1861 August 31st

August 31 1861 Saturday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

CSA. The Confederate government authorised the appointment of officers of the rank of “full” General.

Samuel Cooper was to rank from 16 May 1861, as the most senior among Confederate generals, although he only ever served in a staff capacity. In the US Army, staff appointments were deemed to be lesser than line appointments, so Cooper was not considered as the senior General of the army.

Albert Sidney Johnston ranked from May 30 1861 and became the second most senior General in the Confederate States’ Army and the most senior with a field command.

Robert Edward Lee ranked from 14 June 1861 and was placed third in seniority. Joseph Eggleston Johnston ranked from 4 July 1861, the fourth in seniority.

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard ranked from 21 July 1861, and was the fifth in seniority among Confederate generals.

The appointment of J E Johnston as the fourth general in seniority was made despite him being the most senior officer in the pre-war US Army. This apparent slight provoked an enduring and acrimonious feud with President Jefferson Finis Davis that affected their relationships throughout the war. In a confrontational exchange of letters, Davis asserted that A S Johnston and Lee were senior to J E Johnston as they had held a “line command” in the US Army, which conferred higher seniority ahead of J E Johnston’s former “staff” position. The argument was weak and reflected more of Davis’ partiality towards both Lee and A S Johnston, who enjoyed high reputations as fighting officers.

Florida. USS Jamestown, Commander Charles Green, captured the British blockade-running schooner Aigburth off the Florida coast.

Kentucky. The widespread publicity given to the Union Anaconda Plan made the Confederate government aware of the threat that would be posed to the Mississippi Valley by a water-borne invasion along the course of the river. In response, they set up a series of defensive positions along the river. Among these was Fort Pillow, 40 miles north of Memphis, and extensive works at Columbus. Construction of the Confederate batteries on and near Island No 10 was begun under the direction of Captain Asa B Gray. He began by laying out a battery on the Tennessee shore about a mile and a half above the island. This battery, known as Battery No 1 or the Redan Battery, commanded the approach to the bend at Island No 10. Vessels coming down the river would have to move directly toward its guns for more than a mile. It was not a very effective position as it was sited on low ground subject to flooding. Almost as soon as work was started, however, attention was diverted to strengthen the fortification of Columbus. Work continued at Island No 10, but it was regarded as less urgent and so was left short of both equipment and workers.

Missouri. Union Colonel James A Mulligan left Jefferson City with orders to march south and reinforce Colonel Thomas A Marshall, whose cavalry regiment was under pressure at Tipton, and to lead it to the defence of Lexington.

North Carolina. USS George Peabody, Lieutenant Lowry, captured the brig Henry C Brooks in Hatteras Inlet.

Virginia. Confederate gunboat CSS Teaser shelled Union positions at Newport News.

Virginia. Union Colonel George W Taylor’s 3rd New Jersey Infantry made an unsuccessful attempted to capture Munson’s Hill on the Little River Turnpike, where a Confederate outpost was maintained within sight of the centre of Washington, DC.

Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee was instructed to coordinate the forces of Brigadier-General John Buchanan Floyd, Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise, Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson, and Brigadier-General William Wing Loring in western Virginia. Rather than being ordered to take field command in western Virginia, he was instructed to advise the existing disparate commands. He only briefly assumed command of the Army of the Kanawha and retained his post as Military Adviser to the President.

Lee devised a plan by which Loring would advance on Huttonsville, while Floyd and Wise would be reinforced by Colonel John McCausland to advance towards Gauley Bridge. The Union opposition was under Brigadier-General William Starke Rosecrans who had 3,000 men at Gauley Bridge, 10,000 men near Huttonsville and 7,000 at Sutton. Rosecrans’ troops were in two brigades under Colonel William Henry Lytle and Brigadier-General Henry Washington Benham, who were beginning their own advance from Clarksburg to attack the Confederates at Camp Gauley.

