1861 August 7th

August 7 1861 Wednesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Wilson’s Creek Campaign

USA. The US War Department contracted with J B Eads of St Louis for the construction of seven shallow-draft armoured river gunboats (USS Cairo, USS Carondelet, USS Cincinnati, USS Louisville, USS Mound City, USS Pittsburg and USS St Louis). They were built with the aid of Naval Constructor Samuel M Pooks and were later nicknamed “Pook’s Turtles”. The armoured flotilla was to bring decisive power to the Union efforts to invade the Southern states along the main rivers.

Alabama. Reconnaissance to Athens began.

Missouri. Expedition to Benton, Commerce and Price’s Landing began. Expedition to Hamburg began.

North Carolina.  The USS Union destroyed the Confederate privateer York and recaptured the schooner G V Baker. The G V Baker had been taken as a prize off Cape Hatteras but was beached unsuccessfully to prevent recapture.

Virginia. The village of Hampton near Fort Monroe was burned by Confederate forces under Brigadier-General John Bankhead Magruder. Magruder said he had learned that Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler intended to use the town to illegally harbour runaway slaves. Union troops prevented the destruction of the bridge but could not save the houses.

Union Organisation

USA: Erasmus Darwin Keyes promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Keyes, Erasmus Darwin | Massachusetts-Maine | Born 29 May 1810 Brimfield, Massachusetts | USMA 1832 10/45 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant 3rd US Artillery 31 August 1833 1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 16 September 1836 Captain USA Staff 7 July 1838 3rd US Artillery 30 November 1841 Major USA 1st US Artillery 12 October 1858 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Staff 1 January 1860 Colonel USA 11th US Infantry 14 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV July 16 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 March 10 1863 re-dated to rank from March 5 1862 Resigned USA 6 May 1864 | Died 14 October 1895 | 3 March 1862 – 25 August 1862 IV Corps Potomac, 26 August 1862 – 14 July 1863 IV Corps Virginia, 6 April 1863 – 15 July 1863 Department of Virginia, 15 July 1863 – 31 July 1863 IV Corps Virginia and North Carolina

USA: David Hunter promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Hunter, David | District of Columbia-Illinois | Born 21 July 1802 Washington, District of Columbia | USMA 1822 25/40 Infantry – Dragoons | 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1822 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 June 1828 Captain USA 1st US Dragoons 3 March 1833 Resigned USA 4 July 1836 Major USA Staff 14 March 1842 Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV 13 August 1861 Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 Retired USA 31 July 1866 | WIA First Bull Run 1861 | Died 2 February 1886 | 2 November 1861 – 8 November 1861 Western Department, 9 November 1861 – 18 March 1862 Department of Kansas, 15 March 1862 – 4 September 1862 Department of the South, 20 December 1862 – 11 June 1863 Department of the South, 20 January 1863 – 11 June 1863 X Corps South, 19 May 1864 – 8 August 1864 Department of West Virginia, 21 May 1864 – 3 July 1864 Army of the Shenandoah

USA: Don Carlos Buell promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Buell, Don Carlos | Ohio-Indiana | Born 23 March 1818 Lowell, Massachusetts | USMA 1841 32/52 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1841 1st Lieutenant 3rd US Infantry 18 June 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Adjutant-General’s Department 11 May 1861 Colonel USA Adjutant-General 1 July 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV March 21 1862 Colonel USA Staff 17 July 1862 Mustered out USV May 23 1864 Resigned USA 1 June 1864 | WIA Churubusco 1848 | Died 19 November 1898 | 1 July 1861 – 2 August 1861 Adjutant General 9 November 1861 – 10 March 1862 Department of the Ohio, 9 November 1861 – 29 September 1862 Army of the Ohio, 19 March 1862 – 24 October 1862 District of the Ohio, 1 October 1862 Army of the Ohio

USA: Fitz-John Porter promoted Brigadier-General August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Porter, Fitz John | New Hampshire-New York | Born 31 August 1822 Portsmouth, New Hampshire | USMA 1845 8/41 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 18 June 1846 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 29 May 1847 Colonel USA 15th US Infantry May 14 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV July 16 1862 to rank from July 4 1862 Dismissed USA and USV 21 January 1863 Reinstated August 5 1886 Colonel USA to rank from 14 May 1861 | WIA Mexican War 1846 | Died 21 May 1901 | 18 May 1862 – 9 November 1862 V Cops Potomac

USA: George Archibald McCall promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

