1861 April 30th

April 30 1861 Tuesday

Go to May 1 1861

Indian Territory. US President Abraham Lincoln ordered the evacuation of US troops from the Indian Nations’, leaving the Five Civilised (or slaveholding) Tribes exposed to Confederate influence. The main aim was to make more efficient use of the Regular Army and to reduce commitments to Frontier garrisons. In due course, the Confederates secured the allegiance of the Cherokee Nation, the Chickasaw Nation, the Choctaw Nation, the Creek Nation, and the Seminole Nation.

Indian Territory. Fort Washita, the major US Army post in the Indian Territory, was abandoned by Lieutenant-Colonel William Hemsley Emory (1st US Cavalry) and the garrison marched north towards Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Louisiana. The USS Powhatan arrived off the Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River with the first elements of a blockading fleet. The arrival of these vessels occurred much earlier than had been anticipated in New Orleans, and neutral shipping rushed to vacate the port after a fifteen-day grace period was announced.

Texas. Major Caleb C Sibley’s detachment of paroled US troops set sail from Texas for New York.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Simon Cameron
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Potomac Flotilla: James Harmon Ward

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner awaited

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Department of the West: Edmund Brooke Alexander temporary

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke

  • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles

“Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

“Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn

Forces in Richmond: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham

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