1865 March 25th

March 25 1865 Saturday

Battle of Fort Stedman, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Siege of Petersburg

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina

Mobile Campaign

Wilson’s Raid to Selma

Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

Alabama. Skirmish on the Deer Park Road near Mobile.

Florida. Skirmish at Canoe Creek, near Bluff Spring, during which Confederate Brigadier-General James Holt Clanton was badly wounded and captured by Union soldiers.

Florida. Skirmish at Cotton Creek.

Florida. Skirmish at Escambia River.

Florida. Skirmish at Mitchell’s Creek.

Kentucky. Skirmish near Glasgow.

Louisiana. Reconnaissance from Brashear City to Indian Bend by the 93rd USCT Infantry, aboard  gunboat No 43 began. The aim was to destroy or capture a barge used by the Confederates for transporting a number of horses over Grand Lake for military use.

Louisiana. Expedition from Brashear City aboard the steamer Cornie down the Atchafalaya River, to Oyster Bayou. The aim was to seize a large oyster boat which lay stranded on the beach six miles west of Oyster Bayou.

Missouri. Operation at Licking ended.

North Carolina. The restoration of the railroad from Goldsboro to New Bern was completed and Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman was one of the first eastbound passengers. He departed from Goldsboro to attend a strategic military conference with Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant in City Point, Virginia. Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield was left in command of matters in North Carolina and the preparations to march north to Virginia.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Brawley Forks.

Virginia. Reconnaissance to Loudoun County ended.

Virginia. Skirmish at Fort Fisher.

Virginia. Skirmish at the Watkins House.

Virginia. USS Wilderness was ordered up the Chickahominy River to communicate with Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan and to scout for Confederate activity along the river.

Virginia. The Union Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac was reorganised after the arrival of two divisions of cavalry from the Shenandoah Valley. Its strength was about 13,820 men in 37 regiments. Brigadier-General Thomas Casimer Devin kept command of the 1st Division, Brigadier-General George Crook assumed command of the 2nd Division, and Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer retained command of the 3rd Division. Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan took overall control of these three divisions and of all the cavalry operating in Virginia, while Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt commanded specifically the three divisions of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

Virginia. US President Abraham Lincoln was conferring with Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant when news of the Confederate attack on Fort Stedman arrived. A division-size review parade was scheduled nearby for noon but the review was postponed until the afternoon. Anxiety for the supply base at City Point and the pontoon bridge across the Appomattox River meant that two naval gunboats were summoned to provide security, but the attack prompted little consternation among the Union high command.

Fort Stedman, Virginia. Confederate General Robert Edward Lee was ordered by President Jefferson Finis Davis to make a final offensive effort before growing Union strength resulted in the inevitable capture of Petersburg and Richmond. Lee massed nearly half of the infantry in his army in an attempt to break through Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s defences east of Petersburg and to threaten his supply depot at City Point. The primary objective was Fort Stedman on Hare’s Hill. Conceived and directed by Major-General John Brown Gordon, due to the sickness of senior corps commander Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill, the original plan of attack was to be made by three divisions of II Corps against the most promising point. This was Fort Stedman, which stood a mere 150 yards from the Confederate lines at Colquitt’s Salient. A successful breakthrough and severance of the Union lines of communications along the City Point Railroad and an attack on the vast supply depot at City Point would force the Union army to shorten its lines. With pressure thus relieved, it was hoped that Confederate troops might then be released from their trap at Petersburg for further service in North Carolina. Lee modified Gordon’s plan by adding a further four brigades III Corps and two brigades from IV Corps. This meant that half of the Confederate infantry south of the James River was committed to the assault, about 12,000 men in all. In addition, the cavalry division of Major-General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee was recalled from Stony Creek to be released through the gap to cause havoc in the Union rear, but it was still on the move when the battle began. Gordon made novel tactical preparations to ensure success. Lead parties of sharpshooters were to be followed by fifty pioneers and axe-men masquerading as deserting soldiers. Together they would overwhelm the Union pickets and cut away the obstructions that would otherwise delay the infantry advance. They were to be followed by three special groups of 100 men assigned to storm the Union works and to pour into the Union rear area. These men, using the tactics later adopted by German Stormtroopers, relied on surprise and speed; they carried unloaded muskets so that no one could accidentally fire and alert the enemy. The main attack would follow to exploit the breakthrough.