Union Organisation

USA: John Joseph Abercombie promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Abercrombie, John Joseph / Tennessee / Born 4 March 1798 Baltimore, Maryland / Died Roslyn, New York 3 January 1877
USMA 1 July 1822 37/40 Infantry / Cadet USMA 17 September 1817 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Infantry 1 July 1822 / Regt Adjutant 1 August 1825-1 March 1833 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 September 1828 / Captain USA 1st US Infantry 4 September 1836 / Major USA 5th US Infantry 8 September 1847 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Infantry 1 May 1852 / Colonel USA 7th US Infantry 25 February 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Mustered Out USV 24 June 1864 / Retired USA 12 June 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1822 Brevet Major USA 25 December 1837 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 September 1846 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Monterey 7 July 1846 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862
6th Brigade 2nd Division Department of Pennsylvania 20 June 1861; 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 19 July 1861-17 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Banks’ Division Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Shenandoah 4 April 1862-30 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 11 May 1862-18 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-24 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 24 May 1862-3 July 1862 / 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 12 July 1862-12 August 1862 / Abercrombie’s Division District Washington 10 October 1862-2 February 1863 / Abercrombie’s Division XXII Corps Department Washington 2 February 1865-15 April 1863 / Abercrombie’s Division VII Corps 15 April 1863-25 June 1863

USA: John Sedgwick promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Sedgwick, John / Connecticut / Born 13 September 1813 Cornwall Hollow, Connecticut / KIA Spotsylvania, Virginia 9 May 1864
USMA 1 July 1837 24/50 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 19 April 1839 / Captain USA 26 January 1849 / Major USA 1st US Cavalry 8 March 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 25 March 1861 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Major-General USV 25 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862 Unconfirmed / WIA Glendale 30 June 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Assistant Inspector-General Department of Washington 3 August 1861 / 2nd Brigade Heintzelman’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-19 February 1862 / Sedgwick’s Division Army of the Potomac 19 February 1862-13 March 1862 / 2nd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-17 September 1862 / II Corps Potomac 26 December 1862-26 January 1863 / IX Corps Potomac 16 January 1863-5 February 1863 / VI Corps Potomac 4 February 1863-6 April 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 13 April 1864-9 May 1864

USA: Charles Ferguson Smith promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Smith, Charles Ferguson / Pennsylvania / Born 24 April 1807 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Savannah, Tennessee 25 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1825 19/37 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1820 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1825 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 May 1832 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 1 April 1838-1 September 1843 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 25 November 1854 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 9 September 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1825 Brevet Major USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 23 September 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 20 August 1847
Department of Washington 9 April 1861-19 April 1861 / District of Western Kentucky 8 September 1861-31 January 1862 / 2nd Division District of Cairo 1 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Division District of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / District of West Tennessee 11 March 1862-17 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee 17 March 1862-5 April 1862

USA: Silas Casey promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Casey, Silas / Rhode Island / Born 12 July 1807 East Greenwich, Rhode Island / Died Brooklyn, New York 22 January 1882
USMA 1 July 1826 39/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 June 1836 / Captain USA 1 July 1839 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Colonel USA 4th US Infantry 9 October 1861 / Major-General USV 31 May 1862 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Colonel USA 4th US Infantry / Retired USA 8 July 1868 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 31 May 1862 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847
Casey’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-22 October 1861 / Casey’s Division Army of the Potomac 23 October 1861-17 March 1862 / 3rd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 17 March 1862-7 June 1862 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 7 June 1862-24 June 1862 / Casey’s Brigade Military District of Washington August 1862-October 1862 / Casey’s Division Military District of Washington October 1862-2 February 1863 / Provisional Division XXII Corps Department of Washington 2 February 1863-24 March 1865

USA: Lawrence Pike Graham promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Graham, Lawrence Pike / Virginia / Born 8 January 1815 Amelia, Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 12 September 1905
2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 13 October 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 January 1839 / Captain USA 31 August 1843 / Major USA 14 June 1858 / 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 1 October 1861 / Colonel USA 4th US Cavalry 9 May 1864 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1865 / Retired USA 15 December 1870 / Brevet Major USA 9 March 1846 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865
Graham’s Brigade Army of the Potomac August 1861-3 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade Buell’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-9 November 1861 / 2nd Brigade Keyes’ Division Army of the Potomac 9 November 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-19 May 1862

