1865 April 16th

April 16 1865 Sunday

West Point, GA

Columbus, AL 

Sherman’s Carolinas Campaign – North Carolina

Wilson’s Raid to Macon

Flight of the Confederate Government

Stoneman’s Raid in Virginia and North Carolina

USA. The US Navy Department directed that a signal gun be fired in honour of the late President Abraham Lincoln each half-hour from sunrise to sunset. Flags were to be kept at half-mast until after the funeral, and officers were required to wear mourning crepe for six months.

Alabama. Skirmish at Crawford.

Alabama. Skirmish at Girard.

Alabama. Skirmish near Opelika.

West Point, Georgia, also known as Fort Tyler. Union Major-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry attacked the Confederate garrison at Fort Tyler on the west side of the town of West Point, about thirty miles north of Columbus. This was the last Confederate fortification to be captured by a Union attack rather than by surrender. Confederate Brigadier-General Robert Charles Tyler was killed by a sharpshooter during the action.

Columbus, Georgia, also known as Girard, Alabama. Columbus was the largest supply city still held by the Confederates and was second only to Richmond, Virginia in providing industrial materials for the war. Columbus stood on the Chattahoochee River, where there was a major naval construction facility. The new ironclad CSS Muscogee had been completed and was docked at Columbus awaiting launch. Confederate Major-General Howell Cobb was in charge of the defence of Columbus with about 3,500 men, most of them Georgia and Alabama Home Guard units and civilian volunteers. The defence of Columbus hinged on the control of the two covered bridges across the Chattahoochee River that connected Girard, Alabama, to Columbus. The Confederates decided to defend the city from Girard on the Alabama side of the Chattahoochee. The Confederate troops occupied trenches, breastworks, and earthen forts that had been partially constructed earlier in the war.

Union Major-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry corps approached Columbus from Montgomery. Cobb had the advantage of knowing that Wilson would have to concentrate on the two bridges in order to capture Columbus and these were prepared for destruction. Cobb also needed to hold the high ground in Girard as it dominated Columbus. Between 1:30 pm and 2 pm, Wilson’s raiders arrived at Girard and a detachment was sent north to West Point, to cross higher up the Chattahoochee River. West Point was defended by the garrison at Fort Tyler.

At about 2 pm, Union Brigadier-General Emory Upton’s cavalry division launched an attack on the lower or southern bridge at Girard. Resistance was weak and Upton;s men advanced to the bridge. The Confederates had removed the planks on the eastern end of the bridge to impede the crossing and to allow time for the Confederates to burn the bridge. As the bridge was set ablaze, Upton was forced to retreat. Wilson then launched a surprise assault on the upper bridge after nightfall, at 8 pm, with the 3rd Iowa Cavalry and 4th Iowa Cavalry leading the attack. Colonel Frederick Benteen led the charge. At about 10 pm, the Confederate defenders of Girard gave way and they attempted to retreat across the Chattahoochee River to Columbus, while the Union cavalry tried to prevent the burning of the bridges. The lower bridge was destroyed but, despite the Confederates’ desperate efforts, the upper bridge was not burned.

Former Confederate Brigadier-General Robert Augustus Toombs commanded two guns on the Georgia side of the upper bridge but the mixing of Union and Confederate soldiers on the bridge held Toombs back from opening fire. At 11 pm, Wilson was crossing the bridge personally when his horse was killed. Wilson retreated and set up headquarters at the Mott House. Outside, on “Mott’s Green”, Confederate Colonel C A L Lamar, one of the last international slave traders, led a futile cavalry charge and was killed after refusing to surrender. Lamar was identified erroneously at the time as the last Confederate soldier to die in the Civil War.

Columbus may fairly be regarded to be the last official battle of the American Civil War because the engagement at Palmito Ranch, Texas, which occurred several weeks after Columbus, happened after the Confederate government had dissolved and the Confederacy was extinct. In the Official Records, Columbus is referred to as the “closing conflict of the war.” It was also the last engagement to occur during Wilson’s Raid to Macon. The number of casualties in the battle is unknown, but a minimum of 145 casualties has been suggested. Other reports state that the Union losses were 36 men and the Confederates lost 47 men.

ORDER OF BATTLE: UNION CAVALRY CORPS OF THE MISSISSIPPI

Union Military Division of the Mississippi: Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General John Thomas Croxton
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Oscar Hugh La Grange
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Robert Horatio George Minty
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Lieutenant-Colonel F White
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Lieutenant-Colonel Horace Newton Howland
4th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Emory Upton
1st Brigade, 4th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel E F Wilson
2nd Brigade, 4th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Andrew Jonathan Alexander
5th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Edward Hatch
1st Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel George Spalding
2nd Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Datus Ensign Coon
6th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Brigadier-General Richard William Johnson
1st Brigade, 6th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Colonel Thomas Harvey Butler
2nd Brigade, 6th Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Mississippi): Lieutenant-Colonel O H Shearer

Nebraska Territory. Reconnaissance to Dakota City ended.

