1861 July 2nd

July 2 1861 Tuesday

Battle of Hoke’s Run, VA (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

USA. US President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus along the railroad lines from Washington, DC, to New York City.

Missouri. The heterogeneous mix of Regular, Volunteer, Home Guard and other pro-Union forces commanded by Union Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon in Missouri was designated as the Army of the West. Likewise, on the Confederate side, Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch was given formal command of the equally mixed forces of the pro-Secession forces in Missouri, in place of the ad hoc commanders of the Missouri State Guard and others.

New Mexico Territory. Fort McLane was abandoned by Union forces.

Texas. USS South Carolina imposed a blockade of Galveston, the third most important port along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

Virginia. The new Legislature of Western Virginia convened at Wheeling under the auspices of the Federal Government.

Virginia. Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan’s Army of Occupation reached Buckhannon, 24 miles west of Beverly on the Parkersburg turnpike. Hearing that Confederate Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise was gathering a force to oppose him, he ordered a brigade under Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox to the lower part of the Great Kanawha Valley in order to cut off Wise’s force and they set out on 11 July 1861.

Hoke’s Run, Virginia, also known as Falling Waters or Hainesville or Martinsburg. Union Major-General of Pennsylvania Militia Robert Patterson’s force from the Department of Pennsylvania crossed the Potomac River near Williamsport. They marched south into Virginia on the main road to Martinsburg. Patterson’s intention was to pin the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley and to prevent them from moving to join the defence of Manassas.

Near Hoke’s Run in Berkeley County, Colonel John Joseph Abercrombie’s and Colonel George Henry Thomas’s brigades encountered regiments from Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade of the Confederate Army of the Shenandoah and drove them back slowly. Jackson’s orders were to delay the Union advance while withdrawing before Patterson’s larger force. The Confederates held out for 45 minutes and gave up a mile of ground before breaking off the action.

As a result of the Confederate resistance, Patterson estimated the enemy’s strength as ten times its actual number and was deterred from further engagement. Union losses were reported as 23 and Confederate as 91 (alternatively reported as about a dozen on each side plus fifty Union prisoners taken by Confederate cavalry under Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart (Alternatively, Union 3 killed and 10 wounded, Confederate 30 killed and wounded and 20 prisoners). (CWSAC Limited Battle Union Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: The Army of the West was established in the Department of the West.

USA: Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon assumed command of the Army of the West.

Lyon, Nathaniel / Connecticut / Born 14 July 1818 Ashford, Connecticut / KIA Wilson’s Creek, Missouri 10 August 1861
USMA 1 July 1841 11/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 11 June 1851 / Brigadier-General Missouri Militia 12 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Department of the West 23 April 1861-28 April 1861 / Department of the West 31 May 1861-3 July 1861 / Army of the West 2 July 1861-10 August 1861 / 3 July 1861 -24 July 1861 Western Department

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Commander John Rodgers USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Stephen Clegg Rowan USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Forces in Missouri was established in the Western Department, comprising pro-Confederate state forces organised in nine local military districts.

CSA: Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch assumed command of Forces in Missouri.

McCulloch, Benjamin / Tennessee-Texas / Born 11 November 1811 Rutherford, Tennessee / KIA Pea Ridge, Arkansas 7 March 1862
2nd Lieutenant Army of Texas 1835 / 1st Lieutenant Army of Texas 21 April 1836 / 1st Lieutenant Texas Rangers 1838-1839 / Captain 1st Texas Rangers 26 April 1846 / Major-General Texas Militia April 1846 / Mustered Out USV 30 July 1846 / Major USV Quartermaster 16 July 1847 / Resigned 6 September 1847 / Major-General Texas Militia 1861 / Colonel Texas Cavalry 14 February 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 11 May 1861 / CIA Ciudad Mier 1842
Indian Territory 13 May 1861-10 September 1861 / Forces in Missouri 2 July 1861-3 August 1861 / Western Army 4 August 1861-19 January 1862 / District of the Indian Territory 10 September 1861-21 November 1861 / 1st Division Army of the West 19 January 1862-7 March 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Robert Selden Garnett

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
Robert Selden Garnett
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder

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