1861 July 20th

July 20 1861 Saturday

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

CSA. The Confederate Congress met in Richmond.

Missouri. Union expedition to Forsyth and Springfield began.

North Carolina. USS Albatross, Commander George A Prentiss, recaptured the Enchantress off Hatteras Inlet.

Virginia. The Union divisions of Brigadier-General David Hunter, Brigadier-General Samuel Peter Heintzelman, and Colonel Dixon S Miles arrived at Centreville. State Brigadier-General Theodore Runyon’s division was assigned to guard the railroad from Alexandria and was unavailable for the impending battle.

Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell’s engineers discovered the undefended Sudley Ford and Poplar Ford, north of the Stone Bridge over Bull Run. McDowell planned to attack the following day with Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s divisions marching around the Confederate left across Sudley and Poplar Fords. The rest of the army was to cause diversions at the Stone Bridge (Brigadier-General Daniel Tyler’s division) leaving only a screen guarding Blackburn’s Ford on the left. The plan was inventive and sound but was far too complex for the inexperienced staff and army to execute. It could be frustrated if the weaker Confederate army was reinforced or reacted quickly to the threat.

Virginia. Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston and the first elements of his troops from the Shenandoah Valley (Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade) joined Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard at Manassas Junction from noon onwards. During the day about 9,500 men arrived on foot and by rail, leaving the remaining 2,500 men to arrive twenty-four hours later. This movement is often described as the first significant use of a railroad to achieve strategic mobility directly onto a battlefield. On his arrival, Johnston suggested making an attack against the Union army, and Beauregard outlined his existing plan for an attack on the Union left flank at Centreville. The combined Confederate forces of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Shenandoah were merged into the Army of the Potomac. Beauregard, who was the junior. effectively became second-in-command to Johnston but Johnston conceded temporary field command to Beauregard as the man with local knowledge until the end of active operations on 21 July 1861.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General William Wing Loring assembled twelve new regiments and the remnants of five regiments that had escaped from the defeats in western Virginia at Monterey and Huntersville. These retained the name of the Army of the Northwest but now came under the authority of Loring’s Department of Southwestern Virginia. He took over command in western Virginia from Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson. This force fluctuated on its composition but effectively maintained two separate concentrations at Monterey in the west and at Huntersville, protecting communications, in the rear.

Virginia. USS Mount Vernon, Commander Oliver S Glisson, seized the sloop Wild Pigeon on the Rappahannock River.

Washington Territory. Henry M McGill left office as Acting Governor of Washington Territory, leaving the office vacant.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Army of the Shenandoah was discontinued and incorporated into the Army of the Potomac.

CSA: The District of Harper’s Ferry was discontinued and its area incorporated into the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston assumed command of the Department of the Potomac, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

CSA: General Joseph Eggleston Johnston was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac, arriving on 21 July 1861, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard who continued as second-in-command, effectively Chief of Staff.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847-28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 1 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 17 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 1861-27 April 1861 / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major USA 12 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 12 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General USA 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861 / Forces in Richmond 24 April 1861-8 May 1861 / Forces in Harper’s Ferry 15 May 1861-4 July 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Army of the Shenandoah 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Department of the Potomac 21 July 1861-22 October 1861 / Army of the Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 22 October 1861-31 May 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Military Division of the West 4 November 1862-16 December 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 4 July 1863-23 August 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 16 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Army of Tennessee 27 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 25 February 1865-15 March 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 6 March 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of the South 22 February 1865-9 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: The Army of the Kanawha was subordinated to the Department of the Potomac.

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise retained command of the Army of the Kanawha.

Wise, Henry Alexander / Virginia / Born 3 December 1806 Drummondtown, Virginia / Died Richmond, Virginia 12 September 1876
Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 6 April 1865 Unconfirmed / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865
Army of the Kanawha 6 June 1861-11 August 1861 / District of Albemarle 21 December 1861-23 February 1862 / District of Roanoke Island 22 January 1862-9 February 1862 / Wise’s Brigade Aquia District 13 February 1862-June 1862 / Wise’s Brigade Right Wing Army of North Virginia June 1862-July 1862 / 6th Brigade G W Smith’s Division Department of Richmond July 1862-August 1862 / Wise’s Brigade Department of Richmond August 1862-11 September 1862 / Wise’s Brigade First Sub-District of South Carolina 11 September 1862-22 October 1863 / Sixth Sub-District of South Carolina 22 October 1863-4 April 1864 / Wise’s Brigade X Division Department of Richmond 10 May 1864-14 May 1864 / Wise’s Brigade Whiting’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 14 May 1864-17 May 1864 / Wise’s Brigade D H Hill’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 17 May 1864-21 May 1864 / Wise’s Brigade B R Johnson’s Division Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 21 May 1864-1 June 1864 / First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 10 May 1864-26 December 1864 / Wise’s Brigade B R Johnson’s Division IV Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 December 1864-8 April 1865Wise’s Brigade Grimes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 April 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General William Wing Loring assumed command of the Army of the Northwest, succeeding Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson.

Loring, William Wing / North Carolina-Florida / Born 4 December 1818 Wilmington, North Carolina / Died 30 December 1886
Private Florida Militia 1832 / Sergeant Florida Militia 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USV Florida Infantry 16 June 1837 / Mustered Out USV 16 August 1837 / Captain USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Major USA 16 February 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 15 March 1848 / Colonel US 30 December 1856 / Resigned USA 13 May 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 20 May 1861 / Major-General PACS 15 February 1862 to rank from 17 February 1862 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 13 September 1847 WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Ezra Church 28 July 1864
Department of New Mexico 22 January 1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Southwestern Virginia 8 May 1861-16 October 1862 / Army of the Northwest 20 July 1861-26 January 1862 / I Corps Mississippi 15 December 1862-20 May 1863 / Loring’s Division Western Department 20 May 1863-4 July 1863 / Loring’s Division Department Mississippi and East Louisiana 4 July 1863-28 January 1864 / Loring’s Division Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 28 January 1864-4 May 1864 / Loring’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 4 May 1864-14 June 1864 / III Corps Army of Tennessee 14 June 1864-23 June 1864 / Loring’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 7 July 1864-28 July 1864 / III Corps Tennessee 14 June 1864-28 July 1864 / Loring’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee September 1864-March 1865 / Loring’s Division III Corps Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard interim Joseph Eggleston Johnston awaited
    • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs

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