1861 April 10th

April 10 1861 Wednesday

Fort Sumter Operations

District of Columbia. Militia and volunteer forces were mobilised by Union Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith for the defence of the capital district after he arrived to command the new Department of Washington.

Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Confederate Brigadier-General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, commanding the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, was instructed to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbour. Garrison commander US Major Robert Anderson answered that he would evacuate the fort by noon on 15th April, unless in the meantime he was attacked or received a replenishment of his supplies or other instructions from Washington, DC. Beauregard was empowered by the Confederate government to reduce the fort by siege and he announced that he would open fire at 4.20 am on 12th April. The US Revenue Cutter Harriet Lane arrived offshore before midnight, the first vessel in a fleet sent by President Abraham Lincoln to relieve and resupply the garrison.

Virginia. USS Pawnee (Commander Stephen C Rowan) departed Hampton Roads to join the relief expedition to Fort Sumter. Captain Charles S McCauley USN, Commandant of the Norfolk Navy Yard, was ordered to put the USS Merrimack in condition for a move to a Northern yard should it become necessary.

Union Organisation

USA: Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston resigned as commander of the Department of the Pacific but awaited the arrival of his successor, Brigadier-General Edwin Vose Sumner, before departing.

Johnston, Albert Sidney | Kentucky-Louisiana | Born 2 February 1803 Washington, Kentucky | USMA 1826 8/41 Infantry | 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 1 July 1826 Resigned USA 31 May 1834 Private Texas Army 1835 Brigadier-General Texas Army 1836-1838 Colonel USV 1st Texas 8 July 1846 Mustered out USV 24 August 1846 Major USA Staff 31 October 1849 Colonel USA 2nd US Cavalry 3 March 1855 Resigned USA 10 April 1861 effective 3 May 1861 General ACSA to rank from 30 May 1861 on 31 August 1861 | KIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 | 15 January 1861 – 24 April 1861 Department of the Pacific, 20 September 1861 – 5 April 1862 Western Department, 28 September 1861 – 4 December 1861 Army of Central Kentucky, 18 December 1861 – 31 December 1861 Army of Central Kentucky, 23 February 1862 – 29 March 1862 Army of Central Kentucky, 29 March 1862 – 5 April 1862 Army of Mississippi

USA: Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith arrived to command the Department of Washington.

Smith, Charles Ferguson | Pennsylvania | Born 24 April 1807 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania | USMA 1825 19/37 Artillery | 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1825 1st Lieutenant USA 2nd US Artillery 30 May 1832 Captain 2nd US Artillery 7 July 1838 Major USA 1st US Artillery 25 November 1854 Lieutenant-Colonel USA 10th US Infantry 3 March 1855 Brigadier-General USV August 30 1861 Colonel USA 3rd US Infantry 9 September 1861 Major-General USV March 22 1862 to rank from March 21 1862 | Died 25 April 1862 | 9 April 1861 – 21 April 1861 Department of Washington, 8 September 1861 – 16 November 1861 District of Western Kentucky, 11 March 1862 – 16 March 1862 District of West Tennessee

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Simon Cameron

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • African Squadron USN: Captain William Inman USN
  • Brazil Squadron USN: Captain Joshua R Sands USN.
  • East Indian (Asiatic) Squadron USN: Captain Cornelius K Stribling USN
  • European Squadron USN: vacant
  • Home Squadron USN: Captain Garrett J Prendergast USN
  • Mediterranean Squadron USN: Captain Charles H Bell USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN

General–in-Chief: Winfield Scott

  • Department of the East: John Ellis Wool
  • Department of New Mexico: William Wing Loring
  • Department of the Pacific: Albert Sidney Johnston interim Edwin Vose Sumner awaited
    • District of Oregon: George Wright
  • Department of Texas: Carlos Adolphus Waite
  • Department of Utah: Philip St George Cooke
  • Department of Washington: Charles Ferguson Smith assumed
  • Department of the West: William Selby Harney

Confederate Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: Leroy Pope Walker

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

  • “Department of Louisiana”: David Emanuel Twiggs
    • “Forces in New Orleans” “Army of Louisiana”: Braxton Bragg
  • Department of South Carolina: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • “Forces in Charleston”: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
  • Department of West Florida: Braxton Bragg
    • “Forces in Pensacola”: Braxton Bragg
  • Forces in Harper’s Ferry”: Kenton Harper

Union Generals

  • Major-General USA Winfield Scott 5 July 1841 to rank from 25 June 1841 General-in-Chief
  • Brigadier-General USA John Ellis Wool 25 June 1841 Department of the East
  • Brigadier-General USA William Selby Harney 14 June 1858 Department of the West
  • Brigadier-General USA Joseph Eggleston Johnston 28 June 1860 Quartermaster-General
  • Brigadier-General USA Edwin Vose Sumner 16 March 1861 Department of the Pacific awaited
  • Colonel George Wright 3 March 1855 District of Oregon
  • Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston 3 March 1855 Department of the Pacific interim
  • Colonel William Wing Loring 30 December 1856 Department of New Mexico
  • Colonel Philip St George Cooke 14 June 1858 Department of Utah
  • Colonel Carlos Adolphus Waite 5 June 1860 Department of Texas temporary
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith 3 March 1855 Department of Washington

Confederate Generals

  • Major-General PACS David Emanuel Twiggs March 22 1861 Department of Louisiana
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard March 1 1861 Department of South Carolina & Forces in Charleston
  • Brigadier-General ACSA Braxton Bragg March 7 1861 Forces in Louisiana & Department of West Florida & Forces in Pensacola
  • Colonel Kenton Harper Forces in Harper’s Ferry



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