1861 July 31st

July 31 1861 Wednesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

USA. The US Congress authorised the appointment of an Assistant Secretary of the Navy. In due course, the position was given to Gustavus Vasa Fox.

Louisiana. Commander George Nichols Hollins CSN assumed command of the Confederate naval defences of New Orleans and the Mississippi River.

Missouri. The pro-Union Missouri State Convention elected Hamilton Rowan Gamble as the new Provisional Governor of Missouri, replacing Claiborne Fox Jackson who had aligned himself with the Confederacy and fled the capital.

Missouri. Union Brigadier-General John Pope issued his General Order Number 3 which stipulated his measures for the suppression of lawless elements and the permanent pacification of North Missouri. The harsh measures were resented by pro-Confederate sympathisers who were antagonised into continued resistance.

Missouri. Instructions were issued for 16 9-inch guns and 30 12-inch mortars to be made and sent from Pittsburgh to Missouri, in preparation for service on the western waters.

Missouri. The pro-Confederate Missouri State Guard was reinforced by Confederate Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch and Arkansas state militia Brigadier-General N Bartlett Pearce. This formed a mixed force of Missouri, Arkansas, and Confederate of over 12,000 men located southwest of Springfield. Confederate Colonel Martin Edwin Green and the 2nd Division of the Missouri State Guard occupied Edina, stampeding the local Home Guards. He then proceeded toward his target of Springfield. Colonel David Moore’s Union 1st Northeast Missouri Home Guard was in Athens where several hundred of his men received new Springfield rifled muskets. These weapons greatly outclassed the improvised arms of the Confederate forces. In order to control the Missouri river and suppress Confederate sympathisers in the area, a Union garrison was established in Lexington, Missouri, under Colonel Charles Stifel and his 5th Regiment US Reserve Corps, composed of Germans from St Louis. Stifel and his command were soon replaced by five companies of Lafayette County Home Guards under Captain Frederick W Becker. These were later supplemented by the 14th Home Guard under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert White, who assumed command. White was followed in turn by Colonel Thomas A Marshall, who arrived with the 1st Illinois Cavalry.

North Carolina. The Confederate privateer Dixie captured the American bark Glenn and took her in to Beaufort harbour.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-Leonidas Polk established his headquarters at Memphis and began to concentrate troops near Union City. Polk planned to occupy the strategic key point of Columbus, Kentucky, in order to dominate access to the Mississippi and western rivers. Polk took command of the Western Department in June 1861 and now led about 25,000 troops scattered in training camps and garrisons along the Mississippi River.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Silas Horton Stringham
Gulf Blockading Squadron: William Mervine
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
West Indies Squadron: Garrett J Pendergrast
Western Gunboat Flotilla: John Rodgers
Potomac Flotilla: Thomas Tingey Craven

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson

Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans

  • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Cheat River District: Charles John Biddle
  • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix

  • Army of the Shenandoah: vacant

Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler

Western Department: John Charles Frémont

  • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
  • District of North Missouri: John Pope
  • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Captain George Nichols Hollins assumed command of the Naval Defences of New Orleans and the Mississippi River.

Hollins, George Nichols / Born 20 September 1799 Baltimore, Maryland / Died Baltimore, Maryland 18 January 1878
Midshipman USN 1814 / Lieutenant USN 1828 / Commander USN 1841 / Captain USN 1855 / USS Cyane / USS Susquehanna / Resigned USN 4 June 1861 / Captain CSN 22 June 1861 to rank from 26 March 1861 /
James River Squadron 10 July 1861-31 July 1861 / New Orleans Navy Yard 31 July 1861-January 1862 / Mississippi River Squadron 1862 / CSS Manassas 1861 / Charlotte Navy Yard 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill

  • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles

Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder

Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise

Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill

Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

  • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

Western Department: Leonidas Polk

  • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch

District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch

Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow

Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early

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