The night before the battle, Gordon requested and was granted the support of the division of Major-General George Edward Pickett from north of the James River but understood that it might not arrive in time for the action, but it would provide a reserve. Gordon’s attack started in and around Colquitt’s Salient at 4:15 am. This first assault was made in darkness, an hour before dawn, and two hours before sunrise. The main thrust was made between Batteries XI and X, with one group moving north for Battery XI, and the other two for Battery X and Fort Stedman. The movement achieved complete surprise and the four guns of Fort Stedman were overwhelmed after firing only a few shots. Their crews of 300 heavy artillerymen were forced to surrender. Battery X and Battery XI on either side were captured equally quickly. Gordon soon arrived at Fort Stedman and found his attack had so far exceeded his expectations. Within minutes, a gap nearly 1,000 feet wide had been opened in the Union line. Confederate artillerists under Lieutenant-Colonel Robert M Stribling arrived and turned the captured guns in Fort Stedman and Battery X to open an enfilading fire on the Union entrenchments to the north and south. Union Colonel Napoleon B McLaughlen, commanding the Fort Stedman sector, heard the sounds of the attack and rode to Fort Haskell, just to the south of Battery XII, which he found to be alert in defence. As he moved north, McLaughlen ordered Battery XII to open fire on Battery XI. He then ordered the 59th Massachusetts Infantry to counterattack from the reserve, which they did with fixed bayonets, briefly re-capturing Battery XI. Assuming that he had sealed the only breach in the line, McLaughlen rode into Fort Stedman and was immediately taken as a prisoner.

The Confederate attack began to encounter difficulty at Battery IX to the north, where the Union troops formed a strong battle line and the Confederates were too confused by the maze of trenches to attack it effectively. Gordon turned his attention to the southern flank of his attack to Battery XII and Fort Haskell, against which he launched the division of Brigadier-General Clement Anselm Evans. The defenders successfully stopped the assault. The Confederate artillery from Colquitt’s Salient began bombarding Fort Haskell and the Union field artillery returned fire, assisted by some massive siege guns in the rear. When the Union flag at Fort Haskell was knocked down, the Union gunners assumed that the fort had fallen to the Confederates and opened fire on their own men. Volunteers were found to raise the flag again and four men were killed before the Union artillery ceased fire. Gordon sent a message back to Lee that the attack was going well. Gordon’s plan depended on his three 100-man special assault groups to press on and capture three Union fortifications believed to have been built to the rear of Fort Stedman, in order to open a gap for the cavalry to burst through and raid beyond, causing panic in the Union rear. These forts were not found by the attackers because they were actually the remnants of old works of the original Dimmock Line. The special detachments wandered around the Union rear area in confusion and many stopped to satisfy their hunger with captured Union rations. The cavalry had not found an avenue to advance into the rear and the non-existent forts could not provide a solid fulcrum from which to unleash a further advance.

Pickett’s division had such difficulty with rail transportation from the Richmond lines that only three of its four brigades departed on schedule and they did not arrive until midday. This was too late for them to exploit the early success as the Union defenders were beginning to prepare their response. Union artillery fire was intensifying against the Confederates jammed into their narrow breakthrough sector. Union Major-General John Grubb Parke acted decisively, ordering Brigadier-General John Frederick Hartranft’s division out of reserve to close the gap while the army’s reserve artillery under Colonel John C Tidball took up positions on a ridge east of Fort Stedman. The guns opened with a persistent shelling of the Confederates. Hartranft worked furiously to limit the Confederate penetration and to eliminate the breakthrough. Finding that Major-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox, commanding 1st Division of IX Corps, was preparing his headquarters to withdraw, Hartranft convinced him to yield tactical command and, by 7.30 am, Hartranft he had organised a defensive line that blocked the Confederate penetration, just short of the vital military railroad depot at Meade Station.