USA: George Gordon Meade promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Meade, George Gordon / Spain / Born 31 December 1815 Cadiz, Spain / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 6 November 1872
USMA 1 July 1835 19/56 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1831 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 December 1835 / Resigned USA 26 October 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 19 May 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4 August 1851 / Captain USA 19 May 1856 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Major USA 18 June 1862 / Major-General USV 29 November 1862 / Engineers 3 March 1863 / Brigadier-General USA 7 July 1863 to rank from 3 July 1863 / Mustered Out USV 23 September 1864 / Major-General USA 26 November 1864 to rank from 18 August 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 23 September 1846 / WIA Glendale 30 June 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
2nd Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 2nd Brigade McCall’s Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-12 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 18 June 1862-30 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 August 1862-12 September 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 September 1862-17 September 1862 / I Corps Potomac 17 September 1862-29 September 1862 / 3rd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 29 September 1862-25 December 1862 / V Corps Potomac 25 December 1862-26 January 1863 / Centre Grand Division Potomac 25 January 1863-4 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-16 February 1863 / V Corps Potomac 28 February 1863-28 June 1863 / Department of the Potomac 27 June 1863-30 December 1864 / Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-1 September 1864 / Army of the Potomac 10 September 1864-30 December 1864 / Department of the Potomac 11 January 1865-27 June 1865 / Army of the Potomac 11 January 1865-24 January 1865 / Army of the Potomac 2 February 1865-22 February 1865 / Army of the Potomac 28 February 1865-28 June 1865 / Military Division of the Atlantic 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the East 13 August 1866-2 January 1868 / Third Military District 28 December 1867-28 July 1868 / Department of the South 28 July 1868-13 March 1869

USA: Abram Duryée promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 August 1861.

Duryée, Abram / New York / Born 29 April 1815 New York City, New York / Died New York, New York 27 September 1890
Private 142nd New York Militia 1833 / Colonel 4th New York Militia 1859 / Colonel USV 5th New York Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Resigned USV 5 January 1863 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Second Bull Run 30 August 1862 WIA South Mountain 14 September 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Duryée’s Brigade Dix’s Division Army of the Potomac 31 August 1861 / 2nd Brigade Ord’s Division Department of the Rappahannock 16 May 1862-10 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 10 June 1862-26 June 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division III Corps Army of Virginia 26 June 1862-12 September 1862 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Potomac 12 September 1862-5 October 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Henry Washington Benham
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Samuel Cooper confirmed General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861.

Cooper, Samuel / New York / Born 12 June 1798 New Hackensack, New York / Died 3 December 1876
USMA 11 December 1815 36/40 Artillery / Cadet USMA 26 May 1813 / US Light Artillery 11 December 1815 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 15 November 1817 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 6 July 1821 / 2nd US Artillery 6 August 1821 / 4th US Artillery 31 December 1824 / Captain USA 11 June 1836-15 July 1852 / Chief Clerk War Department 13 March 1837-9 July 1838 / Assistant Adjutant-General 7 July 1838 / Colonel USA Adjutant General 15 July 1852 / Resigned USA 7 March 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 16 May 1861 / Adjutant-General and Inspector General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 / Paroled Charlotte, North Carolina 3 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 11 December 1815 Brevet Captain USA 6 July 1831 Brevet Major USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 30 May 1848
Adjutant-General and Inspector-General CS Army 16 May 1861-19 April 1865

CSA: Albert Sidney Johnston promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

CSA: Robert Edward Lee confirmed General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 14 June 1861.

