1865 February 10th

February 10 1865 Friday

Siege of Petersburg

Schofield’s North Carolina Operations – Wilmington

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – South Carolina

CSA. Raphael Semmes was appointed Rear Admiral in the Provisional Navy of the Confederate States of America for his exploits in command of the CSS Alabama. . Semmes was soon appointed to command the James River Fleet, superseding Commander John K Mitchell.

Georgia. Skirmish at Johnson Creek involving Union troops from the command of Major-General James Blair Steedman.

Idaho Territory. Operation at Fort Boise ended.

Louisiana. Reconnaissance from Morganza to Bayou Grosse Tete and Fausse River ended.

Louisiana. Expedition from Brashear City to Lake Verret began.

Louisiana. Expedition from Thibodeaux to Lake Verret began.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Kittredge’s Sugar House near Napoleonville.

Louisiana. Incident at Orangeburg.

Mississippi. Skirmish at Friar’s Point resulting in the death of a lone Confederate guerrilla.

Missouri. The state of Missouri became the 12th State to ratify the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which abolished slavery.

North Carolina. USS Shawmut, Lieutenant-Commander J G Walker, engaged Confederate batteries on the east bank of the Cape Fear River while USS Huron, Lieutenant-Commander Thomas Oliver Selfridge, bombarded Fort Anderson. Fleet attacks were building up preliminary to full naval support of General Schofield’s advance on Wilmington. Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield was planning to outflank the Confederate defences by marching from Fort Fisher up the outer bank and, with the aid of pontoons to be landed by the Navy on the coast side, cross Myrtle Sound onto the mainland of the peninsula behind the Confederate lines. Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter issued his plan for the move up the fleet up the Cape Fear River. The sixteen gunboats in the Cape Fear River would attack Fort Anderson to coincide with Schofield’s turning movement. The gunboats would target the rear of the Confederate entrenchments and cover the advance of troops onshore, running in close at the moment of attack to shell the enemy ahead of the advancing soldiers. The gunboats were directed to make a bows-on approach, while the ironclad USS Montauk laid down a covering fire from close in. When the fort’s fire slackened, the lighter gunboats would drive the gunners from their positions and then the fleet would attempt to dismount the guns by precision fire.


Confederate Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: General Braxton Bragg
First District: Brigadier-General Henry Alexander Wise
Second District: Brigadier-General Laurence Simmons Baker
Hoke’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke
Clingman’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Thomas Lanier Clingman
Colquitt’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Colonel C T Zachry
Hagood’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General Johnson Hagood
Kirkland’s Brigade, Hoke’s Division (North Carolina and Southern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Whedbee Kirkland

Ohio. The state of Ohio became the 11th state to ratify the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which abolished slavery.

South Carolina. Reconnaissance to Cannon’s Bridge and South Edisto River.

South Carolina. Incidents at Edisto Railroad Bridge and Blacksville.

South Carolina. Skirmish at James Island.

South Carolina. Skirmish at Johnson’s Station.

South Carolina. The monitor USS Lehigh, Lieutenant-Commander Alexander A Semmes, and several smaller wooden vessels including USS Commodore McDonough, USS Wissahickon, USS C P Williams, USS Dan Smith, and USS Geranium, supported Brigadier-General Alexander Schimmelfennig’s movements in the Stono River and Folly River areas. They remained active for five days as preparations were made for a final advance to Charleston.

South Carolina. The combined Union armies of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman marched towards the Congaree River and the state capital of Columbia. Despite the physical difficulties of the midwinter weather and the numerous watercourses and swamps across the route, and the time spent in the destruction of property along the march, their progress was largely unopposed and achieved a steady twelve miles a day.

