1861 April 29th

April 29 1861 Monday

CSA. President Jefferson Finis Davis proposed to Congress that the Confederate Regular Army should create a new grade of General, in addition to the existing grade of Brigadier-General. This would enable the Confederate officer to outrank the Brigadier-Generals and Major-Generals of State Militias, whose credentials may not be as appropriate as those of the Confederate Brigadier-Generals. The grade of “full” General had never existed in the US Army and this presented an opportunity to appoint a number of high-ranking commanders for each likely theatre of operations.

Maryland. The Maryland House of Delegates voted against secession by 53 votes to 13 and the Senate voted unanimously against secession. Despite the protest of a large and vociferous pro-Confederate minority in the population, the state remained loyal to the Union, although many men left to join the Confederate Army.

Maryland. US President Abraham Lincoln issued an executive proclamation asserting martial law in the state of Maryland. Maryland Governor Thomas H Hicks sent a message of protest to the state legislature communicating to them the correspondence between himself and Massachusetts State Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler and the US Secretary of War Simon Cameron about the landing of Union troops at Annapolis.

Maryland. Communications between Baltimore and Philadelphia were reinstated by Union forces.

Ohio. Brigadier-General of Ohio Militia Jacob Dolson Cox began the construction of a major camp of instruction for Midwestern volunteers at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati.

Virginia. The old warship USS United States was captured at the Norfolk Navy Yard and commissioned as the first vessel of the Virginia State Navy.

Virginia. A force of about 8,000 Virginian state troops had already gathered in Harper’s Ferry under Virginia State Brigadier-General Kenton Harper when Confederate Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson arrived to take over the command. A further 15,000 men were accumulating near Alexandria under Virginia Brigadier-General Philip St George Cocke. In comparison, the Union garrison of Washington, DC, had now risen to about 10,000 men.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander (10th US Infantry) assumed temporary command of the Department of the West, succeeding Captain Nathaniel Lyon.

Alexander, Edmund Brooke / Massachusetts / Born 6 October 1802 Haymarket, Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 3 January 1888
USMA 1 July 1823 Infantry 33/35 Infantry / Cadet USMA 6 October 1818 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Infantry 1 July 1823 / 1st Lieutenant USA 29 December 1827 / Quartermaster’s Department 6 December 1833 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA Assistant Quartermaster 7 July 1838 / Major USA 8th US Infantry 10 November 1851 / Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Retired USA 22 February 1869 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant 1823 Brevet Major USA 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 1865
29 April 1861-10 May 1861 Department of the West

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Potomac Flotilla: James Harmon Ward

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of Annapolis: Benjamin Franklin Butler awaited

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring

Department of the Pacific: Edwin Vose Sumner awaited

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Pennsylvania: Robert Patterson

Department of Texas: Vacant

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Washington: Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Department of the West: Edmund Brooke Alexander temporary

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Colonel Thomas Jonathan Jackson assumed command of the Forces in Harper’s Ferry, succeeding Virginia State Brigadier-General Kenton Harper.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan / Virginia / Born 21 January 1824 Clarksburg, Virginia / DOW Guinea’s Station, Virginia 10 May 1863
USMA 1 July 1846 17/59 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / 1st US Artillery 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3 March 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / Resigned USA 29 February 1852 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Major Topographical Engineer Virginia Militia 25 April 1861 / Colonel Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861 / Colonel Virginia 21 April 1861 / Colonel PACS 27 April 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 17 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 MWIA Chancellorsville 2 May 1863
Forces in Harper’s Ferry 29 April 1861-23 May 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of the Shenandoah 15 may 1861-20 July 1861 / 1st Brigade Valley District Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-28 October 1861 / Army of the Valley 22 August 1861-25 June 1862 / Valley District 22 October 1861-6 September 1862 / Jackson’s Command (II Corps) Northern Virginia 25 June 1862-13 July 1862 / Left Wing (II Corps) Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-3 September 1862 / Jackson’s Command (II Corps) Northern Virginia 4 September 1862-5 November 1862 / II Corps Northern Virginia 6 November 1862-2 May 1863

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Department of Alexandria: Philip St George Cocke

  • Alexandria Line: Philip St George Cocke

Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

  • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles

“Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Thomas Jonathan Jackson assumed

“Forces in Norfolk”: Walter Gwynn

Forces in Richmond: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Milledge Lake Bonham

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