1861 April 22nd

April 22 1861 Monday

USA. Captain Franklin Buchanan USN, Commandant of the Washington Navy Yard, resigned to join the Confederate Navy. Buchanan subsequently took command of the Confederate States Navy as its senior officer. He was relieved by Commander John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren USN. Dahlgren spurred the build-up of Union ordnance and ships for the defence of Washington and the Potomac River.

USA. Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston, Quartermaster-General of the US Army, resigned to join the Confederacy and was succeeded as Quartermaster-General by Captain Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (who was promoted Colonel 14 May 1861 and Brigadier-General in the US Army on 15 May 1861). Johnston’s resignation meant that only three of the pre-war regular Army generals were still in service, and one of those (Brigadier-General William Selby Harney), was already showing signs of unreliable loyalty. Former US Regular Army Brigadier-General David Emanuel Twiggs had already resigned to join the Confederacy and held a commission as Major-General.

USA: Commander James Harmon Ward USN, commanding the receiving ship USS North Carolina at the New York Navy Yard, proposed a plan for the protection of the Chesapeake Bay and capital areas. Ward suggested that a “Flying Flotilla” of light draft vessels be formed to operate in the Chesapeake and its tributaries. His superior officer, Captain Samuel Livingston Breese, commandant of the New York Navy Yard, endorsed his plan and it was submitted to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles.

Arkansas. A depot of US Army stores was seized at Napoleon, by order of Governor Henry M Rector.

Arkansas. Governor Henry M Rector refused to furnish the state’s quota of militia requested for Federal service.

Illinois. Illinois militia troops occupied the vital river port of Cairo, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

Maryland. The steamer Boston arrived at Annapolis with the 7th New York aboard. They found USS Maryland aground after it had towed USS Constitution into the Chesapeake Bay, and got her off the shallows. Troops from both ships disem­barked in Annapolis. Their arrival contributed to the security of Washington, DC, and the retention of Maryland for the Union. Union Brigadier-General Benjamin Franklin Butler’s troops began to repair the railroad and reopened communications with Washington, which had been isolated since the Baltimore riots on 19 April.

North Carolina. The US Arsenal at Fayetteville was seized by North Carolina State troops. They acquired 37,000 stand of arms, 3,000 kegs of gunpowder, and large quantities of artillery ammunition.

Virginia: Confederate Virginia State Major-General Robert Edward Lee accepted command of the Provisional Army in Virginia, arriving on 23 April 1861.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General of Pennsylvania Militia Robert Patterson arrived to command the Department of Washington.

Patterson, Robert / Ireland-Pennsylvania / Born 12 January 1792 Cappagh, Ireland / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7 August 1881
Captain 2nd Pennsylvania Militia 2 October 1812 / Lieutenant-Colonel / Colonel / Mustered Out 2 April 1813 / 1st Lieutenant USA 22nd US Infantry 5 April 1813 / 32nd US Infantry 27 May 1813 / Captain USA Deputy Quartermaster-General 24 June 1813-5 June 1814 / Captain USA 19 April 1814 / Discharged USA 15 June 1815 / Colonel Pennsylvania Militia / Major-General USV 7 July 1846 / Discharged USV 20 July 1848 / Major-General Pennsylvania Militia 15 April 1861 / Mustered Out 27 July 1861 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847
Department of Washington 19 April 1861-27 April 1861 / Department of Pennsylvania 27 April 1861-25 July 1861 / 2 June 1861-16 August 1861 Army of the Shenandoah

USA: Brigadier-General Joseph Eggleston Johnston resigned from the US Army as Quartermaster-General to join the Confederacy.

