1861 April 23rd

April 23 1861 Tuesday

District of Columbia. USS Pawnee reached Washington where Commodore Paulding reported the loss of the Norfolk Navy Yard to the Navy Department. The arrival of the modern warship strengthened the Capital’s defences at a critical time.

Missouri. US Captain Nathaniel Lyon assumed temporary command of the Department of the West in St Louis. He was responding to doubts about the loyalty of Brigadier-General William Selby Harney who had shown indications of favouring the pro-Confederate factions in Missouri.

Texas. A group of US Army officers and a Company of the 8th US Infantry were taken as prisoners of war at San Antonio. Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite was among those captured by Confederate authorities and the presence of Federal forces in Texas ended. Although the Department of the Texas remained in nominal existence, it had no commanding officer and no forces to command.

Virginia. State Major-General Robert Edward Lee took command of the state militia and forces of Virginia

Union Organisation

USA: Captain Nathaniel Lyon assumed temporary de facto command of the Department of the West.

Lyon, Nathaniel / Connecticut / Born 14 July 1818 Ashford, Connecticut / USMA 1841 11/52 Infantry / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Infantry 16 February 1847 / Captain USA 2nd US Infantry 11 June 1851 / Brigadier-General Missouri Volunteers 12 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 May 1861 / WIA Mexican War 1848 / KIA Wilson’s Creek 10 August 1861 / 23 April 1861 – 28 April 1861 Department of the West, 31 May 1861 – 2 July 1861 Department of the West, 2 July 1861 – 10 August 1861 Army of the West, 3 July 1861 -24 July 1861 Western Department

USA: The command the Department of Texas became vacant when Union Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite was captured by Confederate authorities.

USA: George Brinton McClellan appointed Major-General of Ohio Volunteers.

McClellan, George Brinton | Pennsylvania | Born 3 December 1826 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania | USMA 1846 2/59 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 24 April 1847 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1853 Captain USA 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 15 January 1857 Major-General Ohio Volunteers 23 April 1861 Major-General USA May 14 1861 Commanding General of the US Army November 1 1861 Relieved temporarily as Commanding General 17 March 1862 permanently 22 July 1862 Resigned USA November 8 1864 | Died 29 October 1885 | 3 May 1861 – 22 July 1861 Department of the Ohio, 14 June 1861 – 22 July 1861 Army of Occupation, 25 July 1861 – 16 August 1861 Military Division (Department) of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Department of the Potomac, 17 August 1861 – 6 November 1862 Army of the Potomac, 1 November 1861 – 10 July 1862 General-in-Chief, 2 September 1862 – 11 September 1862 Army of Virginia

USA: Colonel James Wolfe Ripley appointed Chief of Ordnance of the US Army.

Ripley, James Wolfe | Connecticut | Born 10 December 1794 Windham, Connecticut | USMA 1814 12/30 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA Artillery 1 June 1814 1st Lieutenant USA Artillery 20 April 1818 4th US Artillery 1 June 1821 Captain USA 4th US Artillery 1 August 1825 30 Ordnance May 1832 Major Ordnance 7 July 1838 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Ordnance 31 December 1854 Colonel USA Chief of Ordnance 23 April 1861 Brigadier-General USA September 10 1861 to rank from August 3 1861 Relieved as Chief of Ordnance September 15 1863 Retired USA 1869 | Died 15 March 1870 | 23 April 1861 – 15 September 1863 Chief of Ordnance

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Vacant
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Robert Patterson
  • Department of the West: Nathaniel Lyon temporary de facto

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Virginia State Major-General Robert Edward Lee arrived to assume command of the Provisional Army in Virginia.

Lee, Robert Edward | Virginia | Born 19 January 1807 Stratford Hall, Virginia | USMA 1829 2/46 Engineers | 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 21 September 1836 Captain USA Engineers 7 July 1838 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Colonel USA 1st US Cavalry 16 March 1861 Resigned USA 25 April 1861 Commander-in-Chief Virginia Army 23 April 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 14 June 1861 to rank from 15 May 1861 General ACSA June 14 1861 General-in-Chief January 31 1865 Surrendered and Paroled 9 April 1865 | WIA Chapultepec 1847 CIA Appomattox 1865 | Died 12 October 1870 | 8 June 1861 – 4 November 1861 Military Adviser to the President, 5 November 1861 – 13 March 1862 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida, 5 March 1862 – 31 May 1862 Military Adviser to the President, 1 June 1862 – 9 April 1865 Department of Northern Virginia, 1 June 1862 – 9 April 1865 Army of Northern Virginia. 31 January 1865 – 9 April 1865 General-in-Chief

CSA: Milledge Luke Bonham promoted Brigadier-General PACS 23 April 1861

Bonham, Milledge Luke | South Carolina | Born 25 December 1813 Edgefield, South Carolina | Captain USV Staff South Carolina 1836 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 12th US Infantry March 1847 Colonel USA 12th US Infantry August 1847 Honourably Discharged USA 1848 Major-General South Carolina Militia 1848 Major-General South Carolina 10 February 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 23 April 1861 Resigned PACS 29 January 1862 Brigadier-General PACS 20 February 1865 Surrendered 26 April 1865 | Died 27 August 1890 | 21 May 1861 – 30 May 1861 Department of Alexandria, 21 May 1861 – 23 May 1861 Alexandria Line, 24 May 1861 – 1 June 1861 Army of the Potomac, 31 May 1861 – 1 June 1861 Department of the Potomac

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
    • Defences of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line: Daniel Ruggles
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: William Booth Taliaferro

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific awaited
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston 3 March 1855 Department of the Pacific interim
  • Colonel William Wing Loring 30 December 1856 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith 3 March 1855 Department of Washington
  • Major Harvey Brown 9 January 1851 Department of Florida
  • Captain Nathaniel Lyon 11 June 1851 Department of the West interim temporary

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Brigadier-General PACS Milledge Luke Bonham 23 April 1861
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • State Major-General William Booth Taliaferro 17 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • Colonel Kenton Harper Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Colonel William Booth Taliaferro Forces in Norfolk

 

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