1861 April 14th

April 14 1861 Sunday

Surrender of Fort Sumter, SC (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Fort Sumter Operations

California. Incidents at Mad River and Van Dusen’s Creek.

North Carolina. Fort Macon near Beaufort was taken over by North Carolina troops under US Captain Josiah Solomon Pender before the state seceded from the Union. It was located at the eastern end of Bogue Bank, in the Outer Banks. Construction began in 1826 and was completed by 1834. Only four guns were mounted in the dilapidated and neglected masonry fortification completed in 1826. The garrison comprised one single US Army sergeant. The local military authorities set about improving the armament until 56 pieces (5 8-inch and 2 10-inch Columbiads, 19 24-pounders, 32 32-pounders, and 6 field guns) were finally mounted. However, they had sufficient ammunition for only three days of action. Confederate Colonel Moses J White was assigned to command a new garrison of 430 men.

Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The Union garrison surrendered Fort Sumter to the Confederate authorities at 2.30 pm. No one from either side was killed during the bombardment. However, during the 50-gun salute to the US flag – US Major Robert Anderson’s one condition for withdrawal — a pile of cartridges blew up from a spark, killing one soldier instantly (Private Daniel Hough) and seriously injuring the rest of the gun crew, one of them mortally (Private Edward Galloway); these were the first fatalities of the war. The salute was stopped at fifty shots. Galloway and another injured crewman were sent to the hospital in Charleston where Galloway died. The other crewman successfully recovered and was sent North later without exchange. Union troops were placed aboard a Confederate steamer where they spent the night and they were transported the next morning to the Union steamer Baltic resting outside the harbor bar. (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of Florida: Harvey Brown awaited
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Charles Ferguson Smith
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • Department of Louisiana: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of Texas: Earl Van Dorn awaited
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Defences of Savannah: Alexander Robert Lawton awaited
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Eggleston Johnston 28 June 1860 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific awaited
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston 3 March 1855 Department of the Pacific interim
  • Colonel William Wing Loring 30 December 1856 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite 5 June 1860 Department of Texas temporary
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith 3 March 1855 Department of Washington
  • Major Harvey Brown 9 January 1851 Department of Florida awaited

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola
  • Brigadier-General PACS Alexander Robert Lawton 13 April 1861 Defences of Savannah awaited
  • Colonel Earl Van Dorn 16 March 1861 Department of Texas awaited
  • Colonel Kenton Harper Forces in Harper’s Ferry


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