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston / Virginia / Born 3 February 1807 Farmville, Virginia / Died Washington, District of Columbia 21 March 1891
USMA 1 July 1829 13/46 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1825 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 31 July 1836 / Resigned USA 31 May 1837 / 1st Lieutenant USA Topographical Engineers 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 21 September 1846 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA Voltigeurs and Rifles 9 April 1847 / Reverted Captain USA Topographical Engineers 28 August 1848 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USA Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Major-General Virginia Militia 23 April 186127 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 27 April 1861 Declined / Major-General Provisional Army of Virginia 27 April 1861-4 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 4 May 1861-14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General ACSA 15 May 1861 to rank from 14 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 4 July 1861 / Surrendered 26 April 1865 / Paroled 2 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Captain USA 7 July 1838 Brevet Major 12 Apr 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 17 April 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847 / WIA Jupiter Inlet 1838 WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Chapultepec 13 September 1847 WIA Fair Oak 31 May 1862
Quartermaster-General 28 June 1860-21 April 1861

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Department of the East: John Ellis Wool

Department of Florida: Harvey Brown

Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring

Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited

  • District of Oregon: George Wright

Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite

Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke

Department of Washington: Robert Patterson assumed

Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of North Carolina was established, comprising the state of North Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed command of the Department of North Carolina.

CSA: The Defences of North Carolina was established in the Department of North Carolina, comprising the area around Wilmington, North Carolina.

CSA: Colonel Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed command of the Defences of North Carolina.

Holmes, Theophilus Hunter / North Carolina / Born 13 November 1804 Clinton, North Carolina / Died 21 June 1880
USMA 1 July 1829 44 /46 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 September 1825 / 7th US Infantry 1 July 1829 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 / 1st Lieutenant USA 26 March 1835 / Regt Adjutant 9 August 1838-9 December 1838 / Captain USA 9 December 1838 / Major USA 8th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 22 April 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General North Carolina Militia 27 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 5 June 1861 / Major-General PACS 7 October 1861 / Lieutenant-General PACS 10 October 1862 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1829 Brevet Major USA 23 September 1846
Department of North Carolina 22 April 1861-19 August 1861 / Defences of North Carolina 22 April 1861-23 September 1861 / Department of Fredericksburg 5 June 1861-17 July 1861 / Reserve Brigade Army of the Potomac 20 July 1861-21 July 1861 / District of Aquia 22 October 1861-23 March 1862 / Department of North Carolina 24 March 1862-17 July 1862 / Trans-Mississippi Department 30 July 1862-9 February 1863 / District of Arkansas 7 March 1863-24 July 1863 / District of Arkansas 25 September 1863-15 March 1864 / Reserve Forces of North Carolina 18 April 1864-26 April 1865

CSA: The Potomac Line was established, comprising forces collected around Fredericksburg, Virginia, controlling the Potomac River from Mt Vernon to the Rappahannock River.

CSA: Virginia State Brigadier-General Daniel Ruggles assumed command of the Potomac Line.

Ruggles, Daniel / Massachusetts / Born 31 January 1810 Barre, Massachusetts / Died 1 June 1897
USMA 1 July 1833 34/43 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1829 / 5th US Infantry 1 July 1833 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 8 February 1836 / 1st Lieutenant USA 7 July 1838 / Captain USA 18 June 1846 / Resigned USA 7 May 1861 / Brigadier-General Virginia Militia 21 April 1861 / Brigadier-General Provisional Army of Virginia 21 April 1861 / Colonel ACSA Infantry 27 April 1861 / Colonel Infantry Provisional Army of Virginia 9 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865 / Chief of Bureau of Prison Camps 24 March 1865-April 1865 / Paroled Augusta, Georgia 9 May 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1833 Brevet Major USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 September 1847
Potomac Line 22 April 1861-5 June 1861 / District of Aquia 19 July 1861-21 August 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of Pensacola 21 August 1861-12 October 1861 / District of North Alabama 22 February 1862-27 June 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 5 March 1862-29 March 1862 / 1st Division II Corps Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-10 May 1862 / First Sub-District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana 26 June 1862-5 September 1862 / District of the Mississippi 5 September 1862-1 October 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the West July 1862-August 1862 / District One of Mississippi and East Louisiana 21 October 1862-2 September 1863 / Commissary-General of Prisoners 24 March 1865-May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Department of North Carolina established: Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed

  • Defences of North Carolina established: Theophilus Hunter Holmes assumed

Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn

Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg

  • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg

District of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs

  • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg

Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton

Potomac Line established: Daniel Ruggles assumed

Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper

“Forces in Norfolk”: William Booth Taliaferro

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton

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