1861 July 21st

July 21 1861 Sunday

First Battle of Bull Run, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Oregon Inlet, NC

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

CSA. Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter replaced Robert Augustus Toombs as CS Secretary of State, who had resigned to command a brigade in the Confederate Army.

California. Incidents at Eel River and South Fork Eel River.

Missouri. As Union Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon pursued the secessionist Missouri State Guard to the southwest portion of the state, loyal Home Guard companies were forming throughout the state, and stranded secessionists also attempted to get organised. At Kahoka Union David Moore was elected colonel of the 1st Northeast Missouri Home Guard Regiment. Confederate Colonel Martin E Green called up the 2nd Division of the Missouri State Guard to a training camp on the Horseshoe Bend of the Fabius River. There he formed the 1st Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Division, Missouri State Guard under Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph C Porter and Major Benjamin W Shacklett. Moore was faced by a growing secessionist force and by dissension in his own command. He determined to strike local secessionists, and then fall back to Athens where he would be close to the supply depot of Croton, Iowa and the support of the Iowa militia. With the help of a company of Illinois militia and a company of Iowa Home Guards he attacked the village of Etna in Scotland County and drove off Shacklett’s cavalry and then withdrew to Athens.

Oregon Inlet, North Carolina. USS Albatross engaged CSS Beaufort in Oregon In­let. The USS Albatross carried heavier guns and forced CSS Beaufort to withdraw.

Virginia. Incident at Charlestown.

First Bull Run, Virginia, also known as First Manassas or Young’s Branch. Public demand pushed the Union General-in-Chief Major-General Winfield Scott to order an advance into the South before adequately training his untried troops. Scott ordered Major-General Irvin McDowell to advance from Washington, DC, on the Confederate troops stationed at Manassas Junction.

The Confederate position was dictated in part by the defensibility of Bull Run but also by the need to protect the junction at Manassas of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad which led towards Washington, DC, and the Manassas Gap Railroad which kept them in touch with Johnston’s army in the Shenandoah. By the time McDowell’s army of 38,000 troops found Confederate Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard’s army along Bull Run Creek near Manassas Junction, it had been reinforced by 12,000 troops of Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston from the lower Shenandoah Valley. The combined Confederate force had increased to around 32,230 men.

McDowell intended to turn the Confederate left, executing a complicated and extensive movement with untrained troops and inexperienced staff. Two divisions of the Union army began a long fourteen-mile march at 1 am to envelop the Confederate left flank by crossing Bull Run Creek at Sudley Ford. These two divisions of Brigadier-General David Hunter and Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman would then move south to open the crossings of Bull Run so that they could be joined first by State Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler’s division crossing at Stone Bridge and then, in due course, the reserves of Colonel Dixon S Miles’ division. Union State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon’s division would guard the roads south of Centerville.

The Union march was slow and poorly coordinated. Tyler reached the Stone bridge at about 5.30 am, when the flanking force of Hunter and Heintzelman had only just turned off the Warrenton Turnpike towards Sudley. When Tyler fired his first artillery shell to start the demonstration at 6.00 am, the flanking troops were still three miles from Sudley Springs Ford.

At 8.45 am Confederate Signals Officer, Captain Edward Porter Alexander, signalled a message to Colonel Nathan George Evans at Stone Bridge, warning of the flank march. Evans moved part of his demi-brigade to oppose the envelopment, leaving the remainder to guard the Stone Bridge. By 8am Evans felt sure that the enemy at the Stone Bridge was making no more than a diversion and moved more of his men, about 900 in all, to occupy Matthews Hill. Confederate brigades under Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee and Colonel Francis Bartow moved to reinforce him on the north side of Young’s Branch.

Johnston, although superior in rank to Beauregard, took responsibility to send reinforcements from the strong right flank to strengthen the left, allowing Beauregard, who was more familiar with the terrain, to command the action in the battle-line itself. Beauregard’s vague plans for an offensive action near Blackburn’s Ford were cancelled.

The first Union troops under Colonel Ambrose Everett Burnside began to cross Bull Run at 9.am, more than two hours behind schedule. The Union force enjoyed initial success in an engagement at Matthews Hill and pushed back the Confederate line, now held by 2,800 men under Evans, Bartow, and Bee. By 11.30 the Union advance had driven the Confederates back. The initial success was not followed up immediately.