The Union artillery, now aware that Confederates held Battery and Fort Stedman, opened a punishing fire against them. Gordon, who was in Fort Stedman, realised that his plan was failing when his men returned with reports of growing resistance. With permission from Lee, who had arrived to watch the battle, Gordon scrambled to get his forces back to safety. By 7:45 am, 4,000 Union troops under Hartranft were positioned in a semicircle of a mile and a half, ready to counterattack. A messenger arrived with word from Parke to delay the attack while more reinforcements came up from the VI Corps. Nevertheless, Hartranft ordered his line to charge, to exploit the opportunity. The Union troops drove the Confederates back into Fort Stedman and Battery X. At about 8 pm, Gordon requested, and Lee approved, a full withdrawal and the Confederates abandoned the captured works, coming under crossfire as they retreated. They suffered heavy casualties as they fell back to their starting positions. Fort Stedman was soon recaptured by a squad from the 208th Pennsylvania Infantry. The Union counter-attack cut off and captured more than 1,900 of the attackers who had not dared to risk the return journey across open ground. The attack on Fort Stedman had lasted for four hours but had no lasting impact on the Union lines.

To give Gordon’s attack enough strength to be successful, Lee had weakened his own right flank. Union Major-General George Gordon Meade ordered elements of the Union II and V Corps to exploit the inevitable weakness. The V Corps had in fact been on alert for a review by President Abraham Lincoln at noon, but this had been deferred until 3 pm before Lincoln went to view the scene of the action at 4 pm. The II Corps and VI Corps seized much of the entrenched Confederate picket line of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps southwest of Petersburg along Hatcher’s Run but, after taking about a thousand prisoners, they found the main line still well manned. Nevertheless, this improvised advance gained strong new positions from which to launch further Union encroachments.

The failed operation had been planned meticulously but was executed poorly, and it cost the attackers dearly in casualties. Union casualties were reported as 1,044 (72 killed, 450 wounded, 522 missing or captured) and the Confederate lost 3,500 men, of whom at least 1,900 were captured. The operations further south in the Confederate defences cost many more casualties and the final tally was about 4,080 Confederates and 2,080 Union troops. This was the worst loss of men in the Confederate army since the battles at Spotsylvania in 1864 and subtracted a tenth of Lee’s available force. By comparison, the Union lost barely one-sixtieth of their force in what was reported to be a comparatively minor action. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: FORT STEDMAN, VA

Union General-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant
Department of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
Army of the Potomac: Major-General George Gordon Meade
IX Corps (Potomac): Major-General John Grubb Parke
1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Samuel Harriman
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Ralph Ely
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Napoleon Bonaparte McLaughlen
3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Brigadier-General John Frederick Hartranft
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Charles Worth Diven
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IX Corps (Potomac): Colonel Joseph Ard Mathews

Virginia. In response to the Confederate attack at Fort Stedman, Union Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter placed gunboats in the Appomattox River to protect the Army’s pontoon bridge.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Lynchburg was established in the Department of Virginia. It comprised the counties of Nelson, Amherst, Bedford, Campbell, Appomattox, Pittsylvania, Henry, and Patrick counties of Virginia.

USA: Colonel John Irvin Gregg (16th Pennsylvania Cavalry) assumed command of the District of Lynchburg.

Gregg, John Irvin / Pennsylvania / Born 19 July 1826 Bellefonte, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 6 January 1892
Private USV 2nd Pennsylvania Infantry 29 December 1846 / Mustered Out USV 6 May 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA Infantry 18 February 1847 / 11th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Captain USA 5 September 1847 / Discharged USA 14 August 1848 / Captain USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry 14 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 11 August 1865 / Colonel USA 8th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Retired USA 2 April 1879 / Brevet Major USA 17 March 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 12 October 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 7 October 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Charles City Road 16 August 1864 WIA Gravelly Run 6 February 1865 WIA and CIA Farmville 7 April 1865 Released 9 April 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 13 May 1863-14 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 14 June 1863-12 August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 12 August 1863-24 August 1863 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 24 August 1863-4 September 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 4 September 1863-24 March 1864 /2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-4 April 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 4 April 1864-2 August 1864 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 2 August 1864-6 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 6 August 1864-16 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 10 November 1864-9 February 1865 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 9 February 1865-14 March 1865 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 10 February 1865-24 February 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 17 February 1865-17 April 1865 / District of Lynchburg 25 May 1865-13 July 1865

USA: Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah) was discontinued. Its forces were incorporated later into Sheridan’s Cavalry Command.

USA: Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt assumed command of Cavalry Corps (Potomac), succeeding Brigadier-General Henry Eugene Davies.