Lee, Robert Edward / Virginia / Born 19 January 1807 Stratford, Westmoreland, Virginia / Died Lexington, Virginia 12 October 1870
USMA 1 July 1829 2/46 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 21 September 1836 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Superintendent USMA 1 September 1852-31 March 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Resigned USA 25 April 1861 / Major-General Commander-in-Chief Provisional Army of Virginia 22 April 1861-8 June 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 14 June 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 14 June 1861 / General-in-Chief 31 January 1865 / Paroled Appomattox, Virginia 9 April 1865 / WIA Chapultepec 1847 13 September 1847 CIA Appomattox 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Major USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 13 September 1847
Military Adviser to the President 8 June 1861-4 November 1861 / Army of the Kanawha 21 September 1861-5 November 1861 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and East Florida 5 November 1861-14 March 1862 / Military Adviser to the President 13 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-9 April 1865 / Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-9 April 1865 / General-in-Chief 31 January 1865-9 April 1865

CSA: Joseph Eggleston Johnston confirmed General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847-28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 1 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 17 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 1861-27 April 1861 / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major USA 12 April 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 12 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oaks 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General USA 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861 / Forces in Richmond 24 April 1861-8 May 1861 / Forces in Harper’s Ferry 15 May 1861-4 July 1861 / District of Harper’s Ferry 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Army of the Shenandoah 4 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Department of the Potomac 21 July 1861-22 October 1861 / Army of the Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / Department of Northern Virginia 22 October 1861-31 May 1862 / Army of Northern Virginia 14 March 1862-31 May 1862 / Military Division of the West 4 November 1862-16 December 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 4 July 1863-23 August 1863 / Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana 2 December 1863-22 December 1863 / Department of Tennessee 16 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Army of Tennessee 27 December 1863-18 July 1864 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Department of Tennessee and Georgia 22 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 25 February 1865-15 March 1865 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 6 March 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of the South 22 February 1865-9 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 9 April 1865-26 April 1865

CSA: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard promoted General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861.

Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant / Louisiana / Born 28 May 1818 St Bernard, Louisiana / Died New Orleans, Louisiana 20 February 1893
USMA 1 July 1838 2/45 Artillery-Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1834 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1838 / Engineers 7 July 1838 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 June 1839 / Chief Engineer US Army in Mexico 1847 / Captain USA Engineers 3 March 1853 / Superintendent USMA 23 January 1861-28 January 1861 / Resigned USA 20 February 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 1 March 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 21 July 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 2 May 1865 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847
Department of South Carolina 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Forces in Charleston (Defences of Charleston) 3 March 1861-27 May 1861 / Department of the Potomac 31 May 1861-2 June 1861 / Alexandria Line 2 June 1861-20 June 1861 / Army of the Potomac 20 June 1862-19 July 1861 / I Corps Potomac 21 July 1861-14 March 1862 / District of the Potomac 22 October 1861-29 January 1862 / Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / Western Department 6 April 1862-26 June 1862 / Army of Mississippi 6 April 1862-6 May 1862 / Department of South Carolina and Georgia 29 August 1862-7 October 1862 / Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida 7 October 1862-18 April 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 18 April 1864-14 May 1864 / Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 20 May 1864-27 September 1864 / Defences of Drewry’s Bluff 14 May 1864-20 May 1864 / Defences of Petersburg 27 September 1864-1 October 1864 / Military Division of the West 3 October 1864-April 1865 / 16 December 1864 / Chief of Staff Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Chief of Staff Department of Tennessee 27 February 1865-26 April 1865 / Army of Tennessee 14 January 1865-22 January 1865

CSA: George Nichols Hollins assumed command of the Mississippi River Naval Squadron.

Hollins, George Nichols / Born 20 September 1799 Baltimore, Maryland / Died Baltimore, Maryland 18 January 1878
Midshipman USN 1814 / Lieutenant USN 1828 / Commander USN 1841 / Captain USN 1855 / USS Cyane / USS Susquehanna / Resigned USN 4 June 1861 / Captain CSN 22 June 1861 to rank from 26 March 1861 /
James River Squadron 10 July 1861-31 July 1861 / New Orleans Navy Yard 31 July 1861-January 1862 / Mississippi River Squadron 1862 / CSS Manassas 1861 / Charlotte Navy Yard 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn interim Paul Octave Hébert awaited
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
John Sedgwick
Charles Ferguson Smith
Silas Casey
Lawrence Pike Graham
George Gordon Meade
Abram Duryée

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert

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