1864 September 27th

September 27 1864 Tuesday

Battle of Fort Davidson, MO (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)
Centralia Massacre, MO
Marianna, FL

Siege of Petersburg
Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign
Hood’s Operations in Northern Georgia
Price’s Missouri Raid
Forrest’s Third Tennessee Raid

Go to September 28 1864

Dakota Territory. Incident at Fort Rice.

Marianna, Florida. During the morning, Union Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth’s expedition proceeded toward Marianna, foraging at all the surrounding farms. This activity quickly alarmed Captain Alexander Godwin, the local Home Guard commander, and he ordered his small cavalry company of fewer than 30 men to oppose the Union raiders. The Confederates skirmished constantly with the rear and vanguard of the Union column near Campbellton, but Godwin’s men were quickly forced to retreat. After the Union troops had passed the Old Fort crossroads, Confederate Colonel Alexander B Montgomery called out more Home Guards. Montgomery’s cavalry contested the crossing of Hopkins’ Branch, three miles from Marianna with the intention of falling back into town via an old bypass rather than by the main road. In Marianna, Montgomery deployed the conscripts, militia, and Home Guards in ambush along the main road. As his skirmishers at Hopkins’ Branch withdrew along the bypass, the Home Guard waited behind fences and a crude barricade of wagons and carts. Asboth divided his force and led the main contingent on a headlong charge down the main road while another group followed the route Montgomery’s cavalry had taken. Montgomery attempted to escape the encirclement, but the Home Guard and militia would not abandon the barricades. Asboth’s wing of the attack was fired on by the waiting Home Guard and Asboth was wounded twice. The Union cavalry rapidly overwhelmed the Confederate cavalry and pushed down the road in pursuit as the flanking force swept in from behind. Many Confederate troopers escaped but the Home Guards, conscripts, and militia were trapped in the town. Montgomery was captured while attempting to flee to the Chipola River Bridge. His escaping cavalry took up positions on the other shore and was able to deter the Union forces from crossing the bridge. In town, the remaining defenders on the south side of the street broke and ran, but those near the church stubbornly held out as the detachment of US Colored Troops engaged them. A dismounted bayonet charge finally forced their surrender. However, several Confederates continued to fire from the church and nearby homes. This led to the church being set ablaze and the offenders shot down as they were smoked out. About 10 Confederates were killed or mortally wounded, 16 were wounded and 54 were captured. Union casualties were 8 men killed or mortally wounded, 19 wounded and 10 captured.

Georgia. Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis left Palmetto on a tour of Southern cities to revive the will and resistance of the people.

Georgia. Confederate Lieutenant-General John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee began to cross the Chattahoochee River to strike at Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s supply lines in northern Georgia. The cavalry division of Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson probed towards Marietta and began breaking up the railroad.

Louisiana. USS Arkansas, Acting Lieutenant David Cate, captured the schooner Watchful south of Barataria Bay, with a cargo of lumber and arms.

Maryland. Operation in Montgomery County began.

Missouri. Skirmish at Mineral Point

Missouri. Skirmish at Arcadia (Arcada).

Missouri. Skirmish at Ironton.