McDowell’s next objective was Henry Hill about a mile and a half south of Matthews’ Hill and six miles from Manassas Junction. He paused to let two batteries (Captain James B Ricketts and Captain Charles Griffin) go into action on Dogan’s Ridge. This allowed more Confederate troops to be shifted from the quiet right flank to oppose the advance, including the brigade of Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson which reached Henry Hill at about noon. Jackson gathered 13  guns to strengthen the position.

The Union advance resumed at about 2 pm when McDowell ordered Ricketts’ and Griffin’s batteries forward from Dogan’s Ridge to fire at a closer range. Ricketts went into action with his guns south of Henry House, within 300 yards of the Confederate line, while Griffin went into action his left; both commenced a fierce exchange with the Confederate artillery. Efforts to move Union infantry forward to support their advanced batteries were slow to develop. Griffin then decided to move two of his six guns from the left to the Sudley Road and then onto a slight rise on Ricketts’ right.

Fighting raged throughout the day with both sides seeking to push inexperienced troops piecemeal into the firing line along a lengthening front. Unexpectedly, at 3pm, a battalion of infantry wearing blue tunics appeared on the right of Griffin’s detached section of artillery. Griffin believed they were Confederates but he was overruled by the army’s Chief of Artillery, Major William Farquhar Barry, who insisted they were friendly troops. They were Confederates under Colonel William Smith and when they opened fire from 70 yards’ range they caused heavy casualties. Smith charged, with support from Colonel Alfred Cumming’s 33rd Virginia and they captured the two guns. Support from the 11th New York (Fire Zouaves) arrived in time to save the other guns. The stand made by Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade, known afterwards to posterity as “Stonewall” because of his stout defence, stabilised the Confederate line and this counter-attack turned the tide.

Two regiments of Confederate Colonel Phillip St George Cocke’s Brigade advanced across Henry Hill and forced the Union line off Henry Hill. McDowell responded by placing Colonel Oliver Otis Howard’s brigade onto Chinn Ridge, west of Henry Hill. This would expose the Confederate flank. However by 3.30 pm, Confederate reinforcements (including Brigadier-General Edmund Kirby Smith’s brigade just arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) were extending the Confederate further and further to the left and Howard’s movement was blocked. Confederate Colonel Jubal Anderson Early and Colonel Arnold Elzey’s brigades from the Shenandoah attacked Howard at 4pm and broke the Union right flank on Chinn Ridge.

Unable to rally and reform his inexperienced troops, and despairing of resuming his advance, McDowell ordered a general withdrawal at about 4.30 pm. The retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Confederate cavalry under Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart attacked to increase the Union panic. McDowell’s army fled the battlefield in growing panic, with a rearguard provided by a regular infantry battalion (14th US Infantry) under Major George Sykes and a cavalry squadron under Major Innis Newton Palmer (2nd US Cavalry). Many men crossed Stone Bridge safely but an overturned wagon on the bridge over Cub Run caused chaos, which was compounded by the presence of crowds of civilian onlookers from the capital. Efforts to rally the army at Centreville behind the division withdrawn from the Blackburn’s Ford road failed, and the Union army continued to flee in disorder to the Defences of Washington, DC.

Although victorious, the Confederate forces were equally disorganised and fatigued by victory and did not pursue. Enough fresh troops could not be mobilised for the pursuit by the inexperienced Confederate commanders and although they captured 28 artillery pieces, 17 of them modern rifled pieces, as well as other valuable military equipment, the strategic rewards arising from the tactical victory were not fully achieved.

