1861 July 21st

July 21 1861 Sunday

First Battle of Bull Run, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Oregon Inlet, NC

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

Atlantic Ocean. The Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis captured the American bark Alvarado.

CSA. Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter replaced Robert Augustus Toombs as CS Secretary of State, who had resigned to command a brigade in the Confederate Army.

California. Skirmishes with Indians at Eel River and South Fork Eel River.

Missouri. As Union Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon pursued the secessionist Missouri State Guard to the southwest portion of the state, loyal Home Guard companies were forming throughout the state, and stranded secessionists also attempted to get organised. At Kahoka Union David Moore was elected colonel of the 1st Northeast Missouri Home Guard Regiment. Confederate Colonel Martin E Green called up the 2nd Division of the Missouri State Guard to a training camp on the Horseshoe Bend of the Fabius River. There he formed the 1st Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Division, Missouri State Guard under Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph C Porter and Major Benjamin W Shacklett. Moore was faced by a growing secessionist force and by dissension in his own command. He determined to strike local secessionists, and then fall back to Athens where he would be close to the supply depot of Croton, Iowa and the support of the Iowa militia. With the help of a company of Illinois militia and a company of Iowa Home Guards he attacked the village of Etna in Scotland County and drove off Shacklett’s cavalry and then withdrew to Athens.

Oregon Inlet, North Carolina. USS Albatross (Commander George A Prentiss) engaged CSS Beaufort in Oregon In­let. The USS Albatross carried heavier guns and forced CSS Beaufort to withdraw.

Virginia. Incident at Charlestown. Union forces under Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox encounter Confederates from the command of Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise.

Virginia. US Marines commanded by Major Reynolds took part in the First Battle of Bull Run. Nine Marines were killed, 19 were wounded, and 16 missing in action. Two naval howitzers were also lost in the battle.

First Bull Run, Virginia, also known as First Manassas or Young’s Branch. Public clamour and political pressure had pushed the Union General-in-Chief Major-General Winfield Scott to order an advance into the South before his untried troops were adequately trained. Scott ordered Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell to advance from Washington, DC, against the Confederate troops stationed at Manassas Junction.

The Confederate position south of Bull Run Creek was dictated in part by the defensibility of Bull Run but also by the need to protect the junction at Manassas of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad which led north towards Washington, DC, and connected with the Manassas Gap Railroad which afforded contact with the Confederate army in the Shenandoah Valley. By the time McDowell’s army of 38,000 troops found Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard’s army along Bull Run Creek, the defenders had been reinforced by 12,000 troops of General Joseph Eggleston Johnston from the lower Shenandoah Valley. The combined Confederate force had increased to around 32,230 men.

McDowell planned to turn the Confederate left, executing a sound but lengthy and complicated movement with untrained troops and inexperienced staff. Two divisions of the Union army began a long fourteen-mile march at 1 am to envelop the Confederate left flank by crossing Bull Run Creek at Sudley Ford. These two divisions of Brigadier-General David Hunter and Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman would then move south to open the crossings of Bull Run. Opening the bridge would allow them to be joined first by State Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler’s division crossing at Stone Bridge and then, in due course, the reserve division of Colonel Dixon S Miles’ division. Union State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon’s division would guard the roads south of Centerville.

The Union march was slow and poorly coordinated. Tyler reached the Stone bridge at about 5.30 am, when the flanking force of Hunter and Heintzelman had only just turned off the Warrenton Turnpike towards Sudley. When Tyler fired his first artillery shell to start the demonstration at 6.00 am, the flanking troops were still three miles short of Sudley Springs Ford.

At 8.45 am Confederate Signals Officer, Major Edward Porter Alexander, signalled a message to Colonel Nathan George Evans at Stone Bridge, warning of the threat of the enemy’s flank march. Evans moved part of his demi-brigade to oppose the envelopment and left the remainder to guard the Stone Bridge. By 8am Evans felt sure that the enemy force across the Stone Bridge was making no more than a diversion and moved more of his men, about 900 in all, to occupy Matthews Hill. Confederate brigades under Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee and Colonel Francis Bartow were moved north to reinforce Evans on the north side of Young’s Branch.

Johnston, although superior in rank to Beauregard, took responsibility to send reinforcements from the strong right flank to strengthen the left, allowing Beauregard, who was more familiar with the terrain, to command the action in the battle-line itself. Beauregard’s vague plans for an offensive action near Blackburn’s Ford and at Union Mills were cancelled.

