General Officers in the Confederate Army

Note: Officers are listed here by Grade and then by order of seniority within the grade. 

Commander-in-Chief

The permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America provided that the President should be Commander-in-Chief of the Army, the Navy, the Marines, and of the Militia of the several States when called into service. A nominal Army of the Confederate States was formed in 1861, but the vast majority of Generals, officers and men served in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, a temporary organisation broadly equivalent to the US Volunteers. President Jefferson Davis became Commander-in-Chief on his inauguration as President of the Confederate States of America on 18th February 1861. Davis had served with distinction in the US Volunteers and as Secretary of War of the United States.

Jefferson Finis Davis of Mississippi 8 February 1861 to 21 February 1862 (Provisional) Jefferson Finis Davis of Mississippi 22 February 1862 to 5 May 1865

Secretary of War

Leroy Pope Walker of Alabama 21 February 1861 to 17 September 1861
Judah Philip Benjamin of Louisiana 17 September 1861 to 17 March 1862
George Wythe Randolph of Virginia 17 March 1862 to 17 November 1862
Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith of Kentucky temporary 17 November 1862 to 21 November 1862
James Alexander Seddon of Virginia 21 November 1862 to 6 February 1865
Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge of Kentucky 6 February 1865 to 10 May 1865

General-in-Chief

The US Regular Army had traditionally considered its most senior ranking officer as General-in-Chief, but the post of General-in-Chief was not created by the Confederate Congress until 23 January 1865. The position had been debated as early as 27 February 1862, but President Jefferson Finis Davis voiced his rejection and veto to the Congress on 14 March 1862. He believed that there was a risk that such a General could “command an army or armies without the will of the President” and infringe the rights of the President as Commander-in-Chief.

General Robert Edward Lee 31 January 1865 to April 10 1865

Military Adviser to the President

General Robert Edward Lee and General Braxton Bragg served as Military Advisers to the President at different times, “charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy.” Executive authority remained with the President with guidance from the Adviser.

General Robert Edward Lee June 8 1861 to 4 November 1861
Vacant 5 November 1861 to 4 March 1862
General Robert Edward Lee March 5 1862 to 31 May 1862
Vacant 1 June 1862 to 23 February 1864
General Braxton Bragg 24 February 24 1864 to 30 January 1865

“Line” and “Staff” Appointments

At the outbreak of war, there were five “Line” arms of service in the US Army: Artillery, Dragoons, Mounted, Rifles, Cavalry, and Infantry. The Confederate Army recognised three arms of service: Artillery, Cavalry, and Artillery.

The “Staff” arm of service was parallel and separate from the “Line” arms, and was organised into the various Staff Bureaux.

Line Officers of any grade always outranked all staff officers of any grade except within the purview of the staff officer’s specific responsibility, in which case the staff officer took orders from their respective staff Bureau.

The differentiation of staff and line appointments and commissions frequently caused problems of seniority when officers were promoted. Various expedients were employeded to attribute higher rank – such as promoting to brevet ranks, promoting to line commissions in the US Volunteers or the Regular Army, or transferring officers nominally to line commands within the Regular Army while serving detached from that official command. None of these expedients were convenient or particularly effective and the intractable problems of resolving seniority in staff and line commissions were not resolved until after the Civil War.

A proper understanding of the Byzantine rules of seniority has been explained in detail and after exhaustive research by John H Eicher and David J Eicher in their monumental “Civil War High Commands” and this should be consulted for clarity. It is apparent that even the most qualified officers of the day were not always clear about the proper application of seniority rules and many anomalies arose. According to the Eichers, about 25% of Union army rankings and 7% of Union Navy rankings 15% of Confederate Army rankings do not appear to follow the guidelines for the determination of rank, other than perhaps by the exertion of “Presidential preference”.

Generals in the Pre-War US Regular Army

Prior to the Civil War, the US Army system of promoting officers was based strongly but not exclusively upon seniority. Without the challenges of war to prove their merit and potential, the General Officers, chief staff officers, and Colonels of the small pre-Civil War army tended to advance mostly by seniority. The army was small, and the high command was few in number; by 1861 many were of advanced age. Among the Colonels of the line, 11 of the 19 had fought as commissioned officers in the War of 1812, over fifty years earlier.

