1861 April 10th

April 10 1861 Wednesday

Fort Sumter Operations

District of Columbia. Militia and volunteer forces were mobilised by Union Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith for the active defence of the capital district after he arrived to command the new Department of Washington.

South Carolina. The US Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane arrived off Charleston before midnight, the first vessel in an expedition sent by President Abraham Lincoln to relieve and resupply the garrison of Fort Sumter. USS Powhatan had left New York along with troops aboard the steamer Baltic. USS Pawnee was just leaving Hampton Roads, Virginia, to join the expedition.

Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, commanding the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, was instructed to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbour.

Garrison commander US Major Robert Anderson answered that he would evacuate the fort by noon on 15 April, unless in the meantime he was attacked or received a replenishment of his supplies or other instructions from Washington, DC. Beauregard advised that he was empowered by the Confederate government to reduce the fort by siege and he announced that he would open fire at 4.20 am on 12 April 1861.

Virginia. USS Pawnee (Commander Stephen C Rowan) departed Hampton Roads to join the relief expedition to Fort Sumter.

Virginia. Captain Charles S McCauley USN, Commandant of the Norfolk Navy Yard, was ordered to put the USS Merrimack in condition for a move to a Northern yard should it become necessary.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston resigned as commander of the Department of the Pacific but awaited the arrival of his successor, Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner, before departing.

Johnston, Albert Sidney / Kentucky-Louisiana / Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky / KIA Shiloh, Tennessee 6 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1826 8/41 Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1822 / 2nd US Infantry 1 July 1826 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 6th US Infantry 1 July 1826 / Regt Adjutant 14 September 1828- 7 September 1832 / Resigned USA 31 May 1834 / Colonel USV Assistant Adjutant-General Illinois Infantry 1832 / Private Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Major ADC (S Houston) Republic of Texas Army 1836 / Colonel Adjutant-General Republic of Texas Army 5 August 1836 / Brigadier-General Republic of Texas Army 31 January 1837 / Resigned Republic of Texas Army February 1840 / Colonel USV 1st Texas Rifles 8 July 1846 / Mustered Out USV 24 August 1846 / Inspector-General USV September 1846-October 1846 / Major USA Paymaster 31 October 1849 / Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 / Defected to CSA 23 February 1861 / Resigned USA 10 April 1861 with effect from 3 May 1861 / General ACSA 31 August 1861 to rank from 30 May 1861 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1826 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 18 November 1857
Department of the Pacific 22 November 1860-24 April 1861 / Western Department 10 September 1861-6 April 1862 / Army of Central Kentucky 28 September 1861-4 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 18 December 1861-31 December 1861 / Army of Central Kentucky 23 February 1862-29 March 1862 / Army of Mississippi 29 March 1862-6 April 1862

USA: Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith arrived to command the Department of Washington.

Smith, Charles Ferguson / Pennsylvania / Born 24 April 1807 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Died Savannah, Tennessee 25 April 1862
USMA 1 July 1825 19/37 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1820 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1825 / 1st Lieutenant USA 30 May 1832 / Commandant of Cadets USMA 1 April 1838-1 September 1843 / Captain USA 7 July 1838 / Major USA 1st US Artillery 25 November 1854 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 / Brigadier-General USV 31 August 1861 / Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 9 September 1861 / Major-General USV 22 March 1862 to rank from 21 March 1862 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1825 Brevet Major USA 9 May 1846 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 23 September 1846 Brevet Colonel USA 20 August 1847
Department of Washington 9 April 1861-19 April 1861 / District of Western Kentucky 8 September 1861-31 January 1862 / 2nd Division District of Cairo 1 February 1862-17 February 1862 / 2nd Division District of West Tennessee 17 February 1862-11 March 1862 / District of West Tennessee 11 March 1862-17 March 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee 17 March 1862-5 April 1862

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Charles Ferguson Smith assumed
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • “Department of Louisiana”: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper

Union Generals

Major-General USA

Winfield Scott

Brigadier-General USA

John Ellis Wool
William Selby Harney
Edwin Vose Sumner

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Joseph Eggleston Johnston

Confederate Generals

Major-General PACS

David Emanuel Twiggs

Brigadier-General ACSA

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg

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