1861 January 3rd

January 3 1861 Thursday

Ho to January 4 1861

USA. The US War Department reversed the orders of the former Secretary of War, John Buchanan Floyd, and began to move weapons from many US Arsenals, to avoid them falling into the hands of the seceding Southern States.

District of Columbia. South Carolina’s Commissioners left Washington, DC, after President James Buchanan refused to acknowledge official communications from a seceded institution.

Florida. The Florida state convention met to discuss matters of secession.

Georgia. Fort Pulaski was occupied by Georgia State troops under the orders of Governor Joseph E Brown. The state troops began repairing the defences and upgrading the armament. Fort Pulaski was located on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River between Savannah and Tybee Island. Construction of a fort to protect the port of Savannah began in 1829 under the direction of Major Samuel Babcock, and was continued later by 2nd Lieutenant Robert Edward Lee. In 1833, the facility was named Fort Pulaski after the Polish military commander who fought in the American Revolution. He took part in the sieges of Charleston and of Savannah. Wooden pilings were sunk up to 70 feet into the mud to support an estimated 25,000,000 bricks. Fort Pulaski was finally completed in 1847 following eighteen years of construction. The walls were eleven feet thick and thought to be impenetrable except by only the largest land artillery of the time. The range of such weapons was about a half-mile, and because the nearest land (Tybee Island) was further away than that, it was assumed that the Fort would be invincible to enemy attack. Although completed in 1847, Fort Pulaski was under the control of only two caretakers until 1860 when Governor Joseph E Brown ordered Fort Pulaski to be taken by the state of Georgia. A steamship carrying 110 men travelled downriver from Savannah and the fort was seized. Following the secession of Georgia in February 1861, Confederate troops moved in to garrison the fort.

Maryland. Governor Thomas H Hicks issued an address to the people of Maryland against secession, and Henry Winter Davis addressed the citizens of Maryland in favour of the Union. Numerous pro-Union meetings took place throughout the state of Maryland.

Massachusetts. John A Andrews succeeded Nathaniel Prentiss Banks as Governor of Massachusetts.

Missouri. Claiborne Fox Jackson succeeded Robert M Stewart as Governor of Missouri.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President James Buchanan
Vice-President: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of War: Joseph Holt
Secretary of the Navy: Isaac Toucey

African Squadron: William Inman
Brazil Squadron: Joshua Ratoon Sands
East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
European Squadron: vacant
Home Squadron: Garrett J Prendergast
Mediterranean Squadron: Charles H Bell
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of California established: Benjamin Lloyd Beall temporary

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of New Mexico: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy

Department of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Texas: David Emanuel Twiggs

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
David Emanuel Twiggs
William Selby Harney

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

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