South Carolina. Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard set up his headquarters at Columbia. The unexpected Union advance across the supposedly impassable Salkehatchie River and the surrounding swamps split Beauregard’s two Confederate forces at Savannah (Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee) and Augusta, Georgia (Major-General Daniel Harvey Hill). The two Union armies had converged into a single powerful column of 60,000 men heading for Columbia, whereas Hardee’s and Hill’s commands were still 120 miles apart. Beauregard was forced to begin the immediate withdrawal of both of his forces. Hill was ordered to bring the troops of Major-General Carter Littlepage Stevenson to join Beauregard at Chester, fifty miles south of Columbia. Hardee was under superior orders from the Confederate War Department not to abandon Charleston prematurely and had no discretion to make that decision himself. Hardee was at first able to send away only Major-General Matthew Calbraith Butler with his small cavalry division to reinforce the cavalry of Major-General Joseph Wheeler. He remained in position with his infantry, awaiting either the permission or the necessity to evacuate the city.

Tennessee. A group of Confederates was surrounded at the Widow Patterson house, nine miles from Triune. Four guerrillas were killed.

Tennessee. Incident at Hernando Road.

Tennessee. The Union high command in the western theatre was re-organised to reflect the advance of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s through the Carolinas, beyond their original area of operations. The new jurisdictions were aligned more closely to the areas of operations of the various field armies and forces. The Department of the Cumberland was declared to consist of the state of Tennessee, and the parts of northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi occupied troops commanded by Major-General George Henry Thomas. The Department of Kentucky (effectively, the state of Kentucky) was created and assigned to Major-General John McAuley Palmer. However, the field forces in the Department of Kentucky and the Department of the Cumberland were subject to Thomas’ orders, except for the posts on the east bank of the Mississippi River, which were under the command of Major-General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby and the Department of the Gulf.

Texas. A boat expedition from USS Princess Royal and USS Antona, led by Lieutenant Charles E McKay, boarded and destroyed the blockade runner Will-O’-The Wisp, a large iron screw steamer which had run aground off Galveston.

Virginia. The Confederate Navy began its last attempt to gain control of the James River and to force the withdrawal of the Union armies by cutting the communications at City Point. An expedition of 100 men, led by Lieutenant Charles W Read, dragged four torpedo boats on wagons overland from Drewry’s Bluff to a place below City Point on the James River. The aim was to launch the boats, to capture any passing vessels and outfit the prizes with spars and torpedoes. The expedition would then ascend the river and attack and sink the Union monitors, exposing the Union’s unarmoured gunboats to destruction by Confederate ironclads.

Union Organisation

USA: The District of Kentucky was discontinued, and its area merged into the Department of Kentucky.

USA: The Department of Kentucky was established and subordinated to the Military Division of the Mississippi. It comprised the parts of Kentucky transferred from the Department of Cumberland and the Northern Department.

USA: The area around Covington was transferred from the Northern Department to the Department of Kentucky.

USA: Major-General John McAuley Palmer was appointed to command the Department of Kentucky, arriving on 18 February 1865.

Palmer, John McAuley / Kentucky / Born 13 September 1817 Eagle Creek, Kentucky / Died Springfield, Illinois 25 September 1900
Colonel USV 14th Illinois Infantry 25 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 21 December 1861 to rank from 20 December 1861 / Major-General USV 16 March 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Resigned USV 1 September 1866 / WIA Chattanooga 26 February 1863
2nd Division Army of the Mississippi 23 February 1862-4 March 1862 / 3rd Division Army of the Mississippi 4 March 1862-24 April 1862 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Army of the Mississippi 24 April 1862-10 August 1862 / 1st Division Army of the Mississippi 31 August 1862-29 September 1862 / 13th Division Army of the Ohio 19 September 1862-15 November 1862 / 2nd Division Left Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 December 1862-9 January 1863 / 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-15 July 1863 / XXI Corps Cumberland 15 July 1863-17 August 1863 / 2nd Division XXI Corps Army of the Cumberland 17 August 1863-9 October 1863 /1st Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-27 October 1863 / XIV Corps Cumberland 28 October 1863-6 August 1864 / Department of Kentucky 10 February 1865-21 June 1865 / Department of Kentucky 27 June 1865-13 April 1866

USA: The District of Western Kentucky was established in the Department of Kentucky.