The first Union troops under Colonel Ambrose Everett Burnside began to cross Bull Run at 9.am, more than two hours behind schedule. The Union force enjoyed initial success in the fighting at Matthews Hill and pushed back the Confederate line, which was now held by 2,800 men under Evans, Bartow, and Bee. By 11.30 the Union advance had driven the Confederates back. The initial success was not followed up immediately as the tired Union troops struggled to maintain momentum and cohesion.

McDowell’s next objective was Henry Hill about a mile and a half south of Matthews’ Hill, only six miles from Manassas Junction. He paused to let two batteries (Captain James Brewerton Ricketts and Captain Charles Griffin) go into action on Dogan’s Ridge. This delay allowed more Confederate troops to be shifted from the quiet right flank to oppose the advance, and these included the brigade of Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson which reached Henry Hill at about noon. An experienced artillerist, Jackson gathered 13  guns to strengthen his position.

The Union advance resumed at about 2 pm when McDowell ordered Ricketts’ and Griffin’s batteries forward from Dogan’s Ridge to open fire at a very close range. Ricketts went into action with his guns south of Henry House, within 300 yards of the Confederate line, while Griffin went into action his left. Both batteries commenced a fierce exchange with the Confederate artillery. Efforts to move Union infantry forward to support the advanced batteries were slow to develop. Griffin then decided to move two of his six guns from the left flank to the Sudley Road and then onto a slight rise on Ricketts’ right.

Fighting raged throughout the day with both sides seeking to push inexperienced troops piecemeal into the firing line along a lengthening front. Unexpectedly, at 3pm, a battalion of infantry wearing blue tunics appeared on the right of Griffin’s detached section of artillery on the rise by the Sudley Road. Griffin believed they were Confederates but he was overruled by the army’s Chief of Artillery, Major William Farquhar Barry, who insisted they were friendly troops. They were actually Confederates of the 49th Virginia Infantry Colonel William Smith, and when they opened fire from 70 yards’ range they caused heavy casualties. Smith charged, supported by Colonel Alfred Cumming’s 33rd Virginia, and they captured the two guns. Support from the 11th New York (Fire Zouaves) arrived in time to save the other exposed guns.

The steadfast stand under heavy fire made by Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade, known afterwards to posterity as “Stonewall” because of his stout defence, stabilised the Confederate line and this counter-attack turned the tide.

Two regiments of Confederate Colonel Phillip St George Cocke’s Brigade advanced across Henry Hill and forced the Union line off Henry Hill. McDowell responded by moving Colonel Oliver Otis Howard’s brigade onto Chinn Ridge, west of Henry Hill. This move would expose the Confederate flank. However by 3.30 pm, Confederate reinforcements (including Brigadier-General Edmund Kirby Smith’s brigade just arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended the Confederate further and further to the left and Howard’s flanking movement was blocked. Confederate Colonel Jubal Anderson Early and Colonel Arnold Elzey’s brigades from the Shenandoah attacked Howard at 4pm and broke the Union right flank on Chinn Ridge.

Unable to rally and reform his inexperienced troops, and despairing of resuming his advance, McDowell ordered a general withdrawal at about 4.30 pm. The retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Confederate cavalry under Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart attacked to increase the Union panic. McDowell’s army fled the battlefield in growing disorder, protected by a staunch rearguard provided by a Regular infantry battalion (14th US Infantry) under Major George Sykes and a cavalry squadron under Major Innis Newton Palmer (2nd US Cavalry). Many men crossed Stone Bridge safely but an overturned wagon on the bridge over Cub Run caused chaos, which was compounded by the presence of crowds of civilian onlookers from the capital. Efforts to rally the army at Centreville behind the division withdrawn from the Blackburn’s Ford road failed, and the Union army continued to flee in disorder to the Defences of Washington, DC.

Although victorious, the Confederate forces were as disorganised and fatigued by victory as the defeated Union army and did not immediately pursue. Enough fresh troops could not be mobilised for the pursuit by the inexperienced Confederate commanders and although they captured 28 artillery pieces, 17 of them modern rifled pieces, as well as other valuable military equipment, the strategic rewards of the tactical victory were not fully achieved.