North Carolina. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis arrived at Lexington with the remaining members of the Confederate government.

North Carolina. In Raleigh, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman responded that he was willing to confer with Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston about a suspension of hostilities, and to negotiate a surrender on the same terms agreed in Virginia on 9 April. Sherman proposed a meeting at noon on 17 April, at Durham Station, twenty miles from the Union camps at Raleigh, and an equal distance from the Confederate positions around Hillsboro.

Virginia. Henry H Wells became provisional Governor of Virginia. Immediately prior to his departure to the surrender negotiations at Durham, he received a telegraph notifying him about the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Henry Wager Halleck was appointed to command the Department of Virginia but did not arrive to take command as the order was subsequently cancelled.

Halleck, Henry Wager / New York / Born 16 January 1815 Westernville, New York / Died Louisville, Kentucky 9 January 1872
USMA 1 July 1839 3/31 Engineers /Cadet USMA 1 July 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1839 / 1st #Lieutenant USA 1 January 1845 / Captain USA 1 July 1853 / Resigned USA 1 August 1854 / Major-General USA 19 August 1861 / Major-General Missouri Militia 25 November 1861 / Resigned Missouri Militia 11 July 1862 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 23 July 1862 / Relieved as General-in-Chief 12 March 1864 / Chief of Staff US Army 12 March 1864 / Brevet Captain USA 1 May 1847
Department of the Missouri 9 November 1861-11 March 1862 / Department (Military Division) of the Mississippi 11 March 1862-19 September 1862 (absent 23 July 1862-19 September 1862 / General-in-Chief 25 1 July 1862-9 March 1864 / Chief of Staff US Army 12 March 1864-19 April 1865 / Military Division of the James 19 April 1865-27 June 1865 / Military Division of the Pacific 27 June 1865-1 June 1869 / Department of California 31 March 1868-24 April 1868

USA: Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord retained command of the Department of Virginia.

USA: Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord was appointed to command the Department of the South but did not arrive to assume command as the order was subsequently cancelled.

Ord, Edward Otho Cresap / Maryland-District of Columbia / Born 18 October 1818 Cumberland, Maryland / Died 22 July 1883
USMA 1 July 1839 17/31 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1835 / 2nd Lieutenant 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1839 / 1st Lieutenant 1 July 1841 / Captain USA 7 September 1850 / Brigadier-General USV 14 September 1861 / Major USA 4th US Artillery 21 November 1861 / Major-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 2 May 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel 1st US Artillery 11 December 1865 / Brigadier-General USA 26 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Retired USA 6 December 1880 / Major-General Retired USA 28 January 1881 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 20 December 1861 Brevet Colonel USA 19 September 1862 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Hatchie River 5 October 1862 WIA Fort Harrison 29 September 1864
3rd Brigade McCall’s Division Army of the Potomac 5 October 1862-13 March 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division I Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-4 April 1862 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 4 April 1862-16 May 1862 / 2nd Division Department of the Rappahannock 16 May 1862-10 June 1862 / 2nd Division Army of the Tennessee June 1862-5 August 1862 / Sub-District of Jackson 24 September 1862-5 October 1862 / XIII Corps Tennessee 19 June 1863-28 July 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 15 September 1863-19 October 1863 / XIII Corps Gulf 9 January 1864-20 February 1864 / X Corps James 21 July 1864-21 July 1864 / XVIII Corps James 21 July 1864-4 September 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 27 July 1864-5 September 1864 / XVIII Corps James 22 September 1864-29 September 1864 / XXIV Corps James 3 December 1864-6 December 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 14 December 1864-24 December 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 7 January 1865-18 January 1865 / Army of the James 8 January 1865-1 August 1865 / Department of Virginia 18 January 1865-14 June 1865 / District of Virginia 31 January 1865 / Department of the Ohio 27 June 1865-26 December 1865 / Department of the Ohio 13 January 1866-6 August 1866 / Department of Arkansas 29 August 1866-11 March 1867 / Fourth Military District 11 March 1867-28 December 1867 / Department of California 28 December 1867-18 November 1871

USA: Major-General Quincy Adams Gillmore retained command of the Department of the South.

