1861 August 13th

August 13 1861 Tuesday

Confederate Invasion of New Mexico

Rosecrans’ West Virginia Campaign

USA. The Colonel of the 3rd US Cavalry David Hunter was the first Union officer to be promoted from Brigadier-General to Major-General in the US Volunteers. He became the fourth-ranking officer in the USV and the seventh among all Major-Generals, including those in the Regular Army.

Louisiana. USS Powhatan, Lieutenant David Dixon Porter, recaptured the schooner Abby Bradford off the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Missouri. After hearing news of the defeat at Wilson’s Creek, Union Major-General John Charles Frémont made plans to defend the state. He reinforced Rolla, which was the main depot for the arrival of newly enlisted troops. He also ordered the fortification of Cape Girardeau, Ironton, Rolla, Jefferson City, and his headquarters at St Louis. He employed 10,000 men in building ten miles of defences around St Louis.

Tennessee. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis ordered that Thomas A R Nelson be discharged from office for opposing secession.

Virginia. The Union 7th Ohio Infantry was moved forward under Colonel Erastus Barnard Tyler from Gauley Bridge to Cross Lanes, covering Carnifex Ferry on the Gauley River.

Virginia. Skirmish near Grafton.

Union Organisation

USA: David Hunter promoted Major-General USV 13 August 1861.

Hunter, David / District of Columbia-Illinois / Born 21 July 1802 Washington, District of Columbia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 February 1886
USMA 1 July 1822 25/40 Infantry-Dragoons / Cadet USMA 14 September 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 1 July 1822 / 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 30 June 1828 / Captain USA 1st US Dragoons 4 March 1833 / Resigned USA 4 July 1836 / Paymaster USA 13 November 1841 / Major USA Paymaster 14 March 1842 / Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 7 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Major-General USV 13 August 1861 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Retired USA 31 July 1866 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861
Hunter’s Brigade Department of Washington 28 May 1861-30 June 1861 / 2nd Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 30 June 1861-21 July 1861 / Hunter’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 4 August 1861-22 August 1861 / 1st Division Western Army 24 September 1861-2 November 1861 / Western Department 2 November 1861-9 November 1861 / Department of Kansas 20 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Department of the South 31 March 1862-5 September 1862 / Department of the South 20 December 1862-3 June 1863 / X Corps South 20 January 1863-12 June 1863 / Assistant Inspector-General 17 April 1864-May 1864 / Department of West Virginia 21 May 1864-8 August 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 21 May 1864-3 July 1864

USA: George Stoneman promoted Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861.

Stoneman, George / New York / Born 22 August 1822 Busti, New York / Died Buffalo, New York 5 September 1894
USMA 1 July 1846 33/59 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 /1st US Dragoons 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant 12 June 1847 / 1st Lieutenant 25 July 1854 / Regt Adjutant 22 October 1854-3 March 1855 / Captain USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Major USA 1st US Cavalry 9 May 1861 / 4th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 30 March 1864 / Colonel USA 21st US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Retired USA 16 August 1871 / Resigned from USA Retired 15 September 1882 / Colonel USA 9th US Infantry 9 February 1891 / Retired USA 24 February 1891 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 13 December 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Clinton 31 July 1864 Exchanged 27 October 1864
Cavalry Reserve Army of the Potomac 14 August 1861-October 1861 / Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac October 1861-17 July 1862 / Cavalry Division Army of the Potomac 15 August 1862-13 September 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 17 July 1862-15 August 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 September 1862-30 October 1862 / III Corps Potomac 30 October 1862-5 February 1863 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 12 February 1863-22 May 1863 / Cavalry Army of the Ohio 3 February 1864-10 February 1864 / XXIII Corps Ohio 10 February 1864-4 April 1864 / Cavalry Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 10 April 1864-31 July 1864 / Chief of Staff Army of the Ohio 27 October 1864-8 November 1864 / Department of the Ohio 8 November 1864-17 January 1865 / District of East Tennessee 9 March 1865-17 March 1865 / Department of Tennessee 27 June 1865-5 June 1866 / Department of the Cumberland June 1886-6 August 1866 / First Military District 1 June 1868-2 April 1869

USA: Henry Washington Benham promoted Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861.

Benham, Henry Washington / Connecticut / Born 17 April 1813 Meriden, Connecticut / Died New York, New York 1 June 1884
USMA 1 July 1837 1/50 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1833 /2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 24 May 1848 / Assistant Inspector-General 5 August 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861 Revoked 7 August 1862 / Reinstated 6 February 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3 March 1863 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 7 March 1867 / Retired USA 30 June 1882 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1837 Brevet Captain USA 23 Feb 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 13 July 1861 / Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Buena Vista 23 February 1847
Chief Engineer Department of the Ohio 14 May 1861-22 July 1861 / 2nd Brigade Army of Occupation July 1861 / Cheat River District 20 August 1861-9 September 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Occupation 9 September 1861-19 September 1861 / Benham’s Brigade Department of the Ohio 19 September 1861-11 October 1861 / Northern District of the South 31 March 1862-21 June 1862 / Chief Engineer Army of the Potomac January 1863-October 1864

USA: William Farrar Smith promoted Brigadier-General 13 August 1861.