McCall, George Archibald | Pennsylvania | Born 16 March 1802 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania | USMA 1822 26/40 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 1 July 1822 4th US Infantry 23 December 1822 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 23 January 1829 Captain USA 4th US Infantry 21 September 1836 Major USA 3rd US Infantry 26 December 1847 Colonel USA Inspector-General 10 June 1850 Resigned USA 29 April 1853 Major-General Pennsylvania Volunteers 15 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 Resigned USV 31 March 1863 | CIA Glendale 1862 | Died 26 February 1868

USA: Rufus King promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

King, Rufus | New York | Born 26 January 1814 New York City, New York | USMA 1833 4/43 Engineers | Resigned USA 30 September 1836 Brigadier-General Wisconsin 7 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Resigned USV October 20 1863 | Died 13 October 1876

USA: Franz Sigel promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Sigel, Franz | Germany | Born 18 November 1824 Sinsheim, Baden | Karlsruhe Military Academy | Colonel USV 3rd Missouri May 4 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV March 22 1862 to rank from March 21 1862 Resigned USV 4 May 1865 | Died 21 August 1902 | 29 June 1862 – 6 July 1862 I Corps Virginia, 12 July 1862 – 11 September 1862 I Corps Virginia, 12 September 1862 – 9 January 1863 XI Corps Potomac, 14 November 1862 – 4 February 1863 Reserve Grand Division Potomac, 5 February 1863 – 21 February 1863 XI Corps Potomac, 20 August 1863 – 8 November 1864 Lehigh District, 29 February 1864 – 20 May 1864 Department of West Virginia, 24 May 1864 – 6 July 1864 District of Harper’s Ferry

USA: Charles Smith Hamilton promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Hamilton, Charles Smith | New York | Born 16 November 1822 Westernville, New York | USMA 26/39 1843 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 17 November 1845 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 June 1847 Resigned USA 30 April 1853 Colonel USV 3rd Wisconsin 11 May 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV September 19 1862 Resigned USV 13 April 1863 | WIA Molina del Rey 1846 | Died 17 April 1891 | 20 October 1862 – 14 January 1863 District of Corinth, 1 November 1862 – 20 December 1862 Left Wing XIII Corps Tennessee, 22 December 1862 – 31 March 1863 Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee, 10 January 1863 – 4 February 1863 XVI Corps, 15 January 1863 – 10 February 1863 District of West Tennessee

USA: Samuel Ryan Curtis promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Curtis, Samuel Ryan | New York-Ohio | Born 3 February 1805 Clinton, New York | USMA 1831 27/33 Infantry | Resigned USA 30 June 1832 Adjutant-General Ohio Militia 1846 Colonel USV 2nd Ohio 23 June 1846 Disbanded 24 June 1847 Colonel USV 2nd Iowa 1 June 1861 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General USV March 21 1862 Mustered Out USV 30 April 1866 | Died 26 December 1866 | 25 December 25 1861 – 3 June 1862 District of Southwest Missouri, 25 December 1861 – 28 August 1862 Army of the Southwest, 24 September 1862 – 23 March 1863 Department of the Missouri, 1 January 1864 – 19 April 1864 Department of Kansas, 14 October 1864 – 8 November 1864 Army of the Border, 30 January 1865 – 27 June 1865 Department of the Northwest