Union forces engaged were 28,452, and losses were 2,645, of whom 481 (or 418) were killed, 1,124 (or 1,011) wounded and 1,216 missing (alternative reports of Union losses vary between 2,706 and 2,952, or even 3,334). Confederate forces engaged were 32,232 and losses 1,981, of whom 387 were killed, 1,582 wounded and 12 missing. (Alternative losses reported vary from 1,752 to 1,982). (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE RUN: FIRST BULL RUN, VA

Union Department of Northeastern Virginia: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell
Army of Northeastern Virginia: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell
1st Division: State Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler
1st Brigade, 1st Division: Colonel Erasmus Darwin Keyes
2nd Brigade, 1st Division: Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck
3rd Brigade, 1st Division: Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman
4th Brigade, 1st Division: Colonel Israel Bush Richardson
2nd Division: Brigadier-General David Hunter
1st Brigade, 2nd Division: Colonel Andrew Porter
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division: Colonel Ambrose Everett Burnside
3rd Division: Colonel Samuel Peter Heintzelman
1st Brigade, 3rd Division: Colonel William Buel Franklin
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division: Colonel Orlando Bolivar Willcox
3rd Brigade: 3rd Division: Colonel Oliver Otis Howard
4th (Reserve) Division: State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon
5th Division: Colonel Dixon S Miles
1st Brigade, 5th Division: Colonel Louis Blenker
2nd Brigade, 5th Division: Colonel Thomas Alfred Davies

Confederate Department of the Potomac: Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of the Potomac: Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim
Bonham’s 1st Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Milledge Luke Bonham
Evans’s Command (Detached from Bonham’s Brigade): Colonel Nathan George Evans
Ewell’s 2nd Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Jones’ 3rd Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Longstreet’s 4th Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Longstreet
Cocke’s 5th Brigade (Potomac): Colonel Philip St George Cocke
Early’s 6th Brigade (Potomac): Colonel Jubal Anderson Early
Reserve Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Army of the Shenandoah: Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Jackson’s 1st Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Bartow’s 2nd Brigade (Detached from Bee’s Brigade): Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow
Bee’s 3rd Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee
Smith’s 4th Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Edmund Kirby Smith
Cavalry (Shenandoah): Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart

Union Organisation

USA: James Brewerton Ricketts promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Ricketts, James Brewerton | New York | Born 21 June 1817 New York City, New York | USMA 1839 16/31 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1839 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 21 April 1846 Captain USA 1st US Artillery 3 August 1852 Brigadier-General USV April 30 1862 to rank from July 21 1861 Major USA 1st US Artillery 1 June 1863 Mustered out USV 30 April 1866 Retired USA 28 January 1867 | WIA x 4 & CIA First Bull Run 1861 WIA Cedar Creek 1864 | Died 22 September 1887 | 5 September 1862 – 5 September 1862 III Corps Virginia, 6 April 1864 – 12 April 1864 VI Corps Potomac, 16 October 1864 – 18 October 1864 VI Corps Shenandoah

USA: Michael Corcoran promoted Brigadier-General USV 15 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Corcoran, Michael | Ireland | Born 21 September 1827 Carrowkeel, Ireland | Colonel 69th New York State Militia 1859 Colonel USV 69th New York State Militia 29 April 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 15 1862 to rank from July 21 1861 | WIA & CIA First Bull Run 1861 | Died Fairfax December 22 1863

USA: Orlando Bolivar Willcox promoted Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Willcox, Orlando Bolivar | Michigan | Born 16 April 1823, Detroit, Michigan | USMA 1847 8/38 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1847 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 30 April 1850 Resigned USA 10 September 1857 Colonel USV 1st Michigan 24 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861 Mustered out USV 15 January 1866 Colonel USA 29th US Infantry 28 July 1866 12th US Infantry 15 March 1869 Brigadier-General USA 13 October 1886 Retired USA 16 April 1887 | WIA First Bull Run 1861 Died 10 May 1907 | 8 October 1862 – 15 January 1863 IX Corps Potomac, 8 March 1862 – 16 March 1863 IX Corps Virginia, 6 April 1863 – 54 June 1863 IX Corps Ohio, 10 April 1863 – 3 June 1863 District of Central Kentucky, 5 June 1863 – 10 September 1863 District of Indiana and Michigan, 21 November 1863 – 16 January 1864 District of the Clinch, 17 January 1864 – 25 January 1864 IX Corps Ohio, 16 March 1864 – 18 March 1864 IX Corps Ohio, 1 September 1864 – 9 September 1864 IX Corps Potomac, 31 December 1864 – 10 January 1865 IX Corps Potomac, 24 January 1865 – 1 February 1865 IX Corps Potomac, 26 April 1865 – 2 August 1865 District of Washington, 7 June 1865 25 June 1865 IX Corps Washington

USA: William High Keim mustered out as Major-General of Pennsylvania State Volunteers and promoted Brigadier-General USV to rank from December 20 1861..

