1861 July 20th

July 20 1861 Saturday

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

CSA. The Confederate Congress met in Richmond.

Missouri. Expedition to Forsyth and Springfield began.

Virginia. The Union divisions of Brigadier-General David Hunter, Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman, and Colonel Dixon S Miles arrived at Centreville. State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon’s division was assigned to guard the railroad from Alexandria and was unavailable for the impending battle. Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell’s engineers discovered the undefended Sudley Ford and Poplar Ford, north of the Stone Bridge over Bull Run. McDowell planned to attack the following day with Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s divisions marching around the Confederate left across Sudley and Poplar Fords. The rest of the army was to cause diversions at the Stone Bridge (Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler’s division) leaving only a screen guarding Blackburn’s Ford on the left. The plan was inventive and sound but was far too complex for the inexperienced staff and army. It could be frustrated if the weaker Confederate army was reinforced or reacted quickly to the threat.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston and the first elements of his troops from the Shenandoah Valley (Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade) joined Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard at Manassas Junction from noon onwards. During the day about 9,500 men arrived on foot and by rail, leaving only the 2,500 men remaining to arrive twenty-four hours later. This movement is often described as the first significant use of a railroad to achieve strategic mobility directly onto a battlefield. On his arrival, Johnston suggested making an attack against the Union army, and Beauregard outlined his plan for an attack on the Union left flank at Centreville. The combined Confederate forces of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Shenandoah were merged as the Army of the Potomac. Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard effectively became second-in-command to Johnston but Johnston conceded temporary field command to Beauregard as the man with local knowledge until the end of active operations on July 21st 1861.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General William Wing Loring assembled twelve new regiments and the remnants of five regiments that had escaped from the defeats in western Virginia at Monterey and Huntersville. These retained the name of the Army of the Northwest but now came under the authority of Loring’s Department of Southwestern Virginia. He took over command in western Virginia from Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson. This force fluctuated on its composition but effectively maintained two separate concentrations at Monterey in the west and at Huntersville, protecting communications, in the rear.

Washington Territory. Henry M McGill left office as Acting Governor of Washington Territory, leaving the office vacant.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of the Shenandoah was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of the Potomac.

CSA: The District of Harper’s Ferry was discontinued and its area incorporated into the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed command of the Department of the Potomac, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac, arriving on July 21st 1861, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard who continued as second-in-command.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston | Virginia | Born February 3 1807 Longwood, Virginia | USMA 1829 13/46 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 Resigned USA 31 May 1837 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 Captain USA Topographical Engineers 21 September 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles April 9 1847 Mustered out USV 28 August 1848 Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster General June 28 1860 Resigned USA 22 April 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 General ACSA August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 2 May 1865 | Died 21 March 1891 | Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861, 24 April 1861 – 7 May 1861 Forces in Richmond, 15 May 1861 -3 July 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 20 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 19 July 1861 Army of the Shenandoah, 20 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of the Potomac, 21 July 1861 – 14 March 1862 Army of the Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 30 May 1862 Department of Northern Virginia, 14 March 1862 – 30 May 1862 Army of Northern Virginia, 4 November 1862 – 16 December 1863 Military Division of the West, 4 July 1863 – 23 August 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 2 December 1863 – 22 December 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 16 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Department of Tennessee, 27 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Army of Tennessee, 22 February 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 22 February 1865 – 26 March 1865 Department of Tennessee and Georgia, 27 February 1865 – 15 March 1865 Army of Tennessee, 6 March 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 22 February 1865 – 9 April 1865 Army of the South, 9 April 1865 – 26 April 1865 Army of Tennessee

CSA: The Army of the Kanawha was subordinated to the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise retained command of the Army of the Kanawha.

Wise, Henry Alexander | Virginia | Born 3 December 1806 Drummondtown, Virginia | Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 Major-General PACS 6 April 1865 unconfirmed Paroled 9 April 1865 | Died 12 September 1876 | 6 June 1861 – 10 August 1861 Army of the Kanawha, 21 December 1861 – 23 February 1862 District of Albemarle, 22 January 1862 – 8 February 1862 District of Roanoke Island, 22 October 1863- 17 October 1864 Sixth Sub-District of South Carolina, 10 May 1864 – 26 April 1865 First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia

CSA: Brigadier-General William Wing Loring assumed command of the Army of the Northwest, succeeding Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson.

Loring, William Wing | North Carolina-Florida | Born 4 December 1818 Wilmington, North Carolina | Private 11th Florida Militia 1832 Sergeant 11th Florida Militia 1835 1st Lieutenant 11th Florida Militia 1836-1837 Captain USA US Mounted Rifles 19 May 1846 Major USA US Mounted Rifles 1847 Lieutenant-Colonel USA US Mounted Rifles 1851 1st US Mounted Rifles 1853 Colonel US 1st Mounted Rifles 30 December 1856 Resigned USA 13 May 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 20 May 1861 Major-General PACS February 15 1862 to rank from 17 February 1862 Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 1 May 1865 | WIA Chapultepec 1847 WIA x 2 Churubusco 1847 | Died 30 December 1886 | 22 January 1861 – 30 April 1861 Department of New Mexico, 8 May 1861 – 15 October 1862 Department of Southwestern Virginia, 20 July 1861 – 25 January 1862 Army of the Northwest, 15 December 1862 – 20 May 1863 I Corps Mississippi, 14 June 1864 – 28 July 1864 III Corps Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim Joseph Eggleston Johnston awaited
    • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of Northeastern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 & Department of Maryland awaited
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861Department of Virginia Department of the Shenandoah awaited
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Department of the West interim & Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania Army of the Shenandoah

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac awaited
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Army of the Potomac interim
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Forces in Missouri
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia & Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Heron Anderson 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Augustus Toombs 19 July 1861
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Daniel Ruggles May 1861 District of Aquia
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston
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