Gillmore, Quincy Adams / Ohio / Born 28 February 1825 Lorain, Ohio / Died Brooklyn, New York 7 April 1888
USMA 1 July 1849 1/43 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1845 / Engineers 1 July 1851 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 5 September 1853 / 1st Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1856 / Captain USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 30 April 1862 to rank from 28 April 1862 revised to rank from 11 April 1862 / Major USA 1 June 1863 / Major-General USV 10 July 1863 / Resigned USV 5 December 1865 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 13 January 1874 / Colonel USA 20 February 1883 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1849 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 11 April 1862 Brevet Colonel USA 30 March 1863 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865
Chief Engineer Port Royal Expedition August 1861-15 March 1862 / Chief Engineer Department of the South 16 March 1862 / District of Western Virginia 28 September 1862-4 October 1862 / 2nd Division Army of Kentucky Department of the Ohio 14 October 1862-25 January 1863 / District of Central Kentucky 20 January 1863-10 April 1863 / Department of the South 12 June 1863-1 May 1864 / X Corps South 12 June 1863-17 April 1864 / X Corps James 4 May 1864-15 June 1864 / Detachment XIX Corps Department of Washington 7 July 1864-13 July 1864 / Department of the South 9 February 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of South Carolina 27 June 1865-10 September 1865

USA: Joseph Bailey confirmed Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1865 to rank from 10 November 1864.

Bailey, Joseph / Ohio / Born 6 May 1825 Pennsville, Ohio / Died Nevada, Missouri 21 March 1867
Captain USV 4th Wisconsin Infantry 2 July 1861 / Major USV 30 May 1863 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 15 July 1863 / 4th Wisconsin Cavalry 22 August 1863 / Colonel USA 1 June 1864 / Brigadier-General USV 10 November 1864 Expired 4 March 1865 / Reappointed Brigadier-General USV 16 April 1865 to rank from 10 November 1864 / Resigned USV 7 July 1865 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 7 June 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Mansfield 8 April 1864
Engineer Brigade XIX Corps Department of the Gulf 10 June 1864-10 August 1864 / Sub-District of West Florida 27 October 1864-25 November 1864 / Sub-District of Baton Rouge 3 December 1864-12 February 1865 / Cavalry Division Department of the Gulf 28 December 1864-9 February 1865 / District of Baton Rouge 13 February 1865-11 March 1865 / Engineer Brigade XVI Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 11 March 1865-2 May 1865 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Corps Military Division of West Mississippi 2 May 1865-17 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Andrew Johnson
Vice-President: Vacant
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Middle Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of West Tennessee: Cadwallader Colder Washburn
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
  • Department of the Mississippi: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • District of Natchez: John Wynn Davidson
  • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
    • District of Western Kentucky: Solomon Meredith
  • Department of North Carolina: Jacob Dolson Cox
    • District of Beaufort (NC): Innis Newton Palmer
    • District of Wilmington: Joseph Roswell Hawley
    • X Corps North Carolina: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
  • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
    • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Joseph Anthony Mower
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut interim Nathaniel Prentiss Banks awaited
    • North District of Louisiana: Francis Jay Herron
      • District of Morganza: Thomas Jefferson McKean
      • District of Baton Rouge: Michael Kelly Lawler
      • District of Port Hudson: Cyrus Hamlin
    • Southern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
      • District of Carrollton: William S Mudgett
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Bonnet Carré: James J Byrne
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • District of South Alabama: Thomas Kilby Smith
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
  • Army of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIII Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
      • XVI Corps Gulf: Andrew Jackson Smith

Military Division of the Missouri: John Pope

  • Department of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Alexander McDowell McCook
    • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
  • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge
    • District of St Louis: George Day Wagner
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Chester Harding
    • District of Rolla: John Morrill
    • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
    • District of North Kansas: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
    • District of the Plains: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Northwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Middle Military Division: Winfield Scott Hancock

  • Middle Department: William Walton Morris
    • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall
    • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Reese Kenly
      • VIII Corps Middle: William Walton Morris
  • Department of Pennsylvania: George Cadwalader
    • District of Philadelphia: Orris Sanford Ferry
    • District of the Monongahela: Greenlief P Davis
    • Juniata District: Charles Hale Morgan
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
      • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: Winfield Scott Hancock
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Winfield Scott Hancock

Department of the East: John James Peck temporary

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of Arizona: John Sanford Mason
  •  District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Reuben F Maury temporary
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
    • V Corps Potomac: Charles Griffin
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
  • Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Wesley Merritt

Department of the South: Quincy Adams Gillmore

  • North District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Savannah: Henry Warner Birge
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Hilton Head: Milton Smith Littlefield
  • District of Florida: Benjamin Chew Tilghman

Department of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
  • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
  • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
  • District of the Peninsula: Benjamin Chambers Ludlow
  • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
    • XXV Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was paroled at Lynchburg, Virginia.

Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway / Pennsylvania-Kentucky / Born 15 May 1802 Culpeper, Virginia / Died Baltimore, Maryland 2 January 1888
USMA 1 July 1822 17/40 Artillery / Cadet USMA 3 November 1818 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1822 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 1st US Artillery 1 July 1822 / Resigned USA 31 May 1832 / Colonel Engineers Provisional Army of Virginia May 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 6 August 1861 to rank from 9 August 1861 / Major-General PACS 17 January 1863 / Paroled Lynchburg, Virginia 16 April 1865 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1822 / WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA & CIA Gettysburg 3 July 1863
2nd Brigade 4th Division Army of the Potomac 16 November 1861-5 February 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division Army of the Potomac 5 February 1862-26 June 1862 / 7th Brigade 3rd Division Left Wing Army of Northern Virginia 26 June 1862-9 August 1862 / Valley District 26 April 1863-15 June 1863 / ADC (R S Ewell) 15 June 1863-3 July 1863 / Pender’s Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 July 1862-3 July 1863

CSA: Brigadier-General Robert Charles Tyler was killed at West Point, Georgia.

Tyler, Robert Charles / Maryland-Tennessee / Born 1833 Baltimore, Maryland / KIA West Point, Georgia 16 April 1865
Private PACS 15th Tennessee Infantry 1861 / Sergeant PACS 18 April 1861 / Captain PACS Assistant Quartermaster 2 June 1861 / Major PACS Assistant Quartermaster September 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 15th Tennessee Infantry 26 December 1861 / Colonel PACS June 1862 / Provost Marshal 15 November 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 5 March 1864 to rank from 23 February 1864 / WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862 WIA Chickamauga 19 September 1863 WIA Missionary Ridge 25 November 1863
Assistant Quartermaster Army of Liberation 16 August 1861-30 August 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster Army of Mississippi June 1862-19 September 1863 / Provost Marshal Army of Tennessee 15 November 1863-20 November 1863 / Tyler’s Brigade Bate’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 25 February 1864-July 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: John Cabell Breckinridge

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • Department of Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon
  • District of North Mississippi and West Tennessee: Marcus Joseph Wright
  • District of Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: William Feimster Tucker
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: vacant
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Robert Ransom
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
    • Sub-District of Northern Georgia: William Tatum Wofford
  • District of Florida: Samuel Jones

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart

Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Echols

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: James Fleming Fagan
  • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Elkanah Brackin Greer

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan
George Henry Thomas

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
Lewis Wallace
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard*
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
John McAllister Schofield*
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook
Godfrey Weitzel
Jacob Dolson Cox
William Babcock Hazen
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry*
Thomas John Wood
Charles Griffin
George Armstrong Custer

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(John McAllister Schofield)
(Oliver Otis Howard)
(Alfred Howe Terry)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
George Henry Gordon
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
George Leonard Andrews
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Ferdinand Van Derveer
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey
George Lafayette Beal
Henry Goddard Thomas
Cyrus Hamlin
Patrick Henry Jones
John Morrison Oliver
Robert Kingston Scott
James Sidney Robinson
Benjamin Franklin Potts
John Grant Mitchell
James Alexander Williamson
Newton Martin Curtis
Charles Camp Doolittle
Stephen Thomas
James Isham Gilbert
Green Berry Raum
Galusha Pennypacker
Charles John Stolbrand
Wager Swayne
Charles Ewing
Stewart Van Vliet
Thomas Maley Harris
Frederick Tracy Dent

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Wade Hampton
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble PAR
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Howell Cobb
William Thompson Martin
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Robert Frederick Hoke
James Fleming Fagan
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Pierce Manning Butler Young
Thomas James Churchill
John Sappington Marmaduke

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Hopkins Sibley
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
Alfred Iverson
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Mosby Monroe Parsons
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
William Tatum Wofford
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler KIA
William Wirt Allen
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
William Terry
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Robert Bullock
Benjamin Jefferson Hill
James Phillip Simms
William Lowther Jackson
James Edward Harrison
John Doby Kennedy
Richard Lee Turberville Beale
Thomas Harrison
Robert Lowry
Milledge Luke Bonham
Thomas Muldrup Logan
Isaac Munroe St John
William Raine Peck
Reuben Lindsay Walker
Tyree Harris Bell
Ellison Capers
Alexander William Campbell
Richard Montgomery Gano
Walter Paye Lane
William Polk Hardeman
Henry Gray
Richard Waterhouse

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