew to 6,000 men, many of whom had joined along the march south. However, they were poorly armed only with hunting rifles, shotguns, and knives, and about a third had no weapons at all. They had seven pieces of artillery. Confederate Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch was awaited to bring his military experience to the force.

Missouri. Union Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon departed from Boonville with 2,000 men to pursue the pro-Confederate forces into southwestern Missouri.

New Mexico Territory. Fort McLean was abandoned by Union forces

Virginia. Union Major-General Robert Patterson occupied Martinsburg following the engagement at Hoke’s Run (Falling Waters). He halted his advance until 15 July while he tried to ascertain the enemy strength facing him.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of New Mexico was discontinued and its area incorporated into the Western Department.

USA: The Department of the West was discontinued and incorporated into the Western Department.

USA: The Western Department was established, with headquarters at St Louis, Missouri, comprising Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska Territory, Colorado Territory, Dakota Territory and Indian Territory from the discontinued Department of the West; Missouri and Illinois were taken from the Department of the Ohio; New Mexico Territory was taken from the discontinued Department of New Mexico. Missouri and Illinois were transferred from the Department of the Ohio to the Western Department.

USA: Major-General USA John Charles Frémont was appointed to command the Western Department, arriving on 25 July 1861

USA: John Charles Frémont confirmed Major-General USA 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861.

Frémont, John Charles / Georgia / Born 21 January 1813 Savannah, Georgia / Died New York, New York 13 July 1890
Instructor US Navy 1833-1835 / Professor US Navy 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA Topographical Engineers 29 January 1845 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Major USV California Volunteers 23 July 1846 / Resigned USA 27 October 1846 / Dismissed USA 31 January 1847 Revoked / Resigned USV 15 March 1848 / Major-General USA 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Relieved 28 June 1862 / Resigned USA 4 June 1864 / Major-General USA Retired 28 April 1890 / Brevet Captain USA 31 July 1844
Western Department 3 July 1861-2 November 1861 /Western Army 24 September 1861-23 October 1861 / Mountain Department 29 March 1862-26 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-28 June 1862

USA: Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon retained temporary command of the Western Department. pending the arrival of Major-General USA John Charles Frémont.

USA: The Army of the West transferred from the Department of the West to the Western Department.

USA: Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon retained command of the Army of the West pending the arrival of Major-General USA John Charles Frémont.

Lyon, Nathaniel / Connecticut / Born 14 July 1818 Ashford, Connecticut / KIA Wilson’s Creek, Missouri 10 August 1861
USMA 1 July 1841 11/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 11 June 1851 / Brigadier-General Missouri Militia 12 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Department of the West 23 April 1861-28 April 1861 / Department of the West 31 May 1861-3 July 1861 / Army of the West 2 July 1861-10 August 1861 / 3 July 1861 -24 July 1861 Western Department

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder

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