1861 August 3rd

August 3 1861 Saturday

Galveston, TX

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Wilson’s Creek Campaign

USA. US Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles received approval to consider building the US Navy’s first armoured warships. Welles appointed a commission, known as the Ironclad Board, with three senior naval officers who would choose from several designs that were submitted for consideration. The three men were Captain Joseph Smith USN, Captain Hiram Paulding USN, and Commander Charles Henry Davis USN. The board considered seventeen designs and chose to support three proposals. The first of the three to be completed, even though she was by far the most radical in design, was by Swedish engineer and inventor John Ericsson. When launched, it was named the USS Monitor.

USA. The US War Department authorised the appointment of Brigadier Generals in the Regular Army to head the Adjutant-General’s Department and the Ordnance Department.  This move reflected the great increase of work and responsibility required in equipping and governing the growing Army’s administration. James Wolfe Ripley was promoted immediately as Chief of Ordnance but he had been relieved of duty for reasons of capacity on 23 April 1861, so Henry Knox Craig was nominated to rank from this date as his acting successor. Lorenzo Thomas became Adjutant-General.

California. A Union reconnaissance began from Fort Crook to Round Valley.

Missouri. Incident at McCulla’s Store (McCullah’s Farm). Union forces of Brigadier-General Nathaniel Lyon encountered enemy troops at McCullah’s Farm but the Confederates retired without offering resistance. As Lyon was moving dangerously beyond his base of supply, he decided to retreat back to Springfield.

South Carolina. USS Wabash, Captain Samuel Mercer, recaptured the schooner Mary Alice which had previously been taken by the privateer Dixie, and also captured the blockade-running brig Sarah Starr off Charleston.

Tennessee. Confederate Governor Isham G Harris, of Tennessee, proposed a visit to the capital at Richmond, Virginia, to confer with the Confederate authorities about the precarious allegiance of the population in eastern Tennessee.

Galveston, Texas. Union vessels including USS South Carolina engaged Confederate batteries at Galveston after the Confederates had opened fire on a tender. Some stray shells hit the town but it was not deliberately bombarded. The small Confederate Galveston Naval Squadron was commanded by William W Hunter.

Virginia. John La Mountain made his first ascent in a balloon from aboard ship, the USS Fanny at Hampton Roads, in order to observe Confederate batteries on Sewell’s Point.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee arrived in western Virginia and attempted to coordinate the disparate and rival forces of Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd, Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise, and Brigadier-General William Wing Loring.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Grafton was established in the Department of the Ohio, comprising the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, Virginia, and the Northwestern Virginia Railroad from Grafton to Parkersburg, Virginia.

USA: Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Kelley assumed command of the District of Grafton.

Kelley, Benjamin Franklin / New Hampshire / Born 10 April 1807 New Hampton, New Hampshire / Died Oakland, Maryland 16 June 1891
Colonel USV 1st (West) Virginia Infantry (4th Virginia Militia) 22 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Resigned USV 1 June 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 5 August 1864 / WIA Philippi 3 June 1861 CIA Cumberland 21 February 1865 Exchanged 20 March 1865
Kelley’s Brigade Army of Occupation 17 May 1861-3 June 1861 / District of Grafton 3 August 1861-20 December 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry and Cumberland 22 October 1861-20 December 1861 / Railroad District 20 December 1861-26 June 1862 / Railroad Division VIII Corps Middle Department 27 June 1862-20 September 1862 / Railroad Division District of West Virginia 20 December 1862-16 March 1863 / 3rd Division VIII Corps Middle Department 16 March 1863-27 March 1863 / 1st Division VIII Corps Middle Department 27 March 1863-26 June 1863 / Department of West Virginia 28 June 1863-10 March 1864 / Forces West of Sleepy Creek Department of West Virginia April 1864-21 February 1865

USA: Henry Knox Craig former Chief of Ordnance Department 1851 to 23 April 1861 promoted Brigadier-General USA 3 August 1861.

