1861 July 19th

July 19 1861 Friday

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

Cuba. The Captain-General of Cuba liberated all the prize ships brought into Cuban ports by the Confederate privateer Sumter.

USA. Pennsylvania State Major-General Robert Patterson was honourably discharged from Federal service and Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks appointed to command operations in the Shenandoah Valley. The authorities were disappointed by his timid advance into the Shenandoah Valley and subsequent withdrawal to Harper’s Ferry.

Missouri. Incident at Parkersville.

Virginia. Incidents at New Market Bridge and Rack River Road.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade boarded trains at Piedmont, the first of the reinforcements heading from the Shenandoah Valley for Manassas Junction.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Northeastern Virginia at Centreville continued to correct supply weaknesses and began reconnaissances towards Bull Run Creek.

Virginia. A Union patrol of six officers was ambushed near Hampton on the Yorktown peninsula. One was killed and two others wounded and captured.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of Annapolis was discontinued and reorganised as the Department of Maryland.

USA: The Department of Maryland was established, comprising the counties ten miles each side of the Baltimore and Washington railroad from Annapolis as far as Bladensburg, Maryland

USA: Major-General John Adams Dix was appointed to command the Department of Maryland, arriving on 23rd July 1861.

Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Ensign USA 1813 / 2nd Lieutenant March 1814 / Captain USA Resigned USA 1828 / Major-General USV May 16 1861 Resigned USV November 30 1865 / Died 21 April 1879 / 16 May 1861 – 31 May 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 24 July 1861 Department of Maryland, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of Pennsylvania, 22 March 1862 – 7 June 1862 Middle Department, 2 June 1862 – 5 April 1863 Department of Virginia, 22 July 1862 – 14 July 1863 VII Corps Virginia, 18 July 1863 – 9 April 1865 Department of the East, 19 April 1865 – 14 July 1865 Department of the East

USA: The Department of the Shenandoah was established, comprising the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, taken from the Department of the East.

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was appointed to command the Department of the Shenandoah, arriving on 25th July 1861.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss | Massachusetts | Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts | Major-General USV May 16 1861 Mustered out 24 August 1865 | Died 1 September 1894 | 1 June 1861 – 18 July 1861 Department of Annapolis, 19 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Department of the Shenandoah, 3 March 1862 – 3 April 1862 V Corps Potomac, 4 April 1862 – 25 June 1862 Department of the Shenandoah, 26 June 1862 – 3 September 1862 II Corps Virginia, 7 September 1862 – 26 October 1862 Military District of Washington, 8 November 1862 – 22 September 1864 Department of the Gulf, 15 December 1862 – 22 September 1864 Army of the Gulf, 16 December 1862 – 19 August 1863 XIX Corps Gulf, 18 March 1865 – 2 June 1865 Department of the Gulf, 22 April 1865 – 2 June 1865 Army of the Gulf

USA: The remainder of Kentucky and the state of Tennessee not already assigned were detached from the Department of the East and assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Colonel Daniel Ruggles assumed command of the District of Aquia, succeeding Colonel Richard M Cary.

Ruggles, Daniel | Massachusetts | Born 31 January 1810 Barre, Massachusetts | USMA 1833 34/43 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 18 February 1836 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 7 July 1838 Captain USA 5th US Infantry 18 June 1846 Resigned USA 7 May 1861 Brigadier-General Virginia Militia May 1861 Colonel PACS May 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 | Died 1 June 1897 | 22 April 1861 – 4 June 1861 Potomac Line, 19 July 1861 – 20 August 1861 District of Aquia, 22 February 1862 – 27 June 1862 District of North Alabama, 26 June 1862 – 4 September 1862 First Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, 5 September 1862 – 1 October 1862 District of the Mississippi, 21 October 1862 – 2 September 1863 District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana

CSA: Richard Heron Anderson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861.

Anderson, Richard Heron | South Carolina | Born 7 October 1821 Sumter, South Carolina | USMA 1842 40/56 Dragoons | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1842 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 13 July 1848 Captain USA 2nd US Dragoons 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 3 March 1861 Colonel 1st South Carolina 28 January 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 Major-General PACS 14 July 1862 Lieutenant-General PACS (Special) 31 May 1864 Discharged PACS 8 April 1865 | WIA Santa Rosa Island 1861 WIA Antietam 1862 | Died 26 June 1879 | 7 May 1864 – 16 October 1864 I Corps Northern Virginia, 19 October 1864 – 7 April 1865 IV Corps Northern Virginia

CSA: Robert Augustus Toombs promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861.

Toombs, Robert Augustus | Georgia | Born 2 July 1810 Wilkes, Georgia | Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 Resigned PACS 4 March 1863 | WIA Antietam 1862 | Died 15 December 1885 | 22 October 1861 – 22 March 1862 – 6 September 1862 District of Aquia

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Henry Rootes Jackson

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of Northeastern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield May 17 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 & Department of Maryland awaited
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861Department of Virginia Department of the Shenandoah awaited
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861
  • Major-General USV John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department awaited
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Department of the West interim & Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from May 17 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania Army of the Shenandoah

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry & Army of the Shenandoah
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Forces in Missouri
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861 Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Heron Anderson 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Augustus Toombs 19 July 1861
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Daniel Ruggles May 1861 District of Aquia
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston

 

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