1861 August 30th

August 30 1861 Friday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

Maryland. A number of pro-Confederate newspapers in Baltimore were ordered to be suppressed by US authorities.

Missouri. Union operations in northeastern Missouri began.

Missouri. Union Major-General John Charles Frémont proclaimed martial law in Missouri and ordered the confiscation of property. He also declared the freedom of the slaves of Missouri residents aiding the Confederacy. Frémont had come under increasing pressure for decisive action, as the Confederates controlled half of Missouri and guerrillas were causing havoc by cutting railroads and telegraph lines, burning bridges, raiding farms, and attacking Union forces. Confederate sympathies in the stronger slave-holding counties needed to be reduced or suppressed.

Thousands of Union loyalists had taken refuge in Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. Frémoncame under the influence of radical abolitionists in his camp and of his wife Jessie to free the slaves of those Confederates who were causing trouble in loyal Union counties. Frémont was persuaded that the Confederates were in rebellion and so no longer protected by the Constitution; it was therefore deemed legal to confiscate rebel property, including their slaves. Without notifying President Lincoln, issued a controversial proclamation putting Missouri under martial law. The edict stipulated that civilians in arms would be subject to court-martial and execution, the property of those who aided secessionists would be confiscated, and the slaves of rebels would be emancipated. His military proclamation was unauthorised and President Abraham Lincoln subsequently revoked the proclamation of emancipation after Frémont refused to modify or withdraw it.

Lincoln described Frémont’s actions as “dictatorial,” and without authorisation.

Virginia. Incident at Bailey’s Corner.

Virginia. The Confederate tug Harmony attacked USS Savannah at Newport News, inflicting minor damage before withdrawing.

Virginia. As Union Major-General George Brinton McClellan continued to reorganise the Union Army of the Potomac, he formed its first three divisions between 24 August and 30 August 1861. One division was allocated to Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell, comprising the brigades of Brigadier-General Erasmus Darwin Keyes and Brigadier-General James Samuel Wadsworth. Brigadier-General William Buel Franklin took over a division which included his own brigade and that of Brigadier-General Philip Kearny. Brigadier-General Fitz-John Porter received the third division containing two brigades. By October, McClellan had formed twelve divisions of infantry but was not authorised to group them into Corps. Several new commissions as Brigadier-General were confirmed he following day in part to provide officers to command the increasing number of organised brigades (John Joseph Abercrombie, John Sedgwick, Charles Ferguson Smith, Silas Casey, Lawrence Pike Graham. George Gordon Meade, and Abram Duryée).

Union Organisation

USA: Captain Andrew Hull Foote USN assumed command of the Western Gunboat Flotilla, succeeding Commander John Rodgers USN.

Foote, Andrew Hull / Born 12 September 1806 New Haven, Connecticut/ Died New York, New York 26 June 1863
Cadet USN June 1822 / Resigned USN December 1822 / Midshipman USN 4 December 1822 / Passed Midshipman 24 May 1822 / Lieutenant USN 27 May 1830 / Commander USN 19 December 1852 / Captain USN 29 June 1861 / Rear Admiral USN 16 July 1862 / WIA Fort Donelson 14 February 1862
New York Navy Yard February 1861-June 1861 / Mississippi River Squadron 30 August 1861-9 May 1862 / USS Lexington November 1861 / USS Cincinnati February 1862 / USS St Louis February 1862 / USS Conestoga February 1862 / USS Benton March 1862 / Chief of Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting 17 July 1862-1 June 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Western Gunboat Flotilla USN: Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the Cumberland: Robert Anderson awaited
  • Department of the East: Vacant
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Henry Washington Benham
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Colonel Charles Dimmock assumed command of the Forces in Richmond, succeeding Colonel Thomas Turner Fauntleroy.

Dimmock, Charles / Virginia / Born 5 August 1800 Barnstable, Virginia or Massachusetts / Died 27 October 1863
USMA 1 July 1821 5/24 Artillery / Cadet USMA 7 September 1817 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1821 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 February 1828 / Regt Quartermaster 18 August 1831-20 August 1836 / Captain USA 6 August 1836 / Resigned USA 30 September 1836 / Captain Richmond Public Guard / Colonel Virginia Militia 26 March 1861 / Chief of Ordnance Provisional Army of Virginia April 1861-30 August 1861 / Captain PACS Engineers 1863 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1821 Brevet Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 4 April 1862
Forces in Richmond 30 August 1861-1 July 1862

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: vacant
  • Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: John Breckinridge Grayson
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Richard Caswell Gatlin
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
  • Department of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn interim Paul Octave Hébert awaited
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith
James William Denver
Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
James Shields
John Fulton Reynolds
William Farquhar Barry

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Albert Pike
Paul Octave Hébert

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