Union forces engaged were 28,452, and their losses were 2,645, of whom 481 (or 418) were killed, 1,124 (or 1,011) wounded and 1,216 missing (alternative reports of Union losses vary between 2,706 and 2,952, or even 3,334). Confederate forces engaged were 32,232 and losses 1,981, of whom 387 were killed, 1,582 wounded and 12 missing. (Alternative losses reported vary from 1,752 to 1,982). (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE RUN: FIRST BULL RUN, VA

Union Department of Northeastern Virginia: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell
Army of Northeastern Virginia: Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell
1st Division: State Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler
1st Brigade, 1st Division: Colonel Erasmus Darwin Keyes
2nd Brigade, 1st Division: Brigadier-General Robert Cumming Schenck
3rd Brigade, 1st Division: Brigadier-General William Tecumseh Sherman
4th Brigade, 1st Division: Colonel Israel Bush Richardson
2nd Division: Brigadier-General David Hunter
1st Brigade, 2nd Division: Colonel Andrew Porter
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division: Colonel Ambrose Everett Burnside
3rd Division: Colonel Samuel Peter Heintzelman
1st Brigade, 3rd Division: Colonel William Buel Franklin
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division: Colonel Orlando Bolivar Willcox
3rd Brigade: 3rd Division: Colonel Oliver Otis Howard
4th (Reserve) Division: State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon
5th Division: Colonel Dixon S Miles
1st Brigade, 5th Division: Colonel Louis Blenker
2nd Brigade, 5th Division: Colonel Thomas Alfred Davies

Confederate Department of the Potomac: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Army of the Potomac: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim
Bonham’s 1st Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Milledge Luke Bonham
Evans’s Command (Detached from Bonham’s Brigade): Colonel Nathan George Evans
Ewell’s 2nd Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Richard Stoddert Ewell
Jones’ 3rd Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General David Rumph Jones
Longstreet’s 4th Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General James Longstreet
Cocke’s 5th Brigade (Potomac): Colonel Philip St George Cocke
Early’s 6th Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Jubal Anderson Early
Reserve Brigade (Potomac): Brigadier-General Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Army of the Shenandoah: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Jackson’s 1st Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Bartow’s 2nd Brigade (Detached from Bee’s Brigade): Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow
Bee’s 3rd Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee
Smith’s 4th Brigade (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Edmund Kirby Smith
Cavalry (Shenandoah): Colonel James Ewell Brown Stuart

Union Organisation

USA: James Brewerton Ricketts promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Ricketts, James Brewerton / New York / Born 21 June 1817 New York City, New York / Died Washington, District of Columbia 22 September 1887
USMA 1 July 1839 16/31 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1839 / 1st Lieutenant USA 21 April 1846 / Regt Quartermaster 15 June 1849-3 August 1852 / Captain USA 3 August 1852 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Major USA 1 June 1863 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Major-General USA Retired 3 January 1867 / Retired USA 3 January 1867 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 21 July 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 3 June 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA & CIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 Exchanged 18 December 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 16 May 1862-10 June 1862 / 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 190 June 1862-26 June 1862 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / III Corps Virginia 5 September 1862-6 September 1862 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 6 September 1862-12 September 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-17 September 1862 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 4 April 1864-6 April 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 6 April 1864-13 April 1864 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 13 April 1864-8 July 1864 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-16 October 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 16 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 16 April 1865-23 June 1865

USA: Orlando Bolivar Willcox promoted Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Willcox, Orlando Bolivar / Michigan / Born 16 April 1823 Detroit, Michigan / Died Coburg, Ontario, Canada 190 May 1907
UMA 1 July 1847 8/38 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 April 1850 / Resigned USA 10 September 1857 / Captain Michigan Militia 1857 / Colonel USV 1st Michigan Infantry 1 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Major-General USV 5 February 1863 Withdrawn 12 February 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 29th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / 12th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Brigadier-General USA 13 October 1886 / Retired USA 16 April 1887 / Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Major-General USA 2 March 1867 Medal of Honor 21 July 1861 / WIA and CIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 Exchanged 15 August 1862
2nd Brigade 3rd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia June 1861-21 July 1861 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 8 September 1862-8 October 1862 / IX Corps Potomac 8 October 1862-16 January 1863 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of Virginia 7 February 1863-8 March 1863 / IX Corps Virginia 8 March 1863-17 March 1863 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 19 March 1863-13 April 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 6 April 1863-5 June 1863 / District of Central Kentucky 10 April 1863-3 June 1863 / IX Corps Ohio 5 June 1863-5 June 1863 / District of Indiana and Michigan 5 June 1863-11 September 1863 / Forces in east Tennessee 6 October 1861-21 November 1863 / District of the Clinch 21 November 1863-17 January 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 17 January 1864-26 January 1864 / IX Corps Ohio 16 March 1864-19 April 1864 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 19 April 1864-1 September 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 1 September 1864-10 September 1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 10 September 1864-13 September 1864 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 30 September 1864-31 December 1864 / IX Corps Potomac 31 December 1864-12 January 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 12 January 1865-24 January 1865 / IX Corps Potomac 24 January 1865-2 February 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 2 February 1865-20 February 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 7 March 1865-24 April 1865 / 1st Division IX Corps Department of Washington 24 April 1865-17 June 1865 / District of Washington 26 April 1865-2 August 1865 / IX Corps Washington 17 June 1865-2 July 1865 / Department of the Ohio 26 December 1865-13 January 1866