Pre-War US Regular Army Generals and Heads of Staff Departments who became Confederate Generals

Twiggs, David Emanuel
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Cooper, Samuel

Generals in the Confederate Army

The design of the Confederate States Army was based largely on the structure and customs of the US Army when the Confederate Congress established their War Department on February 21 1861. The Confederate Army was composed of three parts; the Army of the Confederate States of America (ACSA), intended to become the permanent Regular Army, the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS), a “Volunteer” Army to be disbanded after hostilities broadly comparable to the US Volunteers, and the Militias of the several States.

The Confederate Army eventually had four grades or levels of General Officers: General, Lieutenant-General, Major-General, and Brigadier-General. The Regular Army of the Confederate States of America ACSA did not progress far beyond the planning stage as an equivalent to the US Army and only five Generals and a few lower grade officers were named. Since the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS) was the only effective Confederate Army that was organized by the Confederacy, the PACS and ACSA grades were effectively synonymous.

Initially the Confederate Army commissioned only Brigadier-Generals in both the volunteer and regular services; however, the Confederate Congress quickly passed legislation allowing for the appointment of Major-Generals as well as Generals in the PACS, thus providing clear and distinct seniority over the existing Major-Generals in the various state Militias. On 16 May 1861, when there were only five officers at the grade of Brigadier-General ACSA, this legislation was passed, which stated in part: “That the five General Officers provided by existing laws for the Confederate States shall have the rank and denomination of ‘General’, instead of ‘Brigadier-General’, which shall be the highest military grade known to the Confederate States. . .”

As of September 18 1862, when Lieutenant-Generals were authorized, the Confederate Army had four grades of General Officers; Brigadier-General, Major-General, Lieutenant-General, and General. As officers were appointed to the various grades of General by Jefferson Davis and were confirmed, he personally created the promotion lists. The dates of grade, as well as seniority of officers appointed to the same grade on the same day, were determined by Davis “usually following the guidelines established for the pre-war US Army.”

The Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for “temporary” or “special” General officers to be appointed at any grade in the PACS by the President and confirmed by the Senate and to be given a non-permanent command. Such officers would revert to their former grade if the circumstances for their temporary appointment ceased to apply.

Generals (ACSA) 1861-1865

The General Officers of the army of the Confederate States of America were the senior military leaders of the Confederacy. They were often former officers from the United States Regular Army prior to the Civil War, while others were given the grade based on merit or when necessity demanded. Confederate Generals needed confirmation from the Confederate Congress, although other interim arrangements were made by necessity later in the war. They answered to their civilian leadership in President Jefferson Davis and “Commander-in-Chief” of the Army, Navy, and Marines in the Confederate States.

By 16th May 1861, there were six officers at the grade of Brigadier-General in the Confederate States’ Army (ACSA). Legislation was then passed which stated in part: “That the five General officers provided by existing laws for the Confederate States shall have the rank and denomination of ‘General’, instead of ‘Brigadier-General’, which shall be the highest military grade known to the Confederate States…” At that time Samuel Cooper, Robert Edward Lee, and Joseph Eggleston Johnston held commands as Brigadier-General ACSA. Albert Sidney Johnston and Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard were to be promoted to that grade later in 1861. Braxton Bragg was promtoed to this grade from Major-General in 1862 to replace A S Johnston.

Cooper, Samuel (Staff)
Johnston, Albert Sidney
Lee, Robert Edward
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant
Bragg, Braxton

Adjutant and Inspector-General

General Samuel Cooper served as both Adjutant-General and Inspector General in Richmond, Virginia. His title was generally Adjutant and Inspector-General. This was a staff position so, although he outranked the other Generals of the Army in terms of date, they retained command seniority as he held a Staff commission.

General Samuel Cooper 31 August 1861 to rank from 16 May 1861 

Generals (PACS) 1861-1865 

On 17 February 1864 legislation was passed to allow the President to appoint an officer to command the Trans-Mississippi Department, with the grade of General in the PACS. The effective separation of this Department from the remainder of the Confederacy after the Union re-conquest of the Mississippi necessitated an exceptional degree of autonomy in that Department and the permission for Smith o appoint General Officers without immediate recourse to Congres. These interim appointments are sometimes described as Trans-Mississippi Generals and are deemed to be substantive despite the absence of confirmation by the Senate.

