1861 April 29th

April 29 1861 Monday

Maryland. The Maryland House of Delegates voted against secession by 53 to 13 and the Senate voted unanimously against secession. Despite the protest of a large and vociferous pro-Confederate minority in the population, the state remained loyal to the Union, although many men left to join the Confederate Army.

Maryland. US President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive proclamation asserting martial law in the state of Maryland. Maryland Governor Thomas H Hicks sent a message of protest to the state legislature communicating to them the correspondence between himself and Massachusetts State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler and the US Secretary of War Simon Cameron about the landing of Union troops at Annapolis.

Maryland. Communications between Baltimore and Philadelphia were reinstated by Union forces.

Ohio. Ohio State Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox began the construction of a major camp of instruction for Midwestern volunteers at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati.

Virginia. The old warship USS United States was captured at the Norfolk Navy Yard and commissioned as the first vessel of the Virginia State Navy.

Virginia. A force of about 8,000 Virginian state troops had gathered in Harper’s Ferry under State Brigadier-General Kenton Harper and Confederate Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson arrived to take over the command. A further 15,000 men were accumulating near Alexandria under Confederate Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke. The Union garrison of Washington, DC, had now risen to about 10,000 men.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander assumed temporary command of the Department of the West, succeeding Captain Nathaniel Lyon.

Alexander, Edmund Brooke | Massachusetts | Born 6 October 1802 Massachusetts | USMA 1823 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1823 1st Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 29 December 1827 Quartermaster’s Department 6 December 1833 Captain USA 3rd US Infantry 7 July 1838 Quartermaster’s Department 7 July 1838 3rd US Infantry 18 June 1846 Major USA 8th US Infantry 10 November 1851 Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 Retired USA 22 February 1868 | Died 3 January 1888 | 29 April 1861 – 10 May 1861 Department of the West

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commander James Harmon Ward USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited
  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
  • Department of the West: Edmund Brooke Alexander temporary

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson assumed command of the Forces in Harper’s Ferry, succeeding Colonel Kenton Harper.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan | Virginia | Born 21 January 1824 Clarksburg, Virginia | USMA 1846 17/59 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 20 August 1847 Resigned USA 29 February 1852 Colonel Virginia 21 April 1861 Colonel PACS 27 April 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 1863 | DOW 10 May 1863 | 29 April 1861 – 23 May 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry, 22 August 1861 – 25 June 1862 Army of the Valley, 22 October 1861 – 5 September 1862 Valley District, 25 June 1862 – 13 July 1862 Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia, 14 July 1862 – 3 September 1862 Left Wing Northern Virginia, 4 September 1862 – 5 November 1862 Jackson’s Command Northern Virginia, 6 November 1862 – 1 May 1863 II Corps Northern Virginia

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke
    • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke
  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson assumed
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn
  • Forces in Richmond: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific
  • Colonel Joseph King Fenno Mansfield 28 May 1853 Department of Washington
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander 3 March 1855 Department of the West temporary
  • Colonel William Wing Loring 30 December 1856 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Harvey Brown 28 April 1861 Department of Florida
  • State Major-General Robert Patterson Department of Pennsylvania
  • Colonel Benjamin Franklin Butler Department of Annapolis

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Colonel Joseph Eggleston Johnston Forces in Richmond
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson 21 April 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • State Major-General Walter Gwynn 10 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke 21 April 1861 Department of Alexandria & Alexandria Line
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line



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