Craig, Henry Knox / Pennsylvania / Born 7 March 1791 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania / Died 7 December 1869
1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 17 March 1812 / Captain USA 23 December 1813 / Corps of Artillery 12 March 1814 / Light Artillery 17 May 1815 / 3rd US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Major USA Ordnance 30 May 1832 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 25 March 1848 / Colonel USA Chief of Ordnance 10 July 1851 / Relieved as Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USA 3 August 1861 / Retired USA 1 June 1863 / Brevet Major USA 23 December 1823 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief of Ordnance 10 July 1851-23 April 1861

USA: Lorenzo Thomas promoted Brigadier-General USA 5 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861, Adjutant General of US Army, succeeding Colonel Catharinus Putnam Buckingham.

Thomas, Lorenzo / Delaware / Born 26 October 1804 New Castle, Delaware / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 March 1875
USMA 1 July 1823 17/35 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1819 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 1 July 1823 / Regt Adjutant 1 March 1828-15 February 1831 / 1st Lieutenant USA 17 March 1829 / Captain USA 23 September 1836 / Assistant Quartermaster 30 September 1836-7 July 1838 / Assistant Adjutant-General 1 July 1838 / Major USA 4th US Infantry 1 January 1848 / Adjutant-General’s Department 1 January 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Assistant Adjutant-General 15 July 1852 / Chief of Staff US Army 15 March 1853 / Colonel USA Adjutant-General 7 March 1861 / Brigadier-General USA Adjutant-General 5 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Special Assignment 23 March 1863-1865 / Retired USA 22 February 1869 / Brevet Major USA 1 July 1838 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 7 March 1861 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Adjutant-General 7 March 1861-23 March 1863 / Member of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862

USA: James Wolfe Ripley promoted Brigadier-General USA 10 September 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861, Chief of Ordnance, a post he had held since 23 April 1861.

Ripley, James Wolfe / Connecticut / Born 10 December 1794 Windham, Connecticut / Died Hartford, Connecticut 15 March 1870
USMA 1 July 1814 12/30 Artillery / Cadet USMA 8 May 1813 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Artillery 1 June 1814 / Battalion Quartermaster 28 December 1816-1 June 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 April 1818 / 4th US Artillery 1 June 1821 / Captain USA 1 August 1825 / Ordnance 30 May 1832 / Major USA 7 July 1838 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 31 December 1854 / Colonel USA Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Ordnance 10 September 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Retired USA 15 September 1863 / Brigadier-General USA Retired 15 September 1863 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 30 May 1848 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 July 1861
Member of the War Board 17 March 1862-23 July 1862 / Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861-15 September 1863

USA: William Tecumseh Sherman confirmed Brigadier-General USV 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861.

Sherman, William Tecumseh / Ohio / Born 8 February 1820 Lancaster, Ohio / Died New York, New York 14 February 1891
USMA 1 July 1840 6/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 November 1841 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 27 September 1850 / Resigned USA 6 September 1853 / Major-General California Militia 1856-1857 / Colonel USA 13th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 1 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 4 August 1863 to rank from 4 July 1863 / Mustered Out USV 12 August 1864 / Major-General USA 12 August 1864 / Lieutenant-General USA 25 July 1866 / General USA 4 March 1869 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 4 March 1869-1 November 1883 / Retired USA 8 February 1884 / Brevet Captain USA 30 May 1848 Brevet General USA 13 February 1868 Withdrawn / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
3rd Brigade 1st Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 30 June 1861-17 August 1861 / Sherman’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-28 August 1861 / Department of the Cumberland 6 October 1861-9 November 1861 / District of Cairo 14 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 5th Division Army of the Tennessee 1 March 1862-11 July 1862 / 5th Division District of Memphis 21 July 1862-26 October 1862 / District of Memphis 26 October 1862-25 November 1862 / Right Wing XIII Corps Tennessee 27 November 1862-22 December 1862 / XV Corps Tennessee 22 December 1862-4 January 1863 / II Corps Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / XV Corps Tennessee 12 January 1863-29 October 1863 / Department of the Tennessee 17 October 1863-12 March 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 24 October 1863-26 March 1864 / Military Division of the Mississippi 18 March 1864-6 August 1866 / Military Division of the Missouri 6 August 1866-16 March 1869 / Military Division of the Atlantic 12 February 1868-12 February 1868 / General-in-Chief 4 March 1869-1 November 1883

