1861 April 22nd

April 22 1861 Monday

USA. Captain Franklin Buchanan USN, Commandant of the Washington Navy Yard, resigned to join the Confederate Navy. Buchanan subsequently took command of the Confederate States Navy as its senior officer. He was relieved by Commander John Adolphus Dahlgren USN. Dahlgren spurred the build-up of Union ordnance and ships for the defence of Washington and the Potomac River.

USA. Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Quartermaster-General of the US Army, resigned to join the Confederacy and was succeeded as Quartermaster-General by Captain Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (who was promoted Colonel 14th May 1861 and Brigadier-General in the US Army on 15th May 1861). Johnston’s resignation meant that only three of the pre-war regular Army generals were still in service, and one of those (Brigadier-General William Selby Harney), was already showing signs of unreliable loyalty. Former US Regular Army Brigadier-General David Emanuel Twiggs had already resigned to join the Confederacy and held a commission as Major-General.

USA: Commander James Harmon Ward USN, commanding the receiving ship USS North Carolina at the New York Navy Yard, proposed a plan for the protection of the Chesapeake Bay and capital areas. Ward suggested that a “Flying Flotilla” of light draft vessels be formed to operate in the Chesapeake and its tributaries. His superior officer, Captain Samuel Livingston Breese, commandant of the New York Navy Yard, endorsed his plan and it was submitted to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles.

Arkansas. A depot of US Army stores was seized at Napoleon, by order of Governor H M Rector.

Maryland. The steamer Boston arrived at Annapolis with the 7th New York aboard. They found USS Maryland aground after it had towed USS Constitution into the Chesapeake Bay, and got her off the shallows. Troops from both ships disem­barked in Annapolis. Their arrival contributed to the security of Washington, DC, and the retention of Maryland for the Union. Union Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s troops began to repair the railroad and reopened communications with Washington, which had been isolated since the Baltimore riots on 19th April.

North Carolina. The US Arsenal at Fayetteville was seized by North Carolina State authorities. They acquired 37,000 stand of arms, 3,000 kegs of gunpowder, and large quantities of artillery ammunition.

Virginia: Confederate Virginia State Major-General Robert Edward Lee accepted command of the Provisional Army in Virginia, arriving on 23rd April 1861.

Union Organisation

USA: Pennsylvania State Major-General Robert Patterson arrived to command the Department of Washington.

Patterson, Robert | Ireland-Pennsylvania | Born 20 January 1792 Cappagh, Ireland | Captain 2nd Pennsylvania Militia 1812 Colonel 2nd Pennsylvania Militia Captain USA 1815 Discharged 1815 Colonel Pennsylvania Militia Major-General USV Militia 1846 Mustered out USV 1848 Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 16 April 1861 Mustered out July 1861 | WIA Cerro Gordo 1847 | Died 7 August 1881 | 22 April 1861 – 26 April 1861 Department of Washington, 27 April 1861 -24 July 1861 Department of Pennsylvania, 2 June 1861 – 16 August 1861 Army of the Shenandoah

USA: Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston; Quartermaster-General of the US Regular Army, resigned to join the Confederacy.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston | Virginia | Born February 3 1807 Longwood, Virginia | USMA 1829 13/46 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 Resigned USA 31 May 1837 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 Captain USA Topographical Engineers 21 September 1846 Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles April 9 1847 Mustered out USV 28 August 1848 Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General June 28 1860 Resigned USA 22 April 1861 Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 General ACSA August 31 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 Surrendered 26 April 1865 Paroled 2 May 1865 | Died 21 March 1891 | Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860- 21 April 1861, 24 April 1861 – 7 May 1861 Forces in Richmond, 15 May 1861 -3 July 1861 Forces in Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 20 July 1861 District of Harper’s Ferry, 4 July 1861 – 19 July 1861 Army of the Shenandoah, 20 July 1861 – 22 October 1861 Department of the Potomac, 21 July 1861 – 14 March 1862 Army of the Potomac, 22 October 1861 – 30 May 1862 Department of Northern Virginia, 14 March 1862 – 30 May 1862 Army of Northern Virginia, 4 November 1862 – 16 December 1863 Military Division of the West, 4 July 1863 – 23 August 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 2 December 1863 – 22 December 1863 Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, 16 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Department of Tennessee, 27 December 1863 – 17 July 1864 Army of Tennessee, 22 February 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 22 February 1865 – 26 March 1865 Department of Tennessee and Georgia, 27 February 1865 – 15 March 1865 Army of Tennessee, 6 March 1865 – 26 April 1865 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 22 February 1865 – 9 April 1865 Army of the South, 9 April 1865 – 26 April 1865 Army of Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Robert Patterson assumed
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of North Carolina was established, comprising the state of North Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed command of the Department of North Carolina.

CSA: The Defences of North Carolina was established in the Department of North Carolina, comprising the area around Wilmington, North Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed command of the Defences of North Carolina.

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter | North Carolina | Born 13 November 1804 Sampson, North Carolina | USMA 1829 44/46 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 1 July 1829 1st Lieutenant USA 7th US Infantry 26 March 1835 Captain USA 7th US Infantry 9 December 1838 Major USA 8th US Infantry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 22 April 1861 Colonel PACS March 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 Surrendered 26 April 1865 | Died 21 June 1880 | 22 April 1861 – 19 August 1861 Department of North Carolina, 22 April 1861 – 23 September 1861 Defences of North Carolina, 6 June 1861 – 16 July 1861 Department of Fredericksburg, 24 March 1862 – 1 June 1862 Department of North Carolina, 16 July 1862 – 16 January 1863 Trans-Mississippi Department, 7 March 1863 – 23 July 1863 District of Arkansas, 25 September 1863 – 15 March 1864 District of Arkansas, 18 April 1864 – 26 April 1865 Reserve Forces of North Carolina

CSA: The Potomac Line was established, comprising forces collected around Fredericksburg, Virginia, controlling the Potomac River from Mt Vernon to the Rappahannock River.

CSA: State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles assumed command of the Potomac Line.

Ruggles, Daniel | Massachusetts | Born 31 January 1810 Barre, Massachusetts | USMA 1833 34/43 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 18 February 1836 1st Lieutenant USA 5th US Infantry 7 July 1838 Captain USA 5th US Infantry 18 June 1846 Resigned USA 7 May 1861 Brigadier-General Virginia Militia May 1861 Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 | Died 1 June 1897 | 22 April 1861 – 4 June 1861 Potomac Line, 19 July 1861 – 20 August 1861 District of Aquia, 22 February 1862 – 27 June 1862 District of North Alabama, 26 June 1862 – 4 September 1862 First Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, 5 September 1862 – 1 October 1862 District of the Mississippi, 21 October 1862 – 2 September 1863 District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of North Carolina established: Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed
    • Defences of North Carolina established: Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton
  • Potomac Line established: Daniel Ruggles assumed
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper
  • “Forces in Norfolk”: William Booth Taliaferro

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific awaited
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston 3 March 1855 Department of the Pacific interim
  • Colonel William Wing Loring 30 December 1856 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite 5 June 1860 Department of Texas temporary
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith 3 March 1855 Department of Washington
  • Major Harvey Brown 9 January 1851 Department of Florida

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 District of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola & Forces in New Orleans
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas
  • Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes March 1861 Department of North Carolina & Defences of North Carolina
  • State Major-General William Booth Taliaferro 17 April 1861 Forces in Norfolk
  • State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles May 1861 Potomac Line
  • Colonel Kenton Harper Forces in Harper’s Ferry
  • Colonel William Booth Taliaferro Forces in Norfolk

 

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