USA: Brigadier-General Solomon Meredith assumed command of the District of Western Kentucky.

Meredith, Solomon / North Carolina / Born 29 May 1810 Guilford, North Carolina / Died Cambridge City, Indiana 2 October 1875
Colonel USV 19th Indiana Infantry 29 July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 6 October 1862 / Mustered Out USV 22 May 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 14 August 1865 / WIA Groveton 28 August 1862 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862 WIA Gettysburg 1 July 1863
4th Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 25 November 1862-13 December 1862 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 27 February 1863-1 March 1863 / 4th Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 1 March 1863-16 June 1863 /1st Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 16 June 1863-1 July 1863 / 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 12 November 1863-26 December 1863 / Sub-District of Western Kentucky 11 September 1864-10 February 1865 / District of Western Kentucky 10 February 1865-21 May 1865

USA: The District of West Tennessee was transferred from the Department of the Mississippi to the Department of the Cumberland. It comprised the area of Tennessee west of the Tennessee River.

USA: Brigadier-General Benjamin Stone Roberts retained command of the District of West Tennessee.

Roberts, Benjamin Stone / Vermont / Born 18 November 1810 Manchester, Vermont / Died Washington, District of Columbia 29 January 1875
USMA 1 July 1835 53/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1831 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 31 May 1836 / 1st Lieutenant 31 July 1837 / Resigned USA 28 January 1839 / 1st Lieutenant USA US Mounted Rifles 27 May 1846 / Captain USA 16 February 1847 / Major USA 13 May 1861 / 3rd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 5th New Mexico Infantry 9 December 1861 / Mustered Out USV 31 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 19 July 1862 to rank from 16 July 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General 5 August 1862 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Retired USA 15 December 1870 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1835 Brevet Major USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 24 November 1847 Brevet Colonel USA 21 February 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Cedar Mountain 9 August 1862
Southern District of New Mexico 8 August 1861-16 April 1862 / Central and Northern District of New Mexico 16 April 1862-15 June 1862 / Cavalry Army of Virginia 18 July 1862-5 August 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General Army of Virginia 5 August 1862-12 September 1862 / Assistant Inspector-General Department of the Northwest September 1862 / 3rd Division XIII Corps Middle Department 11 March 1863-16 March 1863 / 4th Brigade VIII Corps Middle Department 11 March 1863-23 May 1863 / District of Iowa 8 June 1863-4 December 1863 / 1st Division XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 25 June 1864-1 July 1864 / XIX Corps Gulf 2 July 1864-6 July 1864 / Cavalry Division Department of the Gulf 11 November 1864-28 December 1864 / District of West Tennessee 3 February 1865-4 March 1865 / Cavalry Division Cavalry Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 15 May 1865-14 June 1865

USA: The area around Jeffersonville, Indiana, was transferred from the Department of the Cumberland to the Northern Department.

USA: The District of Key West and Tortugas was transferred from the Department of the Gulf and subordinated directly to the Military Division of West Mississippi.

USA: Major-General John Newton retained command of the District of Key West and Tortugas.

Newton, John / Virginia / Born 25 August 1822 Norfolk, Virginia / Died 1 May 1895
USMA 1 July 1842 2/56 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1828 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1842 / 1st Lieutenant USA 16 October 1852 / Captain USA 1 July 1856 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 23 September 1861 / Major-General USV 30 March 1863 Withdrawn 23 March 1864 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 18 April 1864 to rank from 23 September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 28 December 1865 / Mustered Out USV 31 January 1866 / Colonel USA 30 June 1879 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 6 March 1884 / Retired USA 27 August 1886 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 17 September 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 3 July 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Salem Heights 3 May 1863
Chief Engineer Department of Pennsylvania 29 May 1861-23 July 1861 / Chief Engineer Department of the Susquehanna 23 July 1861-17 August 1861 / 3rd Brigade Franklin’s Division Army of the Potomac 28 August 1861-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862- 9 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Department of the Rappahannock 9 April 1862-18 May 1862 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 May 1862-21 September 1862 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 15 October 1862-18 October 1862 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 18 October 1862-15 December 1862 / VI Corps Potomac 25 January 1863-5 February 1863 / 3rd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 5 February 1863-1 July 1863 / I Corps Potomac 2 July 1863-12 March 1864 / I Corps Potomac 14 March 1864-24 March 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 16 April 1864-24 September 1864 / District of Key West and the Tortugas 15 October 1864-17 May 1865 / Department of Florida 27 June 1865-1 August 1865 / Chief of Engineers 6 March 1884-27 August 1886