The promotion of John Bell Hood was a temporary assignment, required to elevate him above more senior Generals in July 1864. Hood reverted to Lieutenant-General in January 1865. His period as General coincided effectively with the period “awaiting orders” of General Joseph Eggleston Johnston.

Smith, Edmund Kirby
Reverted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Hood, John Bell

Lieutenant-Generals (PACS) 1861-1865 

As of 18th September 1862, the grade of Lieutenant-General was authorized, and from that date, the Confederate Army comprised four grades of General officers; they were in order of increasing grade Brigadier-General, Major-General, Lieutenant-General, and General.

The Confederate Congress passed legislation in May 1864 to allow for “temporary” General officers in the PACS, to be appointed temporarily in special circumstances by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

Congress legalised the creation of Army Corps on 18th September 1862 and directed that a Lieutenant-General should command. Lieutenant-Generals were nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. All Lieutenant-Generals were appointed in the PACS. Army Corps or Corps were officially formed from 6th November 1862 after the appropriate grade of Lieutenant-General had been authorised.

Longstreet, James
Promoted to General PACS: Smith, Edmund Kirby
Polk, Leonidas
Holmes, Theophilus Hunter
Hardee, William Joseph
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan
Pemberton, John Clifford
Ewell, Richard Stoddert
Hill, Ambrose Powell
Reverted to Major-General PACS: Hill, Daniel Harvey
Hood, John Bell
Taylor, Richard
Early, Jubal Anderson
Anderson, Richard Heron
Stewart, Alexander Peter
Lee, Stephen Dill
Buckner, Simon Bolivar
Hampton, Wade
Forrest, Nathan Bedford

Major-Generals (PACS) 1861-1865 

Major-Generals were to be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Major-Generals were all appointed to the PACS.

Some states designated the commander-in-chief of their State Militia, Home Guard, Reserve, and similar local forces as Major-General. These had authority only within their own state and were out-ranked by Generals of the ACSA and PACS; few held active senior commands.

Twiggs, David Emanuel
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Polk, Leonidas
Promoted to General PACS: Bragg, Braxton
Van Dorn, Earl
Smith, Gustavus Woodson
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Holmes, Theophilus Hunter
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Hardee, William Joseph
Huger, Benjamin
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Longstreet, James
Magruder, John Bankhead
Lovell, Mansfield
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Jackson, Thomas Jonathan
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS aand General PACS: Smith, Edmund Kirby
Crittenden, George Bibb
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Pemberton, John Clifford
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Ewell, Richard Stoddert
Loring, William Wing
Price, Sterling
Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin
Jones, Samuel
McCown, John Porter
Hill, Daniel Harvey
Withers, Jones Mitchell
Hindman, Thomas Carmichael
Breckinridge, John Cabell
McLaws, Lafayette
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Hill, Ambrose Powell
Anderson, Richard Heron
Stuart, James Ewell Brown
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Taylor, Richard
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Buckner, Simon Bolivar
French, Samuel Gibbs
Pickett, George Edward
Stevenson, Carter Littlepage
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS and interim General PACS: Hood, John Bell
Jones, David Rumph
Forney, John Horace
Maury, Dabney Herndon
Smith, Martin Luther
Walker, John George
Elzey, Arnold (Jones)
Cleburne, Patrick Ronayne
Gardner, Franklin
Donelson, Daniel Smith
Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Early, Jubal Anderson
Wheeler, Joseph
Johnson, Edward
Whiting, William Henry Chase
Rodes, Robert Emmett
Walker, William Henry Talbot (Second Appointment)
Heth, Henry
Ransom, Robert (Jr)
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Stewart, Alexander Peter
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Lee, Stephen Dill
Wilcox, Cadmus Marcellus
Hampton, Wade
Lee, Fitzhugh
Smith, William
Cobb, Howell (Thomas Howell)
Wharton, John Austin
Martin, William Thompson
Promoted to Lieutenant-General PACS: Forrest, Nathan Bedford
Field, Charles William
Anderson, James Patton
Bate, William Brimage
Polignac, Camille Armand Jules Marie de
Hoke, Robert Frederick
Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh
Fagan, James Fleming
Gordon, John Brown
Kershaw, Joseph Brevard
Johnson, Bushrod Rust
Ramseur, Stephen Dodson
Walthall, Edward Cary
Clayton, Henry De Lamar
Mahone, William
Brown, John Calvin
Lomax, Lunsford Lindsay
Kemper, James Lawson
Butler, Matthew Calbraith
Lee, George Washington Custis
Rosser, Thomas Lafayette
Wright, Ambrose Ransom
Young, Pierce Manning Butler
Grimes, Bryan
Churchill, Thomas James
Marmaduke, John Sappington

