1861 July 19th

July 19 1861 Friday

First Bull Run Campaign

McClellan’s West Virginia Campaign

Patterson’s Shenandoah Valley Operations

Cuba. The Captain-General of Cuba liberated all the prize ships brought into Cuban ports by the Confederate commerce raider CSS Sumter (Commander Raphael Semmes).

USA. Pennsylvania State Major-General Robert Patterson was honourably discharged from Federal service and Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was appointed in his place to command operations in the Shenandoah Valley. The authorities were disappointed by Patterson’s timid advance into the Shenandoah Valley and his subsequent withdrawal to Harper’s Ferry.

Missouri. Incident at Parkersville.

Virginia. Incidents at New Market Bridge and Back River Road.

Virginia. Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas Jonathan Jackson’s brigade boarded trains at Piedmont, as the first of the reinforcements heading from the Shenandoah Valley for Manassas Junction.

Virginia. The Union Army of the Northeastern Virginia at Centreville continued to correct supply weaknesses and began to make reconnaissances towards Bull Run Creek.

Virginia. A Union patrol of six officers was ambushed near Hampton on the Yorktown peninsula. One man was killed and two others wounded and captured.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of Annapolis was discontinued and reorganised as the Department of Maryland.

USA: The Department of Maryland was established, comprising the counties ten miles each side of the Baltimore and Washington railroad from Annapolis as far as Bladensburg, Maryland

USA: Major-General John Adams Dix was appointed to command the Department of Maryland, arriving on 23 July 1861.

Dix, John Adams / New Hampshire-New York / Born 24 July 1798 Boscawen, New Hampshire / Died New York, New York 21 April 1879
Ensign USA 14th US Infantry 10 May 1813 / 3rd Lieutenant USA 21st US Infantry 7 March 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 March 1814 / Corps of Artillery 9 August 1814 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 March 1818 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 3rd US Artillery 16 August 1821 / Captain USA 30 August 1825 / Resigned USA 31 December 1828 / Adjutant-General New York Militia 1830 / Major-General New York Militia 6 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Resigned USV 30 November 1865 / WIA Niagara 25 July 1814
Department of Annapolis 16 May 1861-31 May 1861 / Department of Maryland 17 July 1861-245July 1861 / Department of Pennsylvania 25 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Dix’s Command Department of the Potomac 24 August 1861-22 March 1862 / Middle Department 22 March 1862-1 June 1862 / Department of Virginia 2 June 1862-6 April 1863 / VII Corps Virginia 22 July 1862-16 July 1863 / Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Department of the East 18 July 1863-10 April 1865 / Department of the East 19 April 1865-15 July 1865

USA: The Department of the Shenandoah was established, comprising the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, taken from the Department of the East.

USA: Major-General Nathaniel Prentiss Banks was appointed to command the Department of the Shenandoah, arriving on 25 July 1861.

Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss / Massachusetts / Born 30 January 1816 Waltham, Massachusetts / Died Waltham, Massachusetts 1 September 1894
Major-General USV 16 May 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865
Banks’ Division Department of Annapolis May `1861-11 June 1861 / Department of Annapolis 11 June 1861-19 July 1861 / Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-3 March 1862 / V Corps Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / II Corps Virginia 26 June 1862-23 September 1862 / Military District of Washington (Defences of Washington) 7 September 1862-27 October 1862 / Department of the Gulf 8 November 1862-23 September 1864 / Army of the Gulf 15 December 1862-22 September 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 16 December 1862-19 August 1863 / Department of the Gulf 18 March 1865-3 June 1865 / Army of the Gulf 22 April 1865-2 June 1865

USA: The eastern parts of Kentucky and the state of Tennessee not already assigned to Departments were detached from the Department of the East and assigned to the Department of the Shenandoah.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of Maryland: John Adams Dix awaited
  • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
    • Army of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
  • Department of the Ohio: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of Occupation: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Western Department: Nathaniel Lyon interim John Charles Frémont awaited
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Colonel Daniel Ruggles assumed command of the District of Aquia, succeeding Colonel Richard Milton Cary.

Ruggles, Daniel / Massachusetts / Born 31 January 1810 Barre, Massachusetts / Died 1 June 1897
USMA 1 July 1833 34/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 February 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 7 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 21 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 21 April 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 27 April 1861 / Colonel of Infantry Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865 / Chief of Bureau of Prison Camps 24 March 1865-April 1865 / Paroled Augusta, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847
Potomac Line 22 April 1861-5 June 1861 / District of Aquia 19 July 1861-21 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 21 August 1861-12 October 1861 / District of North Alabama 22 February 1862-27 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-10 May 1862 / First Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / District of the Mississippi 5 September 1862-1 October 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the West July 1862-August 1862 / District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 October 1862-2 September 1863 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865-May 1865

CSA: Richard Heron Anderson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861.

Anderson, Richard Heron / South Carolina / Born 7 October 1821 Stateburg, South Carolina / Died Beaufort, South Carolina 26 June 1879
USMA 1 July 1842 40/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 16 July 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 July 1848 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 3 March 1861 / Colonel 1st South Carolina Regular Infantry 28 January 1861 / Major ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 14 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 / Discharged PACS 8 April 1865 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Santa Rosa Island 9 October 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Dept of South Carolina 27 May 1861-21 August 1861 / Anderson’s Brigade Army of Pensacola August 1861-12 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 15 February 1862-31 May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-21 June 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 29 June 1862-1 July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1862-14 July 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia November 1862-30 May 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-7 May 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 7 May 1864-19 October 1864 / IV Corps Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-8 April 1865

CSA: Robert Augustus Toombs promoted Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861.

Toombs, Robert Augustus / Georgia / Born 2 July 1810 Wilkes, Georgia / Died Washington, Georgia 15 December 1885
Captain USV Georgia Infantry 1836-1837 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 4 March 1863 / Colonel 3rd Cavalry Georgia Militia 4 August 1861 / Brigadier-General Inspector-General and Chief of Staff Georgia Militia 6 February 1864-December 1864 / No Record of Parole / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
3rd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 22 October 1861-16 November 1861 / District of Aquia 22 October 1861-22 March 1862/ 2nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 16 November 1861-14 January 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 14 January 1862-5 February 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-14 March 1862 / Toombs’ Brigade D R Jones’ Division Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-April 1862 / D R Jones’ Division Army of Northern Virginia April 1862-May 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia May 1862-3 July 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 July 1862-30 August 1862 / 1st Brigade D R Jones’ Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 August 1862-17 September 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • Army of the Potomac: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Forces in Missouri: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: Henry Rootes Jackson

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Barnard Elliott Bee
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs

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