USA: Philip Kearny promoted Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Kearny, Philip | New York | Born 2 June 1815 New York City, New York | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Dragoons 1837 Resigned USA 1846 Captain USA 1st US Dragoons December 1846 Resigned USA 1851 Brigadier-General USV August 7 1861 to rank from May 17 1861 Major-General July 25 1862 to rank from July 4 1862 | WIA Churubusco 1846 | KIA Chantilly September 1 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
      • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Charles J Biddle
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Vacant
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Major-General USA George Brinton McClellan 14 May 1861 Military Division (Department) of the Potomac
  • Major-General USA John Charles Frémont 3 July 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Brigadier-General USA Irvin McDowell 14 May 1861 Department of Northeastern Virginia & Army of the Potomac
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Fenno King Mansfield 17 May 1861 to rank from May 14 1861 Department of Washington
  • Brigadier-General USA Montgomery Cunningham Meigs 15 May 1861 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Robert Anderson 17 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 Department of Kentucky
  • Brigadier-General USA William Starke Rosecrans 16 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Department of the Ohio & Army of Occupation
  • Brigadier-General USA Henry Knox Craig August 3 1861
  • Brigadier-General USA Lorenzo Thomas 5 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 Adjutant General
  • Brigadier-General USA James Wolfe Ripley 10 September 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 Chief of Ordnance
  • Major-General USV John Adams Dix 16 May 1861 Department of Pennsylvania
  • Major-General USV Benjamin Franklin Butler 16 May 1861 Department of Virginia
  • Major-General USV Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 3 June 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Department of the Shenandoah
  • Brigadier-General USV Nathaniel Lyon 17 May 1861 Army of the West
  • Brigadier-General USV Jacob Dolson Cox 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Peter Heintzelman 27 May 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Robert Cumming Schenck 5 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Pope 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 District of North Missouri
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Jones Reynolds 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 Cheat Mountain District
  • Brigadier-General USV Stephen Augustus Hurlbut 14 June 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Tecumseh Sherman 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Andrew Porter 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Buel Franklin 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Pomeroy Stone 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Thomas West Sherman 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Franklin Kelley 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 District of Grafton
  • Brigadier-General USV Joseph Hooker 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Alexander McClernand 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Frederick West Lander 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Erasmus Darwin Keyes 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV David Hunter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Don Carlos Buell 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Fitz-John Porter 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Archibald McCall 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Rufus King 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Franz Sigel 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Charles Smith Hamilton 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Samuel Ryan Curtis 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Philip Kearny 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Alpheus Starkey Williams 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV William Reading Montgomery 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Israel Bush Richardson 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Darius Nash Couch 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ulysses Simpson Grant 9 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Cooper 12 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Julius Stahel 12 November 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV John Wolcott Phelps 9 August 1861 to rank from 27 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV James Brewerton Ricketts April 30 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Michael Corcoran August 15 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Orlando Bolivar Willcox August 19 1862 to rank from July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV George Henry Thomas 17 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861
  • Brigadier-General USV Ambrose Everett Burnside 9 August 1861 to rank from August 6 1861
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Harvey Brown 14 May 1861 Department of Florida
  • Colonel Benjamin Gratz Brown 22 April 1861 District of Ironton
  • Colonel Charles J Biddle 21 June 1861 Cheat River District

Confederate Generals

  • General ACSA Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 Adjutant-General and Inspector General
  • General ACSA Albert Sidney Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861
  • General ACSA Robert Edward Lee 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861 Military Adviser to the President
  • General ACSA Joseph Eggleston Johnston 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Department of the Potomac & Army of the Potomac
  • General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department No 1
  • Major-General Leonidas Polk PACS 25 June 1861 Western Department
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin McCulloch 11 May 1861 Indian Territory & Western Army
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Wing Loring 20 May 1861 Department of Southwestern Virginia & Army of the Northwest
  • Brigadier-General PACS Charles Clark 22 May 1861.
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Buchanan Floyd 23 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Talbot Walker 25 May 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Rootes Jackson 4 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Earl Van Dorn 5 June 1861 Department of Texas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Theophilus Hunter Holmes 5 June 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Alexander Wise 5 June 1861 Army of the Kanawha
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Selden Garnett 6 June 1861 KIA 13 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Joseph Hardee 17 June 1861 District of Upper Arkansas
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Huger 17 June 1861 Department of Norfolk
  • Brigadier-General PACS Thomas Jonathan Jackson 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Stoddert Ewell 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Henry Hopkins Sibley 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Edmund Kirby Smith 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Barnard Elliott Bee 17 June 1861 DOW 22 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Clifford Pemberton 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Bankhead Magruder 17 June 1861 Department of the Peninsula & Army of the Peninsula
  • Brigadier-General PACS James Longstreet 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS David Rumph Jones 17 June 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS John Henry Winder 21 June 1861 Provost Marshal General
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Caswell Gatlin 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Gideon Johnson Pillow 9 July 1861 Army of Liberation
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Read Anderson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Benjamin Franklin Cheatham 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Smith Donelson 9 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Felix Kirk Zollicoffer 9 July 1861 District of East Tennessee
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jones Mitchell Withers 10 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Daniel Harvey Hill 10 July 1861 Department of South Carolina & Department of Fredericksburg
  • Brigadier-General PACS Richard Heron Anderson 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Robert Augustus Toombs 19 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Arnold Elzey 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Samuel Jones 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Jubal Anderson Early July 21 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS William Henry Chase Whiting 28 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Francis Stebbins Bartow 21 July 1861 DOW 22 July 1861
  • Brigadier-General PACS Isaac Ridgeway Trimble 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861
  • Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Daniel Ruggles May 1861 District of Aquia
  • Colonel John Creed Moore Defences of Galveston

 

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