USA: Michael Corcoran promoted Brigadier-General USV 15 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Corcoran, Michael / Ireland / Born 21 September 1827 Carrowkeel, Ireland / Died Fairfax, Virginia 22 December 1863
Private 69th New York Militia 1851 / Colonel 69th New York Militia 20 April 1861 / Colonel USV 69th New York Militia 29 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 15 August 1862 to rank from 21 July 1861 / WIA & CIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 Exchanged 15 August 1862
Corcoran’s Brigade 2nd Division District of Yorktown August 1862 / Corcoran’s Brigade Suffolk Division VII Corps Det of Virginia 30 September 1862-9 April 1863 / 1st Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 9 April 1863-11 July 1863 / 1st Brigade King’s Division Department of Washington 11 July 1863-17 October 1863 / Corcoran’s Division Department of Washington 17 October 1863-22 December 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston arrived to command the Army of the Potomac, succeeding Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, who continued as second-in-command.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847-28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 1 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 17 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 1861-27 April 1861 / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major USA 12 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 12 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General USA 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861 / Forces in Richmond 24 April 1861-8 May 1861 / Forces in Harper’s Ferry 15 May 1861-4 July 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Army of the Shenandoah 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Department of the Potomac 21 July 1861-22 October 1861 / Army of the Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 22 October 1861-31 May 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Military Division of the West 4 November 1862-16 December 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 4 July 1863-23 August 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 16 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Army of Tennessee 27 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 25 February 1865-15 March 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 6 March 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of the South 22 February 1865-9 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1862-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-April 1865 / 16 December 1864 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865

CSA: Samuel Jones promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Jones, Samuel / Virginia / Born 17 December 1819 Woodfield, Virginia / Died Bedford Springs, Virginia 31 July 1887
USMA 1 July 1841 19/52 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 September 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Captain USA 24 December 1853 / Resigned USA 27 April 1861 / Captain ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Major ACSA April 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 11 March 1862 to rank from 10 March 1862 / Paroled 12 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1841
Chief of Ordnance Army of the Potomac June 1861 / Chief of Artillery Army of the Potomac 8 July 1861 / 3rd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 14 November 1861-18 December 1861 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 18 December 1861-10 January 1862 / Army of Pensacola 27 January 1862-8 March 1862 / Army of Mobile 27 February 1862-12 March 1862 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 3 March 1862-4 March 1862 / Department of Alabama and West Florida 2 April 1862-28 April 1862 / 1st Division Army of the West May 1862-June 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of Mississippi June 1862-17 August 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 2 June 1862-18 September 1862 / Reserve Army of Mississippi 17 August 1862-18 September 1862 / Department of East Tennessee 19 September 1862-27 September 1862 / District of Middle Tennessee 27 September 1862-25 July 1863 / Trans-Allegheny Department 25 November 1862-25 February 1864 / District of East Tennessee 3 September 1863-5 December 1863 / Defences of Savannah 1 April 1864-18 May 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 20 April 1864-5 October 1864 / District of South Carolina 12 October 1864-10 May 1865 / District of Florida 31 December 1864-10 May 1865

CSA: Arnold Elzey promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Elzey, Arnold (Arnold Elzey Jones Jr) / Maryland / Born 8 December 1816 Somerset, Maryland / Died Baltimore, Maryland 21 February 1871
USMA 1 July 1837 33 /50 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 12 November 1839 / Regiment Adjutant 8 December 1847-11 January 1848 / Captain USA 14 February 1849 / Resigned USA 25 April 1861 / Major ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Maryland Infantry 17 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 4 December 1862 / Paroled Washington, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Cross Keys 8 June 1862 WIA Gaines‘ Mill 27 June 1862
4th Brigade Valley District 21 July 1861-22 October 1861 / 1st Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-5 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / 4th Brigade 5th Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-27 June 1862 / Department of Richmond 12 December 1862-26 February 1863 / Defences of Richmond 26 February 1863-1 April 1863 / Department of Richmond 1 April 1863-1 July 1863 / Department of Richmond 23 September 1863-24 April 1864 / Maryland Line Department of Richmond 25 April 1864-8 September 1864 / Chief of Artillery Army of Tennessee 8 September 1864-17 February 1865 / Chief of Artillery Army of Tennessee 28 March 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: William Henry Chase Whiting was promoted Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861