Brigadier-Generals (ACSA) 1861

Before the authorization of the grades of General ACSA or PACS, Lieutenant-General PACS and Major-General PACS, the first five General officers in the Confederacy were appointed as Brigadier-General in the ACSA. These five appointments were of short duration and all were quickly promoted to General ACSA. For the purposes of this list, this grade can be disregarded as an anomaly.

Promoted to General ACSA: Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant
Promoted to General ACSA (Staff): Cooper, Samuel
Promoted to General ACSA: Johnston, Albert Sidney
Promoted to General ACSA: Lee, Robert Edward
Promoted to General ACSA: Johnston, Joseph Eggleston

The appointment of officers as Brigadier-General was authorized by Congress on 6th March 1861. Those who received this grade in the ACSA were soon elevated to General ACSA.

Brigadier-Generals (PACS) 1861-1865 

After the early appointment of five Generals of the ACSA, all Brigadier-Generals were appointed only within the PACS.

Promoted to General ACSA: Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant
Promoted to Major-General PACS and General ACSA: Bragg, Braxton
Lawton, Alexander Robert
Bonham, Milledge Luke (First Appointment)
McCulloch, Benjamin
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Loring, William Wing
Clark, Charles
Floyd, John Buchanan
Walker, William Henry Talbot (First Appointment)
Jackson, Henry Rootes
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Holmes, Theophilus Hunter
Wise, Henry Alexander
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Van Dorn, Earl
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Hardee, William Joseph
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Ewell, Richard Stoddert
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Jones, David Rumph
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Huger, Benjamin
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Magruder, John Bankhead
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Longstreet, James
Promoted to Major-General PACS, Lieutenant-General PACS and General PACS: Smith, Edmund Kirby
Promoted to Major-General PACSand Lieutenant-General PACS: Pemberton, John Clifford
Promoted to Major-General PACSand Lieutenant-General PACS: Jackson, Thomas Jonathan
Sibley, Henry Hopkins
Winder, John Henry
Gatlin, Richard Caswell
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Donelson, Daniel Smith
Anderson, Samuel Read (First Appointment)
Pillow, Gideon Johnson / Tennessee
Promoted to: Major-General PACS: Cheatham, Benjamin Franklin
Zollicoffer, Felix Kirk
Promoted to Major-General PACS and interim Lieutenant-General PACS: Hill, Daniel Harvey
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Withers, Jones Mitchell
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Anderson, Richard Heron
Toombs, Robert Augustus / Georgia
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Jones, Samuel
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Whiting, William Henry Chase
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Elzey, Arnold (Jones)
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Early, Jubal Anderson
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway
Ruggles, Daniel
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Crittenden, George Bibb
Grayson, John Breckinridge
Ripley, Roswell Sabine
Pike, Albert
Hébert, Paul Octave
Anderson, Joseph Reid
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Buckner, Simon Bolivar
Walker, Leroy Pope
Blanchard, Albert Gallatin
Rains, Gabriel James
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Stuart, James Ewell Brown
Promoted to Major-General PACS: McLaws, Lafayette
Drayton, Thomas Fenwick
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Hindman, Thomas Carmichael
Gladden, Adley Hogan
Promoted to Major-General PACS: McCown, John Porter
Tilghman, Lloyd
Evans, Nathan George
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Wilcox, Cadmus Marcellus
Cocke, Philip St George
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Rodes, Robert Emmett
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Taylor, Richard
Wigfall, Louis Trezevant
Trapier, James Heyward
Promoted to Major-General PACS: French, Samuel Gibbs
Carroll, William Henry
Mercer, Hugh Weedon
Marshall, Humphrey
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Breckinridge, John Cabell
Griffith, Ricard