Smith, William Farrar / Vermont / Born 17 February 1824 St Albans, Vermont/ Died 28 February 1903
Cadet USMA 1 July 1841 / USMA 1 July 1845 4/41 Topographical Engineers / Topographical Engineers 1 July 1845 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 14 July 1849 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1853 / Captain USA 1 July 1859 / Colonel USV 3rd Vermont Infantry 16 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 13 August 1861 / Major-General USV 25 July 1862 to rank from 4 July 1862 Expired 4 March 1863 / Major USA Engineers 3 March 1863 / Reappointed Major-General USV 24 March 1864 to rank from 9 March 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General 10 December 1864 / Resigned USV 4 November 1865 / Resigned USA 21 March 1867 / Major USA Engineers 27 February 1889 / Retired USA 1 March 1889 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1845 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 28 June 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Smith’s Brigade Army of the Potomac August 1861-3 October 1861 / Smith’s Division Army of the Potomac 3 October 1861-13 March 1862 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-18 May 1862 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-16 November 1862 / VI Corps Potomac 16 November 1862-25 January 1863 / Left Grand Division Potomac 25 January 1863-4 February 1863 / IX Corps Potomac 5 February 1863-8 March 1863 / 1st Division Department of the Susquehanna 17 June 1863-3 August 1863 / Smith’s Division Department of West Virginia 3 August 1863-5 September 1863 / Chief Engineer Army of the Cumberland 3 October 1863-16 October 1863 / Chief Engineer Military Division of the Mississippi 16 October 1863-April 1864 / District of Yorktown 21 April 1864-4 May 1864 / XVII Corps James 2 May 1864-10 July 1864 / Assistant Inspector-General Military Division of West Mississippi 10 December 1864-1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Coast Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer Silas Horton Stringham USN
  • Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Flag Officer William Mervine USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander Thomas Tingey Craven USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Military Division (Department) of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
    • Department of Northeastern Virginia: Irvin McDowell
      • Army of the Potomac: Irvin McDowell
    • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of Kentucky: Robert Anderson
  • Department of the Ohio: William Starke Rosecrans
    • Cheat Mountain District: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • Cheat River District: Charles J Biddle
    • District of Grafton: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
    • Army of Occupation: William Starke Rosecrans
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: John Adams Dix
    • Army of the Shenandoah: Vacant
  • Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Virginia: Benjamin Franklin Butler interim John Ellis Wool awaited
  • Western Department: John Charles Frémont
    • District of Ironton: Ulysses Simpson Grant
    • District of North Missouri: John Pope
    • Southern District of New Mexico: Benjamin Stone Roberts

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Richard Caswell Gatlin confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861.

Gatlin, Richard Caswell / North Carolina / Born 18 January 1809 Lenoir, North Carolina / Died Mount Nebo, Arkansas 8 September 1896
USMA 1 July 1832 35 /45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1832 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 May 1834 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 August 1836 / Regt Adjutant 13 December 1838-30 September 1845 / Captain USA 30 September 1845 / Major USA 5th US Infantry 26 February 1861 / Resigned USA 20 May 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Colonel PACS 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 8 July 1861 / Resigned PACS 8 September 1862 / Major-General Adjutant-General North Carolina Militia September 1862-April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1 July 1832 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846 / WIA Monterey 21 September 1846 CIA Fort Smith 23 April 1861 Paroled
Department of North Carolina 19 August 1861-18 March 1862

CSA: George Bibb Crittenden promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from August 15 1861.

Crittenden, George Bibb / Kentucky / Born 20 March 1812 Russellville, Kentucky / Died Danville, Kentucky 27 November 1880
USMA 1 July 1832 26/45 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 4th US Infantry 1 July 1842 / Resigned USA 30 April 1833 / Republic of Texas Army USA 1842-1843 / Captain USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Major USA 15 March 1848 / Cashiered USA 19 August 1848 / Reinstated 15 March 1849 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 30 December 1856 / Resigned USA 10 June 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 15 August 1861 / Major-General PACS 9 November 1861 / Resigned PACS 23 October 1862 / Reverted to Colonel PACS / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1832 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 / CIA Mexico 1843 Exchanged
2nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 21 August 1861-24 October 1861 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 24 October 1861-12 November 1861 / District of East Tennessee 11 November 1861-25 February 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Central Kentucky 31 February 1862-31 March 1862 / Reserve Corps Mississippi 5 March 1862-5 April 1862 / Trans-Allegheny Department 31 May 1864-22 June 1864 / Cavalry Trans-Allegheny Department 30 July 1864

CSA: John Breckinridge Grayson promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 15 August 1861.

