1861 August 7th

August 7 1861 Wednesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Wilson’s Creek Campaign

USA. The US War Department contracted with James Buchanan Eads of St Louis for the construction of seven shallow-draft armoured river gunboats. They were built with the aid of Naval Constructor Samuel M Pooks and were later nicknamed “Pook’s Turtles”.  Their offical names were USS Cairo, USS Carondelet, USS Cincinnati, USS Louisville, USS Mound City, USS Pittsburg, and USS St Louis. The armoured flotilla was to bring decisive mobility and gunpower to the Union efforts to invade the Southern states along the western rivers.

Alabama. Reconnaissance to Athens began.

Mississippi. USS Massachusetts, Commander Melancton Smith, captured the blockade-running sloop Charles Henry near Ship Island.

Missouri. A four-day expedition under Union Major John McDonald (8th Missouri Infantry) began with Union troops ferried aboard the US steamer Luella. They made stops to occupy Benton, Commerce, Hamburg, and Price’s Landing.

North Carolina.  The USS Union destroyed the Confederate privateer York and recaptured the schooner G V Baker. The G V Baker had been taken as a prize off Cape Hatteras but was beached unsuccessfully to prevent recapture.

Virginia. The village of Hampton near Fort Monroe was burned by Confederate forces under Brigadier-General John Bankhead Magruder. Magruder said he had learned that Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler intended to use the town to illegally harbour runaway slaves. Union troops prevented the destruction of the bridge but could not save the houses.

Union Organisation

USA: David Hunter confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Hunter, David / District of Columbia-Illinois / Born 21 July 1802 Washington, District of Columbia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 February 1886
USMA 1 July 1822 25/40 Infantry-Dragoons / Cadet USMA 14 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 June 1828 / Captain USA 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 / Resigned USA 4 July 1836 / Paymaster USA 13 November 1841 / Major USA Paymaster 14 March 1842 / Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Major-General USV 13 August 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 31 July 1866 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Hunter’s Brigade Department of Washington 28 May 1861-30 June 1861 / 2nd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 30 June 1861-21 July 1861 / Hunter’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 4 August 1861-22 August 1861 / 1st Division Western Army 24 September 1861-2 November 1861 / Western Department 2 November 1861-9 November 1861 / Department of Kansas 20 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Department of the South 31 March 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the South 20 December 1862-3 June 1863 / X Corps South 20 January 1863-12 June 1863 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864-May 1864 / Department of West Virginia 21 May 1864-8 August 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 21 May 1864-3 July 1864

USA: Erasmus Darwin Keyes confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin / Massachusetts-Maine / Born 29 May 1810 Brimfield, Massachusetts / Died Nice, France 14 October 1895
USMA 1 July 1832 10/45 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant 1 August 1833 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 September 1836 / ADC (W Scott) 1837-1841 / Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1838-16 November 1838 / Captain USA 3rd US Artillery 30 November 1841 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 12 October 1858 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Military Secretary (W Scott) 1 January 1860-12 April 1861 / Colonel USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 re-dated 10 March 1863 to rank from 5 May 1862 / Resigned USV 6 May 1864 / Resigned USA 6 May 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862
Keyes’ Brigade 1st Division Army of Northeastern Virginia 1 July 1861-20 August 1861 / Keyes’ Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-2 October 1861 / 1st Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / Keyes’ Division Army of the Potomac 9 November 1861-13 March 1862 / IV Corps Potomac 3 March 1862-16 August 1862 / IV Corps Virginia 16 August 1862-1 August 1863 / Department of Virginia 6 April 1863-15 July 1863 / Keyes’ Division VII Corps Department of Virginia 14 April 1863-18 July 1863 / IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-31 July 1863

USA: Fitz-John Porter confirmed Brigadier-General 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Porter, Fitz John / New Hampshire-New York / Born 31 August 1822 Portsmouth, New Hampshire / Died Morristown, New Jersey 21 May 1901
USMA 1 July 1845 8/41 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / 4th US Artillery 1 July 1845 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 18 June 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 29 May 1847 / Assistant Adjutant-General 27 June 1856 / Assistant Adjutant-General 27 April 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 19 July 1861 / Colonel USA 15th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 16 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 / Dismissed USV 21 January 1863 / Reinstated Colonel USA 5 August 1886 to rank from 14 May 1861 / Retired USA 7 August 1886 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet Captain USA 8 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Captain USA 27 June 1856 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 27 June 1862 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General Sept of Pennsylvania 27 April 1861-19 July 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-27 August 1861 F J Porter’s Division Army of the Potomac 28 August 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-18 May 1862 / V Corps Potomac 18 May 1862-10 November 1862

USA: Don Carlos Buell confirmed Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Buell, Don Carlos / Ohio-Indiana / Born 23 March 1818 Lowell, Massachusetts / Died Airdrie, Kentucky 19 November 1898
USMA 1 July 1841 32/52 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant 18 June 1846 / Regt Adjutant 15 February 1847-25 January 1848 / Brevet Captain USA Assistant Adjutant-General 25 January 1848 / Brevet Major USA Assistant Adjutant-General 25 February 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 11 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 21 March 1862 / Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 17 July 1862 / Mustered Out USV 23 May 1864 / Resigned USA 1 June 1864 / Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847
Buell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / Department of the Ohio 9 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Army of the Ohio 9 November 1861-24 October 1862 / District of the Ohio 19 March 1862-24 October 1862

USA: George Archibald McCall confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