Keim, William High / Pennsylvania / Born 25 June 1813 Reading, Pennsylvania / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia April 20 1861 Mustered out Pennsylvania July 21 1861 Brigadier-General USV December 21 1861 to rank from December 20 1861 / Died May 18 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston arrived to command the Army of the Potomac, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard who continued as second-in-command.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston | Virginia | Born February 3 1807 Longwood, Virginia | USMA 1829 13/46 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 Resigned USA 31 May 1837 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 Captain USA Topographical Engineers 21 September 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles April 9 1847 Mustered out USV 28 August 1848 Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster General June 28 1860 Resigned USA 22 April 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 General ACSA August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 2 May 1865 | Died 21 March 1891 | Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861, 24 April 1861 – 7 May 1861 Forces in Richmond, 15 May 1861 -3 July 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 20 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 19 July 1861 Army of the Shenandoah, 20 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of the Potomac, 21 July 1861 – 14 March 1862 Army of the Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 30 May 1862 Department of Northern Virginia, 14 March 1862 – 30 May 1862 Army of Northern Virginia, 4 November 1862 – 16 December 1863 Military Division of the West, 4 July 1863 – 23 August 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 2 December 1863 – 22 December 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 16 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Department of Tennessee, 27 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Army of Tennessee, 22 February 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 22 February 1865 – 26 March 1865 Department of Tennessee and Georgia, 27 February 1865 – 15 March 1865 Army of Tennessee, 6 March 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 22 February 1865 – 9 April 1865 Army of the South, 9 April 1865 – 26 April 1865 Army of Tennessee

CSA: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant | Louisiana | Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana | USMA 1838 2/45 Artillery – Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 Engineers 7 July 1838 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 18 June 1839 Captain USV Engineers 3 March 1853 Resigned USA 20 February 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 Paroled 1 May 1865 | WIA x 2 Chapultepec 1847 | Died 20 February 1893 | 3 March 1861 – 26 May 1861 Department of South Carolina, 3 March 1861 – 27 May 1861 Forces in Charleston, 31 May 1861 – 19 July 1861 Department of the Potomac, 31 May 1861 – 20 July 1861 Army of the Potomac, 25 September 1861 – 3 October 1861 I Corps Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 29 January 1862 District of the Potomac, 5 March 1862 – 29 March 1862 Army of the Mississippi, 6 April 1862 – 26 June 1862 Western Department, 6 April 1862 – 6 May 1862 Army of Mississippi, 29 August 1862 – 7 October 1862 Department of South Carolina and Georgia, 7 October 1862 – 19 April 1864 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 18 April 1864 – 13 May 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 20 May 1864 – 26 September 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 27 September 1864 – 1 October 1864 Defences of Petersburg, 3 October 1864 – 16 December 1864 Military Division of the West, 14 January 1865 – 22 January 1865 Army of Tennessee

CSA: Arnold Elzey (Jones) promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Elzey, Arnold (Jones) | Maryland | Born 8 December 1816 Somerset, Maryland | USMA 1837 33/50 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1837 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 12 November 1839 Captain USA 2nd US Artillery 14 February 1849 Resigned USA 25 April 1861 Colonel PACS 1st Maryland 8 June 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 Major-General PACS 4 December 1862 Paroled 9 May 1865 | WIA Cross Keys 1862 WIA Gaines‘ Mill 1862 | Died 21 February 1871 | 12 December 1862 – 30 June 1863 Department of Richmond, 23 September 1863 – 23 April 1864 Department of Richmond