Fort Davidson, Missouri, also known as Pilot Knob. Fort Davidson at Ironton occupied a strong defensive position with heptagonal walls nine feet high and ten feet thick, surrounded by a dry moat nine feet deep. Two long rifle pits ran out from the walls, while a reinforced board fence topped the earthworks. Access could only be had through a drawbridge on the structure’s south-eastern corner. A field of fire 300 yards deep was cleared, extending in every direction beyond the ramparts. Union Brigadier-General Thomas Ewing rejected several demands by Confederate Major-General Sterling Price for the fort’s surrender and Price determined to take the fort by storm. Under the pressure of time, Price dismissed the slower option of mounting guns on the high ground to compel the fort to surrender or to shell the garrison into submission.
Price’s attack came as one massive assault from several directions. One brigade went over the top of Pilot Knob, engulfing a small Union force there, while another attacked over the summit of Shepherd’s Mountain. A third brigade skirted Shepherd’s Mountain to attack the north-western sides of the fort, and the fourth attacked through a valley between the two mountains. As the Union troops were driven back into the fort by superior numbers, the Confederates took control of Shepherd’s Mountain, southwest of the fort. A two-gun Confederate battery was subsequently deployed there, and its fire caused the smaller of the two rifle pits within the fort to be abandoned. In the late afternoon, Price repeatedly assaulted the fort without success, suffering heavy casualties. Unfortunately, these later assaults were not made simultaneously, allowing the guns of Fort Davidson to be directed at each Confederate unit in turn. Just one brigade actually reached the fort itself, under a withering hail of artillery and small arms fire, only to find the earthworks too steep to climb. The Union defenders were given hand grenades from the fort’s magazines, and these were tossed over the walls, forcing the Confederates to break off their attack. A furious six-hour fight ended with heavy casualties among the attackers.
While Price put his troops to building scaling ladders for a new assault the next morning, Ewing held a Council of War inside the fort. Ewing had received belated orders from St Louis to abandon the post. Ewing had already decided that his position was untenable and planned a clandestine escape. Union soldiers put all the equipment they could not carry inside their powder magazine, draped the drawbridge in canvas to muffle the sounds of their movement, and began to exit the fort stealthily after midnight. Although the Confederates had lit a large charcoal pile to illuminate the valley, the 800 Union survivors withdrew undetected to the northwest through a gap between two encampments of exhausted Confederates. The Union troops left a slow-burning fuse to their powder magazine, which detonated with a huge blast well after the Union troops had escaped towards Rolla.
Confederate casualties were reported to be at least 1,000 men and possibly as high as 1,500. The Union lost between 184 and 200 men, of whom 28 were killed. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

Centralia, Missouri, also known as the Centralia Massacre or the Northern Missouri Railroad Massacre. At 11 am, Confederate William ‘Bloody Bill’ Anderson led his Confederate bushwhackers, among them Frank James and Jesse James, into Centralia, 50 miles north of Jefferson City. They robbed the passengers on a stagecoach arriving from Columbia and then at 11.30 am they captured a northbound train arriving from St Louis and murdered 22 of the 23 unarmed Union soldiers on board. The survivor was kept as a hostage to exchange for a Confederate prisoner. They robbed the passengers and killed two civilians. Setting the train on fire, they left with $3,000 from the Express car.
At about 1 pm, Union Major A V E Johnston arrived with three companies of the 39th Missouri and attempted to pursue the renegades. Many of Johnston’s Union troopers had been in service for only two weeks and were barely trained, and no match for Anderson’s desperadoes. Leaving 35 men in the town, Johnston pursued the raiders with about 120 mounted men. Anderson turned and faced the Union troopers three miles from the town at Young’s Creek south of the town. The Union troops attempted a dismounted attack, but they were slaughtered by the Confederate guerrillas who had set an ambush, luring the Union attack between forces concealed on each flank. Of the 147 Union troops engaged, 124 were killed by shooting or having their throats cut. Some victims were scalped and mutilated. Anderson had fulfilled his pledge to give no quarter. Only 23 men escaped by fleeing on horseback. These few survivors were mostly horse-holders who had not advanced into the trap. The Confederates pursued the fugitives into Centralia where they also attacked the small contingent left behind to guard the town.

North Carolina. Union Acting Ensign Semon made a second reconnaissance expedition to Masonboro Inlet and Wilmington to gain information about Confederate blockade runners and the defences of Wilmington. He discovered that CSS North Carolina, one of the ironclads built to protect Wilmington, had sunk at her pier at Smithville after her bottom was eaten out by worms. USS North Carolina drew too much water to pass over the bars at the mouth of the Cape Fear River and had spent virtually her entire fruitless career at anchor at Smithville. An additional ironclad was laid down but was never finished because of a lack of iron for armour.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Pulaski.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Lobellville.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Beardstown.

Tennessee. Confederate Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s raiders arrived near Pulaski. He learned that substantial Union forces were being directed to stop his raid along the Alabama & Tennessee Railroad and to prevent his incursion into middle Tennessee. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman sent Major-General George Henry Thomas from Atlanta with two divisions to take control of and protect middle Tennessee. Further divisions were summoned to join Thomas from Memphis and Chattanooga and Sherman demanded the urgent return of the two so-called “gorilla” divisions recently transferred with Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith from Memphis to Missouri. In all, about 30,000 Union troops were converging against Forrest’s 4,500 men. Ahead of Forrest, Union Major-General Lovell Rousseau held Nashville with an invincible garrison. Thomas urged Rousseau to keep Forrest pinned down and Rousseau sent scouts towards Pulaski.

