1861 April 13th

April 13 1861 Saturday

Battle of Fort Sumter, SC

Surrender of Fort Sumter, SC (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Fort Sumter Operations

Alabama. Lieutenant John Lorimer Worden USN was seized near Montgomery and placed in prison. He was apprehended after he had successfully carried secret orders to Captain Henry A Adams, commanding USS Sabine and the senior officer present in the Pensacola area, to reinforce Fort Pickens.

Florida. USS Sabine (Captain H A Adams) began the blockade of Pensacola Harbour. The reinforcement and re-supply of the fort on 12 April made it possible to establish the new Union Department of Florida with headquarters at Fort Pickens. This organisation comprised the state of Florida and was the first base of operations for naval and military operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Major Harvey Brown (2nd US Artillery) was appointed to command the Department of Florida. Within a month he was promoted to Colonel 5th US Artillery. Brown had previously been serving as military commander of Washington, DC, and of Fort McHenry, since January 1861.

Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter continued and a shell hit the officers’ quarters, starting a serious fire that threatened the main magazine. The Confederate gunners observed that hot shot had set fire to buildings within the walls and fired more of the same kind of projectiles until by noon several fires were alight inside the fort. The Union gunners in the casemates began to be in danger from the fires.

During the 34-hour bombardment, about 4,000 artillery and mortar rounds fell on the fort. The flagstaff was shot away at 1.30 pm and some confusion ensued whether the fort was actually being surrendered when former Senator Luis Trezevant Wigfall arrived at the fort under a flag of truce.

At 2.30 pm Major Robert Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter to Trezevant and was granted full honours of war. Anderson agreed to evacuate the garrison the following day. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Texas. Fort Davis was abandoned by Union forces.

Union Organisation

USA: The Department of Florida was established with headquarters at Fort Pickens, comprising the state of Florida transferred from the Department of the East.

USA: Major Harvey Brown was appointed to command the Department of Florida, arriving on 18th April 1861.

Brown, Harvey / New Jersey / Born 6 September 1795 Rahway, New Jersey / Died Clifton, Staten Island, New York 31 March 1874
USMA 24 July 1818 6/23 Artillery / Cadet USMA 11 October 1814 / 2nd Lieutenant USA US Light Artillery 24 July 1818 / 1st US Artillery 1 June 1821 / 4th US Artillery 16 August 1821 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 23 August 1821 / Assistant Quartermaster 19 May 1826-25 February 1829 / Captain USA 4th US Artillery 10 April 1835 / Major USA 2nd US Artillery 9 January 1851 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 4th US Artillery 28 April 1861 / Colonel USA 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 November 1861 Declined / Retired USA 1 August 1863 / Brevet Captain USA 23 August 1831 Brevet Major USA 21 November 1836 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 23 November 1861 Brevet Major-General USA 2 August 1866
Department of Florida 13 April 1861-22 February 1862 / Defences of New York City 5 April 1862-16 July 1863

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida established: Harvey Brown awaited
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Charles Ferguson Smith
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Defences of Savannah was established, comprising the area around Savannah, Georgia, and Fort Pulaski.

CSA: Brigadier-General Alexander Robert Lawton was appointed to command the Defences of Savannah, arriving on 17 April 1861. He was currently Colonel of the 1st Georgia Militia and was awaiting a Confederate commission. His grade of Brigadier-General was backdated to the date of this assignment.

CSA: Alexander Robert Lawton was promoted to Brigadier-General PACS on 28 August, to rank from 17 April 1861.

Lawton, Alexander Robert / South Carolina / Born 4 November 1818 Beaufort, South Carolina / Died Clifton Springs, New York 2 July 1896
USMA 1 July 1839 13/31 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1839 / Resigned USA 31 December 1840 / Georgia Militia 1849 / Colonel 1st Georgia Militia January 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Georgia 27 May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 28 August 1861 to rank from 13 April 1861 / Quartermaster-General PACS 10 August 1863 / Paroled Washington, Georgia 9 May 1865 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Defences of Savannah 13 March 1861-26 October 1861 / Department of Georgia 26 October 1861-5 November 1861 / District of Georgia 5 November 1861-14 March 1862 / 4th Brigade 2nd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia June 1862-26 June 1862 / Lawton’s Brigade 3rd Division Jackson’s Corps Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-28 August 1862 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 28 August 1862-17 September 1862 / District of Georgia 7 October 1862-28 December 1862 / Quartermaster-General 7 August 1863-9 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah established: Alexander Robert Lawton awaited
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton

 

 

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