1861 July 4th

July 4 1861 Thursday

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign
Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations 

Go to July 5 1861

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln, in a speech to a special session of the US Congress on Independence Day, stated that the war is “a People’s contest… a struggle for maintaining in the world, that form, and substance of government, whose leading object is, to elevate the condition of men….”
His statement reinforced the view that the conflict was not solely a matter of state sovereignty but also implied a fundamental contest over the status and future of slavery. The Anniversary of American Independence also provided an opportunity for Lincoln to issue a new call for volunteers.

USA. The US Congress authorised a call for more than 18,000 men for the US Navy, 20,000 for the US Regular Army, and over 42,000 volunteer soldiers to serve for three years.

Kentucky. Pro-Confederate guerrillas seized passenger trains on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad.

Missouri. Skirmish at Farmington near St Louis.

Missouri. Union Colonel Franz Sigel led a force into southwestern Missouri in search of pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson and the Missouri State Guard. Sigel arrived at Carthage with 1,100 men, while Jackson was concentrating his own militiamen at Lamar.

Texas. USS South Carolina. Commander James Alden, captured the blockade-running schooners Shark, Venus, Ann Ryan, McCanfield, Louisa. and Dart off Galveston.

Virginia. Skirmish at Harper’s Ferry. The Union 9th New York Infantry reported two men killed and three wounded.

Virginia. A new Confederate battery was erected at Mathias Point.


Confederate District of Harper’s Ferry: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of the Shenandoah: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
1st Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
2nd Brigade (Shenandoah): Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow
3rd Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Barnard Elliott Bee
4th Brigade (Shenandoah): Colonel Arnold Elzey

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Simon Cameron
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
West Indies Squadron: Garrett J Pendergrast
Western Gunboat Flotilla: John Rodgers
Potomac Flotilla: Stephen Clegg Rowan

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson

Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell

Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan

  • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson

  • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited

    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Western Department was extended to include Alabama north of the Tennessee River beginning at Waterloo and running east to Decatur; Alabama north of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad from Decatur to Stevenson, with that portion of Tennessee west and south of the Tennessee River; the Mississippi River counties of Arkansas and Mississippi including Corinth and extending to Eastport; it also included the river parishes of Louisiana north and east of the White and Black Rivers.

CSA: The Forces in Harper’s Ferry was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of the Shenandoah.
CSA: The District of Harper’s Ferry was established.
CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed command of the District of Harper’s Ferry.
CSA: The Army of the Shenandoah was established in the District of Harper’s Ferry.
CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed command of the Army of the Shenandoah.
CSA: Joseph Eggleston Johnston was promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

  • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Western Department: Leonidas Polk

  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • 1st Brigade (Shenandoah): Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson
    • 2nd Brigade (Shenandoah): Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow
    • 3rd Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Barnard Elliott Bee
    • 4th Brigade (Shenandoah): Colonel Arnold Elzey

Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch

Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise

Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow

Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder

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