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Stewart, Alexander Peter
Gardner, William Montgomery
Garnett, Richard Brooke
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Mahone, William
Branch, Lawrence O’Bryan
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Johnson, Edward
Gregg, Maxcy
Wayne, Henry Constantine
Colston, Raleigh Edward
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Heth, Henry
Duncan, Johnson Kelly
Wood, Sterling Alexander Martin
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Walker, John George
Jackson, John King
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Pickett, George Edward
McIntosh, James McQueen
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Johnson, Bushrod Rust
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Anderson, James Patton
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Cobb, Howell (Thomas Howell)
Randolph, George Wythe
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Kershaw, Joseph Brevard
Chalmers, James Ronald
Hogg, Joseph Lewis
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Hill, Ambrose Powell
Pettigrew, James Johnston
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Stevenson, Carter Littlepage
Leadbetter, Danville
Mackall, William Whann
Winder, Charles Sidney
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Ransom, Robert (Jr)
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS and interim General PACS: Hood, John Bell
Frost, Daniel Marsh
Featherston, Winfield Scott
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Churchill, Thomas James
Taliaferro, William Booth
Rust, Albert
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Cleburne, Patrick Ronayne
Maxey, Samuel Bell
Bee, Hamilton Prioleau
Hawes, James Morrison
Steuart, George Hume
Smith, William Duncan
Slaughter, James Edwin
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Field, Charles William
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Forney, John Horace
Semmes Paul Jones
Walker, Lucius Marshall
Barton, Seth Maxwell
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Maury, Dabney Herndon
Villepigue, John Bordenave
McCullough, Henry Eustace
Bowen, John Stevens
Helm, Benjamin Hardin
Roane, John Selden
Gist, States Rights
Pendleton, William Nelson
Armistead, Lewis Addison
Finegan, Joseph
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Smith, Martin Luther
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Gardner, Franklin
Beall, William Nelson Rector
Jordan, Thomas
Preston, William
De Lagnel, Julius Adolph
Pryor, Roger Atkinson
Little, (Lewis) Henry
Echols, John
Maney, George Earl
Mouton, Jean Jacques Alfred Alexander
Williams, John Stuart
Martin, James Green
Clingman, Thomas Lanier
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Hampton, Wade
Adams, Daniel Weisiger
Hébert, Louis
Moore, John Creed
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Wright, Ambrose Ransom
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Kemper, James Lawson
Archer, James Jay
Anderson, George Burgwyn
Robertson, Beverley Holcombe
Liddell, St John Richardson
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Forrest, Nathan Bedford
Hagood, Johnson
Pender, William Dorsey
Jenkins, Micah
Green, Martin Edwin
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Lee, Fitzhugh
Hays, Harry Thompson
Jenkins, Albert Gallatin
Barksdale, William
Tracy, Edward Dorr
Ector, Matthew Duncan
Perry, Edward Aylesworth
Gregg, John
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Brown, John Calvin
Colquitt, Alfred Holt
Daniel, Junius
Buford, Abraham
Steele, William
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Fagan, James Fleming
Scurry, William Read
Nelson, Allison
Shoup, Francis Asbury
Davis, Joseph Robert
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh
Jones, William Edmondson
Baldwin, William Edwin
Vaughn, John Crawford
Law, Evander McIvor
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Bate, William Brimage
Greer, Elkanah Brackin
Nicholls, Francis Redding Tillou
Smith, Preston
Cumming, Alfred
Walker, William Stephen
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Wheeler, Joseph
Doles, George Pierce
Posey, Carnot
Corse, Montgomery Dent
Anderson, George Thomas
Iverson, Alfred
Lane, James Henry
Thomas, Edward Lloyd
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Ramseur, Stephen Dodson
Cooke, John Rogers
Robertson, Jerome Bonaparte
Paxton, Elisha Franklin
McNair, Evander
Davis, William George Mackey