Whiting, William Henry Chase / Mississippi / Born 22 March 1824 Biloxi, Mississippi / DOW Fort Columbus, New York 10 March 1865
USMA 1 July 1845 1/41 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 March 1853 / Captain USA 13 December 1858 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Major ACSA Engineers 16 March 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General 12 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Inspector-General North Carolina Militia 21 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 5 March 1863 to rank from 28 February 1863 / MWIA Fort Fisher 15 January 1865
Chief Engineer Defences of Charleston 6 March 1861-12 April 1861 / Assistant Adjutant-General and Assistant Inspector-General Defences of Charleston 12 April 1861-May 1861 / Chief Engineer Army of the Shenandoah 22 June 1861 / 1st Brigade X Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-26 December 1861 / Whiting’s Division Army of the Potomac 27 December 1861-14 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 5th Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-May 1862 / 1st Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia May 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-July 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia July 1862 / District of Cape Fear 17 July 1862-18 August 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 18 August 1862-19 September 1862 / Sub-District of Cape Fear 8 November 1862-14 July 1863 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 July 1863-23 September 1863 / District of the Cape Fear River and the Defences of Wilmington 26 September 1863-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Whiting’s Brigade Pickett’s Division Defences of Richmond 14 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-15 January 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 September 1864-16 November 1864

CSA: Jubal Anderson Early promoted Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861.

Early, Jubal Anderson / Virginia / Born 3 November 1816 Franklin, Virginia / Died Lynchburg, Virginia 2 March 1894
USMA 1 July 1837 18 /50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Resigned USA 31 July 1838 / Major USV 1st Virginia Infantry 7 January 1847 / Mustered Out USV 3 August 1848 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 10 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-8 June 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 15 June 1861 / Colonel PACS 24th Virginia Infantry 21 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 23 January 1863 to rank from 17 January 1863 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Williamsburg 5 May 1862 WIA Cold Harbor 27 June 1862
6th Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-21 July 1861 / 6th Brigade I Corps Army of the Potomac 21 July 1862-22 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of of the Potomac 29 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 4th Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 February 1862 / 1st Brigade 4th Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 14 February 1862-5 May 1862 / 4th Division Centre Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-27 June 1862 / 4th Brigade 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1862-17 September 1862 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 17 September 1862-10 May 1863 / II Corps Northern Virginia 10 May 1863-30 May 1863 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-15 November 1863 / Valley District 15 June 1863-7 July 1863 / II Corps Northern Virginia 15 November 1863-4 December 1863 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 December 1863-8 May 1864 / Valley District 15 December 1863-29 March 1865 / II Corps Northern Virginia 8 May 1864-20 May 1864 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 21 May 1864-29 May 1864 / II Corps Northern Virginia 29 May 1864-9 December 1864 / Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia 20 February 1865-29 March 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General Barnard Elliott Bee was mortally wounded at First Bull Run.

Bee, Barnard Elliott (Jr) / South Carolina / Born 8 February 1824 Charleston, South Carolina / DOW Bull Run, Virginia 22 July 1861
USMA 1 July 1845 33/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 /3rd US Infantry 1 July 1845 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 21 September 1846 / Regt Adjutant 25 July 1848-3 March 1855 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5 March 1851 / Captain USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 3 March 1861 / Major ACSA 16 March 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 1st South Carolina Regular Infantry 1 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 Confirmed posthumously / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 MWIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
3rd Brigade Army of the Shenandoah July 1861-21 July 1861

CSA: Colonel Francis Stebbins Bartow (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was killed at First Bull Run.

Bartow, Francis Stebbins / Georgia / Born 6 September 1816 Savannah, Georgia / KIA First Bull Run, Virginia 21 July 1861
Captain Georgia Militia 1856 / Captain PACS 8th Georgia Infantry 21 May 1861 / Colonel PACS 1 June 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 July 1861 Unconfirmed posthumously
2nd Brigade Army of the Shenandoah June 1861-21 July 1861

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early

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