McCall, George Archibald / Pennsylvania / Born 16 March 1802 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died West Chester, Pennsylvania 26 February 1868
USMA 1 July 1822 26/40 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 4th US Infantry 23 December 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 23 January 1829 / Captain USA 21 September 1836 / Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1846-26 December 1847 / Major USA 3rd US Infantry 26 December 1847 / Colonel USA Inspector-General 10 June 1850 / Resigned USA 29 April 1853 / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 15 May 1861 Expired 23 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 31 March 1863 / Brevet Major USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Major USA 7 July 1846 / WIA & CIA Glendale 30 June 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862
McCall’s Brigade Military Division of the Potomac 2 August 1861-20 August 1861 / McCall’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-3 October 1861 / McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-30 June 1862

USA: Philip Kearny confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Kearny, Philip (Jr) / New York / Born 2 June 1815 New York City, New York / KIA Chantilly, Virginia 1 September 1862
2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 8 March 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22 July 1839 / Royal Cavalry School Saumur France 1839 / ADC 1st Chasseurs d’Afrique 1839-1840 / Resigned USA 6 April 1846 / Reinstated 1st US Dragoons 11 May 1846 / Captain USA 6 December 1846 / ADC (W Scott) 1847 / Resigned USA 9 October 1851 / French Imperial Guard 1859-1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 25 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 posthumously / Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Churubusco 20 August 1847 WIA Charles City Cross Roads 30 June 1862
Kearny’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 August 1861-3 October 1861 / 1st Brigade Franklin’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-30 April 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 30 April 1862-5 August 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 5 August 1862-1 September 1862

USA: Samuel Ryan Curtis confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Curtis, Samuel Ryan / New York-Ohio / Born 3 February 1805 Champlain (Clinton City), New York / Died Council Bluffs, Iowa 26 December 1866
USMA 1 July 1831 27/33 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1827 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1831 / Resigned USA 30 June 1832 / Colonel Ohio Militia 1843 / Adjutant-General Ohio Militia 1846 / Colonel USV 3rd Ohio Infantry 23 June 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 June 1847 / Colonel USV 2nd Iowa Infantry 1 June 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 21 March 1862 / Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1831
District of Southwest Missouri 25 December 1861-4 June 1862 / Army of the Southwest 25 December 1861-29 August 1862 / District of the Missouri 15 June 1862-29 August 1862 / Department of the Missouri 19 September 1862-13 May 1863 / Department of Kansas 1 January 1864-30 January 1865 / Army of the Border 14 October 1864-8 November 1864 / Department of the Northwest 30 January 1865-27 June 1865

USA: Charles Smith Hamilton confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Hamilton, Charles Smith / New York / Born 16 November 1822 Westernville, New York / Died Milwaukee, Wisconsin 17 April 1891
USMA 26/39 1843 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 17 November 1845 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 June 1847 / Regt Quartermaster 1 March 1848-18 September 1848 / Resigned USA 30 April 1853 / Colonel USV 3rd Wisconsin Infantry 11 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 19 September 1862 / Resigned USV 13 April 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Molino del Rey 8 September 1847
3rd Brigade Department of the Shenandoah 8 August 1861-17 August 1861 / 3rd Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 8 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-3 May 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 18 June 1862-20 October 1862 / District of Corinth 20 October 1862-15 January 1863 / Left Wing XIII Corps Tennessee 1 November 1862-22 December 1862 / Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee 22 December 1862-1 April 1863 / XVI Corps Tennessee 10 January 1863-5 February 1863 / District of West Tennessee 15 January 1863-11 February 1863 / District of Corinth 20 January 1863—23 March 1863

USA: Rufus King confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

King, Rufus / New York / Born 26 January 1814 New York City, New York / Died New York, New York 13 October 1876
USMA 1 July 1833 4/43 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1833 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / Adjutant-General New York Militia 184-1844 / Brigadier-General Wisconsin Militia 15 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 20 October 1863
King’s Brigade Military Division of the Potomac 9 August 1861-20 August 1861 / King’s Brigade Department of the Potomac 20 August 1861-3 October 1861 / 3rd Brigade McDowell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 3rd Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-28 August 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of Virginia September 1862-14 September 1862 / King’s Brigade VII Corps Middle Department 1 April 1863-17 June 1863 / 1st Division IV Corps Department of Virginia 17 June 1863-15 July 1863 / King’s Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 18 July 1863-17 October 1863

USA: Franz Sigel confirmed Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Sigel, Franz / Germany / Born 18 November 1824 Sinsheim, Baden / Died New York, New York 21 August 1902 Karlsruhe Military Academy 1843 / Lieutenant Baden Army 1843-1847 / Major 5th New York Militia 1854-1857 / Colonel USV 3rd Missouri Infantry 4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Resigned USV 4 May 1865 / WIA Missouri 10 May 1861 WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862
2nd Brigade Army of the West 24 July 1861-August 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the West August 1861-10 August 1861 / 3rd Division Western Department 24 September 1861-24 October 1861 / 4th Brigade Western Department 24 October 1861-9 November 1861 / 4th Brigade Department of the Missouri 9 November 1861-25 December 1861 / 4th Brigade Army of the Southwest 25 December 1861-7 February 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Southwest 7 February 1862-9 May 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Southwest 7 February 1862-9 May 1862 / Sigel’s Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 June 1862-26 June 1862 / I Corps Virginia 30 June 1862-7 July 1862 / I Corps Virginia 12 July 1862-12 September 1862 / XI Corps Potomac 12 September 1862-10 January 1863 / Reserve Grand Division Potomac 14 November 1862-4 February 1863 / XI Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-22 February 1863 / Lehigh District 20 August 1863-29 February 1864 / Department of West Virginia 29 February 1864-17 May 1864 / District of Harper’s Ferry 24 May 1864-7 July 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
      • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Charles J Biddle
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Vacant
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles

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