CSA: Samuel Jones promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Jones, Samuel | Virginia | Born 17 December 1819 Powhatan, Virginia | USMA 1841 19/52 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 28 September 1841 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 3 March 1847 Captain USA 1st US Artillery 24 December 1853 1847 Resigned USA 27 April 1861 Major Virginia 1 May 1861 Colonel PACS Artillery June 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 Major-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 10 March 1862 Paroled 12 May 1865 | Died 31 July 1887 | 27 January 1862 – 7 March 1862 Army of Pensacola, 2 April 1862 – 27 April 1862 Department of Alabama and West Florida, 2 June 1862 – 14 August 1862 II Corps Mississippi, 19 September 1862 – 26 September 1862 Department of East Tennessee, 27 September 1862 – 20 November 1862 District of Middle Tennessee, 25 November 1862 * 24 February 1864 Trans-Allegheny Department, 3 September 1863 – 2 December 1863 District of East Tennessee, 1 April 1864 – 17 May 1864 Defences of Savannah, 20 April 1864 – 2 October 1864 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 12 October 1864 – 10 May 1865 District of South Carolina, 31 December 1864 – 10 May 1865 District of Florida

CSA: Jubal Anderson Early promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Early, Jubal Anderson | Virginia | Born 3 November 1816 Franklin, Virginia | USMA 1837 18/50 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 7 July 1838 Resigned USA 31 July 1838 Major USV 1st Virginia 7 January 1847 Mustered out USV 3 August 1848 Colonel PACS 24th Virginia June 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 Major-General PACS 23 January 1863 to rank from 17 January 1863 Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 31 May 1864 Honourably discharged 2 March 1865 | WIA Williamsburg 1862 | Died 2 March 1894 | 10 May 1863 – 29 May 1863 II Corps Northern Virginia, 15 June 1863 – 7 July 1863 Valley District, 15 November 1863 – 3 December 1863 II Corps Northern Virginia, 15 December 1863 – 28 March 1865 Valley District, 8 May 1864 – 20 May 1864 II Corps Northern Virginia, 29 May 1864 – 8 December 1864 II Corps Northern Virginia, 20 February 1865 – 28 March 1865 Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia

CSA: William Henry Chase Whiting promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 to rank from July 21 1861

Whiting, William Henry Chase | Mississippi | Born 22 March 1824 Biloxi, Mississippi | USMA 1845 1/41 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1845 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 16 March 1853 Captain USA Engineers 13 December 1858 Resigned USA 20 February 1861 Major PACS Engineers Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 Major-General PACS March 5 1863 to rank from 28 February 1863 | MWIA Fort Fisher 1865 | DOW 10 March 1865 | 17 July 1862 – 17 August 1862 District of Cape Fear, 18 August 1862 – 18 September 1862 Sub-District of Cape Fear, 8 November 1862 – 1 4July 1863 Sub-District of Cape Fear, 14 July 1863 – 23 September 1863 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 26 September 1863 – 18 April 1864 District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington, 14 May 1864 – 19 May 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 20 May 1864 – 15 January 1865 Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 27 September 1864 – 16 November 1864 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia

CSA: Francis Stebbins Bartow posthumously appointed unconfirmed Brigadier-General PACS.

CSA: Brigadier-General Francis Stebbins Bartow was killed at First Bull Run.

Bartow, Francis Stebbins | Georgia | Born 1816 | Captain Georgia Militia 21 May 1861 Colonel PACS 8th Georgia 1 June 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 posthumously unconfirmed | KIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861

CSA: Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee was mortally wounded at First Bull Run.

Bee, Barnard Elliott | South Carolina | Born 8 February 1824 Charleston, South Carolina | USMA 1845 33/41 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 21 September 1846 1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 5 March 1851 Captain USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 3 March 1861 Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 1st South Carolina Regular April 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 | WIA Cerro Gordo 1847 MWIA First Bull Run 1861 | DOW 22 July 1861

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of Northeastern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 & Department of Maryland awaited
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861Department of Virginia Department of the Shenandoah awaited
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Department of the West interim & Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • rigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Brewerton Ricketts April 30 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Michael Corcoran August 15 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Orlando Bolivar Willcox August 19 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania Army of the Shenandoah

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac
  • General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Forces in Missouri
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia & Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861 KIA 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Heron Anderson 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Augustus Toombs 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Arnold Elzey 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Jones 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jubal Anderson Early July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Chase Whiting 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Francis Stebbins Bartow 21 July 1861
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Daniel Ruggles May 1861 District of Aquia
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston

 

 

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