Virginia. Skirmish at Port Republic.

Virginia. Skirmish at Weyer’s Cave.

Virginia. The appointment of Confederate Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge to command in eastern Tennessee forced a reorganisation of Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s forces in the Shenandoah Valley. Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur took over the division of Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes, who had been killed at Winchester. Brigadier-General John Pegram took over Ramseur’s division. Breckinridge’s division had been commanded by Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton while Breckinridge acted as a corps commander. Wharton’s troops were consolidated into the division of Major-General John Brown Gordon. The interim arrangement of having two corps commanders was discontinued as the force was reduced from four to three divisions no longer justified the arrangement.

Virginia. The Union victories at Winchester and Fisher’s Hill exposed the Shenandoah Valley to a harsh Union “scorched earth” policy. Mills and barns from Staunton to Strasburg were burned in what became known as “The Burning” or “Red October.”

Virginia. Union Major-General Ulysses Simpson Grant planned another dual offensive to weaken the Confederate hold on Petersburg. Grant’s primary objective was to cut the remaining railroad supply lines to the south of Petersburg, which would then lead to the fall of both Petersburg and Richmond. He planned to use a cavalry division under Brigadier-General David McMurtrie Gregg and four infantry divisions from the V Corps and IX Corps of the Army of the Potomac to sever the South Side Railroad.
Before his main campaign began, Grant attempted to distract Confederate General Robert Edward Lee by drawing Confederate troops north of the river with a diversion. Grant ordered the Army of the James under Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler to organise this feint with an attack toward Richmond. Rather than repeat the unsuccessful efforts of July and August to turn the Confederate left, Butler planned surprise attacks on the Confederate right and centre. His XVIII Corps under Major-General Edward Otho Cresap Ord would cross the James River across a newly constructed pontoon bridge to Aiken’s Landing. The X Corps under Major-General David Bell Birney would cross at the original Deep Bottom pontoon bridge, followed by his cavalry under Brigadier-General August Valentine Kautz. In a two-pronged attack, this group on the right wing (X Corps, augmented by a US Colored Troops division under Brigadier-General Charles Jackson Paine from the XVIII Corps) would assault the Confederate lines at New Market Road and drive on to capture the artillery positions behind it on New Market Heights. This action would protect the flank of the left-wing group (comprising the remainder of Ord’s XVIII Corps), which would attack Fort Harrison from the southeast, neutralising the strongest point of the entire Confederate line. Then, the right-wing group would assist the left by attacking Fort Gregg and Fort Gilmer, both located to the north of Fort Harrison. Kautz’s cavalry would exploit Birney’s capture of the New Market Road by driving for Richmond.

West Virginia. Incidents at Buckhannon and Charles Town.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Morgan Lewis Smith assumed command of the District of Vicksburg, succeeding Major-General Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana.

USA: Colonel Joseph Bailey (4th Wisconsin Cavalry) assumed command of the Sub-District of West Florida, succeeding Brigadier-General Alexander Asboth.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodore Phinney Green
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: Alexander Moseley Pennock
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: Jefferson Columbus Davis
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: William Crooks temporary
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: Francis Jay Herron
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Joseph Bailey
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: vacant
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: John McNeil

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: George Sykes
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Edward Elmer Potter temporary
  • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
    • XVIII Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

Confederate Organisation

CSA: The Trans-Allegheny Department was discontinued.

CSA: Major-General William Henry Chase Whiting assumed command of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, succeeding General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

CSA: The Defences of Petersburg was established in the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia.
CSA: General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard assumed command of the Defences of Petersburg.

CSA: The unofficial “Army of the Valley” was discontinued and its forces reverted to the official designation of II Corps (Northern Virginia).
CSA:I Corps (Valley)” was discontinued and reverted to II Corps (Northern Virginia).
CSA:II Corps (Valley)” was discontinued and reverted to II Corps (Northern Virginia).
CSA: II Corps (Northern Virginia) was reinstated in the Army of Northern Virginia from the unofficial “Army of the Valley”.
CSA: Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early retained command of II Corps (Northern Virginia), comprising the forces of the discontinued Army of the Valley.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: George Baird Hodge interim Franklin Gardner awaited
    • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Defences of Petersburg: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: Patrick Ronayne Cleburne temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan*
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(Philp Henry Sheridan)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Daniel Davidson Bidwell
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
Richard Waterhouse

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