Grayson, John Breckinridge / Kentucky / Born 18 October 1806 Fayette, Kentucky / Died Tallahassee, Florida 21 October 1861
USMA 1 July 1826 22 /41 Artillery-Commissary / Cadet USMA 1 July 1821 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1826 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 April 1834 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 11 December 1838-18 June 1846 / Major USA Commissary of Subsistence 21 October 1852 / Resigned USA 1 July 1861 / Brigadier-General North Carolina Militia 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 15 August 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1826 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847
Department of Middle and Eastern Florida 21 August 1861-21 October 1861

CSA: Roswell Sabine Ripley promoted Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 15 August 1861.

Ripley, Roswell Sabine / Ohio-New York / Born 14 March 1823 Franklin, Ohio / Died New York, New York 29 March 1887
USMA 1 July 1843 7/39 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1839 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1843 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 26 March 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / Resigned USA 2 March 1853 / Major Ordnance South Carolina Militia 1860 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st Battalion South Carolina Artillery 28 January 1861 / South Carolina Regular Artillery May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 13 August 1861 to rank from 15 August 1861 / Paroled Greensboro, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1843 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Antietam 1862
Department of South Carolina 21 August 1861-5 November 1861 / District of South Carolina 5 November 1861-11 October 1864 / Second Sub-District of South Carolina 10 December 1861-26 May 1862 / Third Sub-District of South Carolina 10 December 1861-17 December 1861 / 5th Brigade D H Hill’s Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-23 July 1862 / 5th Brigade D H Hill’s Division Army of Northern Virginia 23 July 1862-10 August 1862 / 5th Brigade G W Smith’s Division Defences of Richmond 10 August 1862-2 September 1862 / Ripley’s Brigade D H Hill’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 September 1862-17 September 1862 / First Sub-District of South Carolina 16 October 1862-21 March 1864 / Fourth Sub-District of South Carolina 19 July 1864-17 October 1864 / Ripley’s Brigade Department of South Carolina Georgia and Florida November 1864-December 1864 / Ripley’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 14 February 1865-9 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

  • Department No 1: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of Fredericksburg: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • District of Aquia: Daniel Ruggles
  • Department of Norfolk: Benjamin Huger
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Army of the Peninsula: John Bankhead Magruder
  • Department of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • Army of the Potomac: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
  • Department of South Carolina: Daniel Harvey Hill
  • Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
    • Defences of Galveston: John Creed Moore
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Western Department: Leonidas Polk
    • District of Upper Arkansas: William Joseph Hardee
    • Western Army: Benjamin McCulloch
  • District of East Tennessee: Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Indian Territory: Benjamin McCulloch
  • Forces in Richmond: Thomas Turner Fauntleroy
  • Army of the Kanawha: John Buchanan Floyd
  • Army of Liberation: Gideon Johnson Pillow
  • Army of the Northwest: William Wing Loring

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott
George Brinton McClellan
John Charles Frémont

Major-General USV

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner
Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
Irvin McDowell
Robert Anderson
William Starke Rosecrans

Brigadier-General USV

Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Erasmus Darwin Keyes
Andrew Porter
Fitz-John Porter
William Buel Franklin
William Tecumseh Sherman
Charles Pomeroy Stone
Don Carlos Buell
Thomas West Sherman
John Pope
George Archibald McCall
William Reading Montgomery
Philip Kearny
Joseph Hooker
John Wolcott Phelps
Ulysses Simpson Grant
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Charles Smith Hamilton
Darius Nash Couch
Rufus King
Jacob Dolson Cox
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Franz Sigel
Robert Cumming Schenck
Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
Frederick West Lander
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
John Alexander McClernand
Alpheus Starkey Williams
Israel Bush Richardson
James Cooper
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Michael Corcoran
George Henry Thomas
Ambrose Everett Burnside
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Louis Blenker
Henry Warner Slocum
James Samuel Wadsworth
John James Peck
Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
George Stoneman
Henry Washington Benham
William Farrar Smith

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Henry Knox Craig
Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA

Samuel Cooper
Albert Sidney Johnston
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs
Leonidas Polk

Brigadier-General ACSA

Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham
Benjamin McCulloch
William Wing Loring
Charles Clark
John Buchanan Floyd
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Rootes Jackson
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
Henry Alexander Wise
Earl Van Dorn
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
David Rumph Jones
Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
James Longstreet
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Clifford Pemberton
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Richard Caswell Gatlin
Daniel Smith Donelson
Samuel Read Anderson
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Daniel Harvey Hill
Jones Mitchell Withers
Richard Heron Anderson
Robert Augustus Toombs
Samuel Jones
Arnold Elzey
William Henry Chase Whiting
Jubal Anderson Early
Isaac Ridgway Trimble
Daniel Ruggles
George Bibb Crittenden
John Breckinridge Grayson
Roswell Sabine Ripley

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