Merritt, Wesley / New York-Illinois / Born 16 June 1834 New York City, New York / Died Natural Bridge, Virginia 3 December 1910
USMA 1 July 1860 22/41 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1855 / 2nd US Dragoons 1 July 1860 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 28 January 1861 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 May 1861 / Regt Adjutant 1 July 1861-1 January 1862 / 2nd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / ADC (G B McClellan) February 1862-September 1862 / Captain USA 5 May 1862 / ADC (P St G Cooke) April 1863-May 1863) / Brigadier-General USV 29 June 1863 / Major-General USV 1 April 1865 Unconfirmed / Mustered Out USV 1 February 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 9th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Colonel USA 5th US Cavalry 1 July 1876 / Superintendent of USMA 1 September 1882-1 July 1887 / Brigadier-General USA 16 April 1887 / Major-General USA 25 April 1895 / Retired USA 16 June 1900 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1860 Brevet Major USA 1 July 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 May 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 28 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 19 October 1864 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Brandy Station 9 June 1863
Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1863-12 August 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 15 August 1863-15 September 1863 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 15 September 1863-21 November 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 21 November 1863-10 March 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 10 April 1864-7 May 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 7 May 1864-25 May 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 25 May 1864-6 August 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-13 November 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 28 November 1864-31 December 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 13 January 1865-26 January 1865 / Cavalry Corps Shenandoah 26 January 1865-25 March 1865 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 25 March 1865-21 May 1865 / Cavalry Military Division of the Southwest 9 June 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John McNeil
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Department of Western Kentucky was discontinued and incorporated into the Department of Kentucky.

CSA: The Department of Kentucky was established and subordinated to the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana.

CSA: Brigadier-General Hylan Benton Lyon assumed command of the Department of Kentucky.

Lyon, Hylan Benton / Kentucky / Born 22 February 1836 Caldwell, Kentucky / Died Eddyville, Kentucky 25 April 1907
USMA 1 July 1856 19/49 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1852 / 2nd US Artillery 1 July 1856 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 3rd US Artillery 1 October 1856 / 1st Lieutenant USA 27 September 1860 / Resigned USA 30 April 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Captain PACS 1st Battalion Kentucky Artillery 30 September 1861 / ADC (S B Buckner) October 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 8th Kentucky Infantry 24 January 1862 / Colonel PACS 7 October 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 14 June 1864 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1856 / CIA Fort Donelson 16 February 1862 Exchanged 15 August 1862 CIA Red Hill 15 January 1865 Escaped 15 January 1865
Lyon’s Brigade Buford’s Division Forrest’s Cavalry Corps Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana June 1864-26 September 1864 / Lyon’s Division Forrest’s Cavalry Corps Department of Alabama Mississippi and East Louisiana 26 September 1864 / Department of Western Kentucky 26 September 1864-25 March 1865 / Department of Kentucky 25 March 1865-4 May 1865

CSA: Brigadier-General James Holt Clanton was captured at Bluff Spring, Alabama.

Clanton, James Holt / Georgia / Born 8 January 1827 Columbia, Georgia / Died Knoxville, Tennessee 27 September 1871
Private USV 1847-1848 / Captain PACS Alabama Cavalry 12 November 1861 / Colonel PACS 1st Alabama Cavalry 3 December 1861 / Resigned PACS 1862 / Colonel PACS ADC (J G Shorter) / ADC (B Bragg) / Brigadier-General PACS 18 November 1863 to rank from 16 November 1863 / ADC (L Polk) February 1864-June 1864 / Paroled Mobile, Alabama 25 May 1865 / WIA & CIA Bluff Spring 25 March 1865
2nd Brigade Gulf District September 1863-February 1864 / Clanton’s Cavalry Brigade District of Northern Alabama June 1864-24 September 1864 / Cavalry Brigade District of Central Alabama 24 September 1864-November 1864 / Cavalry Brigade District of the Gulf January 1865-25 March 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: George Baird Hodge
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • I Corps Tennessee: Daniel Harvey Hill temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Braxton Bragg
    • III Corps Tennessee: Edward Cary Walthall temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Mosby Monroe Parsons
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Bryan Grimes
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
William Henry Forney
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
William Paul Roberts
William Flank Perry
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Young Marshall Moody
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

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