Gracie, Archibald
Boggs, William Robertson
Tappan, James Camp
McRae, Dandridge
Parsons, Mosby Monroe
Promoted to Major-General PACS and Lieutenant-General PACS: Lee, Stephen Dill
Pegram, John
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Marmaduke, John Sappington
Morgan, John Hunt
Wright, Marcus Joseph
Deas, Zachariah Cantey
Polk, Lucius Eugene
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Walthall, Edward Cary
Adams, John
Jackson, William Hicks
Cantey, James
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Polignac, Camille Armand Jules Marie de (Prince)
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Hoke, Robert Frederick
Benning, Henry Lewis
Wofford, William Tatum
McGowan, Samuel
Stovall, Marcellus Augustus
Cosby, George Blake
Armstrong, Frank Crawford
Cabell, William Lewis
Imboden, John Daniel
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Smith, William
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Walker, William Henry Talbot (Second Appointment)
Jackson, Alfred Eugene
Vance, Robert Brank
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Clayton, Henry De Lamar
Manigault, Arthur Middleton
Cooper, Douglas Hancock
Whitfield, John Wilkins
Walker, James Alexander
Jones, John Marshall
Green, Thomas
Ransom, Matthew Whitaker
Scales, Alfred Moore
Walker, Henry Harrison
Wharton, Gabriel Colvin
Cockrell, Francis Marion
Major, James Patrick
Ferguson, Samuel Wragg
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Lomax, Lunsford Lindsay
Baker, Laurence Simmons
Strahl, Otho French
Roddey, Philip Dale
Hunton, Eppa
Dockery, Thomas Pleasant
Humphreys, Benjamin Grubb
Davidson, Henry Brevard
Allen, Henry Watkins
Battle, Cullen Andrews
Quarles, William Andrew
Kirkland, William Whedbee
Bryan, Goode
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Butler, Matthew Calbraith
Wickham, Williams Carter
Johnston, Robert Daniel
Perrin, Abner Monroe
Reynolds, Alexander Welch
Waul, Thomas Neville
Pettus, Edmund Winston
Long, Armistead Lindsay
Adams, William Wirt
Gordon, James Byron
Smith, James Argyle
Lewis, Joseph Horace
Lowrey, Mark Perrin
Stafford, Leroy Augustus
Higgins, Edward
Morgan, John Tyler
Kelly, John Herbert
Humes, William Young Conn
Finley, Jesse Johnson
Clanton, James Holt
Vaughan, Alfred Jefferson
Richardson, Robert Vinkler
Shelby, Joseph Orville
Chambliss, John Randolph
Chilton, Robert Hall
Ross, Lawrence Sullivan
Govan, Daniel Chevilette
Gibson, Randall Lee
Stevens, Clement Hoffman
Harris, Nathaniel Harrison
Thomas, Allen
Hawthorn, Alexander Travis
Tyler, Robert Charles
Allen, William Wirt
Alexander, Edward Porter
Granbury, Hiram Bronson
Sears, Claudius Wistar
Tucker, William Feimster
Page, Richard Lucian
Baker, Alpheus
Reynolds, Daniel Harris
Clark, John Bullock
Chesnut, James
Watie, Stand
Gholson, Samuel Jameson
Bratton, John
Scott, Thomas Moore
McCausland, John
Evans, Clement Anselm
Terry, William
Promoted to Major-General PACS: Grimes, Bryan
Gary, Martin Witherspoon
Fry, Birkett Davenport
Elliott, Stephen
Cox, William Ruffin
Toon, Thomas Fentress
Lewis, William Gaston
York, Zebulon
Lilley, Robert Doak
Sanders, John Caldwell Calhoun
Terry, William Richard
Conner, James
Barringer, Rufus Clay
Preston, John Smith
Lyon, Hylan Benton
Brandon, William Lindsay
Johnson, Bradley Tyler
Holtzclaw, James Thadeus
Brantley, William Felix
Anderson, Robert Houston
Sharp, Jacob Hunter
Johnston, George Doherty
Dibrell, George Gibbs
Smith, Thomas Benton
Weisiger, Davis Addison
Miller, William
Cook, Philip
Young, William Hugh
Gordon, George Washington
Gartrell, Lucius Jeremiah
Stevens, Walter Husted
Duke, Basil Wilson
Shelley, Charles Miller
Moore, Patrick Theodore
Lee, Edwin Gray
Wallace, William Henry
Sorrel, Gilbert Moxley
Payne, William Henry Fitzhugh
Starke, Peter Burwell
MacRae, William
Anderson, Samuel Read (Second Appointment)
Palmer, Joseph Benjamin
Du Bose, Dudley McIver
Bullock, Robert
Hill, Benjamin Jefferson
Simms, James Phillip
Jackson, William Lowther
Harrison, James Edward
Kennedy, John Doby
Beale, Richard Lee Turberville
Harrison, Thomas
McComb, William
Leventhorpe, Collett
Lowry, Robert
Bonham, Milledge Luke (Second Appointment)
Forney, William Henry
Logan, Thomas Muldrup
Peck, William Raine
Walker, Reuben Lindsay
Roberts, William Paul
Perry, William Flank
Bell, Tyree Harris
Capers, Ellison
Campbell, Alexander William
Moody, Young Marshall
Gano, Richard Montgomery
Lane, Walter Paye
Hardeman, William Polk
Waterhouse, Richard
Gray, Henry