USA: George Henry Thomas promoted Brigadier-General USV 17 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861.

Thomas, George Henry / Virginia / Born 31 July 1816 Newsom’s Depot, Virginia / Died San Francisco, California 28 March 1870
USMA 1 July 1840 12/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant 30 April 1844 / Captain USA 24 December 1853 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 12 May 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 25 April 1861 / Colonel USA 3 May 1861 / 5th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 August 1861 to rank from 3 August 1861 / Major-General USV 26 April 1862 to rank from 25 April 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 27 October 1863 / Mustered Out USV 27 October 1863 / Major-General USA 16 January 1865 to rank from 15 December 1864 / Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 6 November 1841 Brevet Captain USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Major USA 23 February 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 19 January 1862 Unconfirmed Brevet Lieutenant-General USA 21 February 1868 Withdrawn Brevet Brigadier-General USA 21 February 1868 Withdrawn / WIA Clear Fork, Texas 26 August 1860
1st Brigade 1st Division Department of Pennsylvania 10 June 1861-19 July 1861 / 1st Brigade Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-28 August 1861 / 2nd Division Department of the Cumberland November 1861-2 December 1861 / 1st Division Army of the Ohio 2 December 1861-29 September 1862 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / Centre XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-9 January 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 9 January 1863-28 October 1863 / Department of the Cumberland 17 October 1863-27 June 1865 / Army of the Cumberland 19 October 1863-1 August 1865 / Military Division of the Tennessee 27 June 1865-6 August 1865 / Department of the Tennessee 6 August 1866-11 March 1867

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
      • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Charles J Biddle
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Vacant
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Gratz Brown
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Army of the West: Nathaniel Lyon

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General William Joseph Hardee assumed command of Forces in Missouri in the Western Department, succeeding Brigadier-General Benjamin McCulloch.

Hardee, William Joseph / Georgia / Born 12 October 1815 Camden, Georgia / Died Wytheville, Virginia 6 November 1873
USMA 1 July 1838 26 /45 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 December 1839 / Captain USA 13 September 1844 / Major USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 22 July 1856-8 September 1860 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 31 January 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 7 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Brevet Major USA 25 March 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / CIA Carricitos Ranch 25 April 1846 Exchanged 11 May 1846 WIA La Rosia 1847 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
District of Upper Arkansas 25 June 1861-28 October 1861 / Forces in Missouri 3 August 1861-4 August 1861 / 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky 28 October 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 4 December 1861-18 December 1861 / 1st Division Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-30 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 30 December 1862-23 February 1862 / III Corps Mississippi 29 March 1862-15 August 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 July 1862-15 August 1862 / Left Wing Mississippi 15 August 1862-6 November 1862 / II Corps Mississippi 7 November 1862-20 November 1862 / II Corps Tennessee 20 November 1862-23 July 1863 / Army of Mississippi 30 July 1863-23 October 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 August 1863-2 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 23 October 1863-2 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Army of Tennessee 2 December 1863-16 December 1863 / I Corps Tennessee 27 December 1863-31 August 1864 / I Corps and II Corps Army of Tennessee 31 August 1864-2 September 1864 / I Corps Tennessee 2 September 1864-28 September 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 28 September 1864-24 February 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 23 February 1865-15 March 1865 / I Corps Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Organisation

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
David Hunter
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
Nathaniel Lyon
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early

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