USA: Colonel John Irvin Gregg (16th Pennsylvania Cavalry) assumed command of Cavalry Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General David McMurtrie Gregg.

Gregg, John Irvin / Pennsylvania / Born 19 July 1826 Bellefonte, Pennsylvania / Died Washington, District of Columbia 6 January 1892
Private USV 2nd Pennsylvania Infantry 29 December 1846 / Mustered Out USV 6 May 1847 / 1st Lieutenant USA Infantry 18 February 1847 / 11th US Infantry 9 April 1847 / Captain USA 5 September 1847 / Discharged USA 14 August 1848 / Captain USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry 14 November 1862 / Mustered Out USV 11 August 1865 / Colonel USA 8th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Retired USA 2 April 1879 / Brevet Major USA 17 March 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 12 October 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 7 October 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Charles City Road 16 August 1864 WIA Gravelly Run 6 February 1865 WIA and CIA Farmville 7 April 1865 Released 9 April 1865
2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 13 May 1863-14 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 14 June 1863-12 August 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 12 August 1863-24 August 1863 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 24 August 1863-4 September 1863 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 4 September 1863-24 March 1864 /2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-4 April 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 4 April 1864-2 August 1864 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 2 August 1864-6 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 6 August 1864-16 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 10 November 1864-9 February 1865 / 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 9 February 1865-14 March 1865 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 10 February 1865-24 February 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 17 February 1865-17 April 1865 / District of Lynchburg 25 May 1865-13 July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: James Shedden Palmer
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of East Tennessee: Davis Tillson
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Stone Roberts
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Cadwallader Colden Washburn
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of North Carolina: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Terry’s Provisional Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps) Andrew Jackson Smith
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • Northern District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: Joseph Bailey
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: Charles Wilson Drew
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Daniel Ullmann
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
  • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope interim Samuel Ryan Curtis awaited
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: John Reese Kenly
    • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: William Hemsley Emory
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Wesley Merritt

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: George Washington Getty temporary
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: John Irvin Gregg interim

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfenning
  • District of Savannah: Cuvier Grover
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Philip Perry Brown
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Raphael Semmes promoted Rear Admiral PCNS 10 February 1865.

Semmes, Raphael / Maryland / Born 29 September 1809 Charles, Maryland / Died Point Clear, Alabama 30 August 1877
Midshipman USN 1 April 1826 / Passed Midshipman USN 28 April 1832 / Lieutenant USN 9 February 1837 / Commander USN 14 September 1855 / Resigned USN 16 February 1861 / Commander CSN 16 March 1861 / Lighthouse Bureau CSN 4 April 1861-18 April 1861 / CSS Sumter 18 April 1861-January 1862 / Captain CSN 21 August 1862 / CSS Alabama August 1862-19 June 1864 / Rear Admiral CSN 10 February 1865 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 5 April 1865 Unconfirmed / Paroled Durham Station, North Carolina 1 May 1865 / WIA Cherbourg 19 June 1864
James River Squadron 18 February 1865-9 April 1865 / Naval Brigade 5 April 1865-9 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

General-in-Chief: Robert Edward Lee

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Braxton Bragg

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: John Brown Gordon
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Daniel Harvey Hill
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: vacant
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Richard Taylor temporary

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Richard Taylor
    • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
    • II Corps Tennessee: Carter Littlepage Stevenson temporary
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Cavalry Corps Trans-Mississippi: Sterling Price
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kil[patrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
William McComb
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
Richard Waterhouse

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