Unconfirmed or Unsubstantiated Generals listed by Seniority (Rank) in Grade

Many Confederate officers were appointed as Generals late in the war by General Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department, but not formally appointed by President Jefferson Davis or confirmed by the Senate because of interrupted communications with the capital. Some of Smith’s earlier nominees were formally appointed, but at least nine officers were appointed by Smith late in the war.

The appointments below were not completed or unconfirmed, or not properly delivered. Some appointments were withdrawn before they were voted upon by the Confederate Senate. Some commissions as Generals were delivered posthumously.

Major-General (PACS) 1861-1865

Gilmer, Jeremy Francis (Staff)

Brigadier-General (PACS) 1861-1865

Garnett, Robert Selden
Bee, Barnard Elliott
Slack, William Yarnel
Garland, Samuel
Hatton, Robert Hopkins
Ashby, Turner
Starke, William Edwin
Cobb, Thomas Reade Rootes
Rains, James Edward
Hanson, Roger Weightman
Frazer, John Wesley
Garrott, Isham Warren
Deshler, James
Wilson, Claudius Charles
Debray, Xavier Blanchard
Dearing, James
Maclay, Robert Plunket
Terrill, James Barbour
Carter, John Carpenter
Benton, Samuel
Thomas, Bryan Morel
Dunovant, John
Gorgas, Josiah (Staff)
St John, Isaac Munroe (Staff) 

Commanders of Territorial Commands not of General Officer Grade

Bankhead, Smith Pyne
Baylor, John Robert
Bowen, John C
Butler, William B
Cary, Richard M
Dilworth, William Scott
Dimmock, Charles
Fauntleroy, Thomas Turner
Flournoy, George M
Glenn, John W
Gwynn, Walter
Harper, Kenton
Jones, Thomas Marshall
Luckett, Philip Noland
Myers, Abraham Charles
Nichols, Ebenezer B
Powell, William L
Rhett, Alfred Moore
Scott, John S
Shaw, Henry Marchmore
Taylor, Thomas Hart
Tompkins, Christopher Quarles

Incomplete appointments, unconfirmed appointments, refused appointments, posthumous appointments or undelivered commissions

These officers are included here whose promotion to General grade is unsubtantiated.

Ashby, Henry Marshall
Bagby, Arthur Pendleton
Barry, John Decatur
Bartow, Francis Stebin
Bowles, Pinckney Downie
Brevard, Theodore Washington
Browne, William Montague
Crews, Charles Constantine
Fauntleroy, Thomas Turner
Fiser, John Calvin
Girardey, Victor Jean Baptiste
Godwin, Archibald Campbell
Goggin, James Monroe
Gordon, Benjamin Franklin
Hagan, James
Hannon, Moses Wright
Harrison, George Paul
Henderson, Robert Johnson
Hodge, George Baird
Jackman, Sidney Drake
Johnson, Adam Rankin
Jones, John Robert
King, Wilburn Hill
Lewis, Levin Major
McGlashan, Peter Alexander Selkirk
Moore, Samuel Preston
Munford, Thomas Taylor
Northrop, Lucius Bellinger
O’Neal, Edward Asbury
Pegram, William
Porterfield, George
Randal, Horace
Robertson, Felix Huston
Semmes, Raphael
Taylor, Thomas Hart
Terrell, Alexander Watkins
Walker, Francis Marion

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