1864 September 19th

September 19 1864 Monday

Battle of Opequon, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)
Cabin Creek, IT

Siege of Petersburg
Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign
Hood’s Operations in Northern Georgia
Price’s Missouri Raid
Forrest’s Third Tennessee Raid

Go to September 20 1864

Arkansas. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price led a column of 12,000 cavalrymen (one-third of them unarmed) and fourteen guns into Missouri, as part of a major attempt to regain control of the state. It was expected that various independent units scattered across Missouri could be organised to add at least twenty thousand more troops to the Confederate army. Major-General Sterling Price’s force consisted of the cavalry divisions of Major-General James Fleming Fagan, Brigadier-General John Sappington Marmaduke, and Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby. Fagan’s and Marmaduke’s divisions had set out from Princeton in August and crossed the Arkansas River unopposed between Little Rock and Fort Smith before marching through Batesville to Pocahontas. Shelby’s cavalry division joined the expedition at Pocahontas. The combined force crossed the border into Missouri on a broad front and headed for Ironton, eighty miles to the north. Ironton was a Union supply depot and the terminus of a railroad, about halfway to St Louis. Before heading north, Price intended to suppress the Union garrisons of Fort Davidson at Pilot Knob, partly to acquire their weapons and supplies, and partly to secure his rear.

Indian Territory. Skirmish at Pryor’s Creek.

Cabin Creek, Indian Territory. Confederate Brigadier-General Stand Watie led his 800-man force of Cherokees, Creek, and Seminole Indians in a raid north of Fort Gibson to Cabin Creek. Confederate Colonel Richard Montgomery Gano’s brigade of 1,200 Texans supported Watie’s command. They captured a train of 300 government and sutlers’ wagons from Fort Scott loaded with $1,500,000 worth of supplies intended for Fort Gibson. The Confederates attacked the train at 3 am. The Union escort was scattered, and the Confederates seized the wagons and 740 mules before returning to their camps.

Louisiana. Incident at Atchafalaya River.

Mississippi. Expedition from Natchez to Buck’s Ferry began.

Mississippi. Expedition from Natchez to Farrar’s Plantation began.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Howard County and Randolph County ended.

Missouri. Incident in Dallas County.

Missouri. Skirmish at Doniphan.

Missouri. Union Major-General Andrew Jackson Smith, commanding a combined force of more than 11,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, and 20 guns, was directed to join the defence of Missouri against a raid being launched by Confederate Major-General Sterling Price. Smith had just reached Cairo on his way from Mississippi to rejoin the rest of the XVI Corps in Georgia. That movement was once again postponed. Smith diverted the movements of Brigadier-General Joseph Anthony Mower’s division (1/XVI) and Colonel David Moore’s division (3/XVI) towards St Louis. Meanwhile, Union Brigadier-General Benjamin Henry Grierson’s cavalry division was also directed from Memphis to St Louis. This diversion of force fulfilled one of the objectives of Price’s raid, which was to prevent the transfer of Union reinforcements to Georgia.

North Carolina. A Union boat expedition commanded by Acting Ensign Semon of USS Niphon landed at Masonboro Inlet to gain intelligence about the defences of Wilmington and its garrison. They also learned that the raider CSS Tallahassee was at Wilmington, along with several blockade runners.

Ohio. Confederate agents under Acting Master John Yates Beall captured and burned the steamers Philo Parsons and Island Queen on Lake Erie. Captain Charles H Cole, a Confederate secret agent conceived the plan and was assisted by Jacob Thompson, an agent in Canada and Beall. The plan was for Cole to capture the warship USS Michigan, which was guarding Confederate prisoners at Johnson’s Island, near Sandusky Cole intended to befriend the ship’s officers and to bribe them not to obstruct his plans. Beall would then approach with a captured steamer from the mouth of Sandusky Bay and board USS Michigan, after which the prisoners would be released and the whole force would embark on a guerrilla expedition along the lake.
Beall and his nineteen men boarded Philo Parsons as passengers and soon seized the steamer. They took her to Middle Bass Island, on the way from Detroit to Sandusky. Beall was approached by the unsuspecting Island Queen, which was captured and burned. Beall landed the passengers and cargoes of the two ships and proceeded with his improvised man-of-war to Sandusky. Meanwhile, Union Commander J C Carter had discovered Cole’s duplicity and arrested him and a fellow plotter. When Beall and his men approached Sandusky, the prearranged signals were not observed. Realising that the plan was foiled, Beall and his men abandoned their part in the plan and took Philo Parsons to Sandwich in Canada, where she was stripped and burned. The Confederate agents then dispersed.

Virginia. Union reconnaissance to Lee’s Mill and Proctor’s House.

Virginia. Skirmish at Culpeper.

Virginia. Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant returned to City Point to resume the direction of the armies outside Petersburg.

Opequon, Virginia, also known as Winchester or Opequon Creek, or Third Battle of Winchester. Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan made a concentric advance with 39,240 men toward the Confederate forces converging at Winchester. Union Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert led the cavalry divisions of Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt and Brigadier-General William Woods Averell south against Confederate Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s left flank on the Martinsburg Pike. Meanwhile, the main Union force approached from the east from Berryville, passing through narrow canyons and roads that soon became clogged with supply wagons and troops. At 2 am, Union Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division emerged to lead the main body of the VI and XIX Corps along the Berryville Pike and crossed Opequon Creek. Union Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright’s VI Corps followed and deployed on schedule across the Berryville Pike. Major-General William Hemsley Emory’s two divisions of the XIX Corps were delayed as they were behind the lengthy wagon train of VI Corps. Wright pushed forward at dawn without Emory.
Early immediately identified the main axis of attack and he reinforced Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur’s division astride the Berryville Road with the cavalry division of Major-General Fitzhugh Lee. He attempted to concentrate his scattered force of 15,200 men to meet the attack. The Confederate divisions of Major-General John Brown Gordon and Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes were six miles distant and they marched quickly to join Ramseur, who had been withdrawing skilfully to a position three miles east of Winchester. Gordon and Rodes arrived on Ramseur’s left flank at about 10 am. At mid-morning Early began a counter-attack with Gordon and Rodes against Wright’s VI Corps before XIX Corps could arrive and deploy. Sheridan had the wagon train of VI Corps thrown into the ditches to allow Emory’s XIX Corps to march more quickly to join the action. Nevertheless, Emory’s men arrived too late to join the planned attack at dawn but they gradually deployed after the fighting had broken out.
Confederate Brigadier-General Cullen Andrews Battle’s brigade of Rodes’ division spearheaded a second Confederate surge that struck between the divisions of Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts (3/VI), south of the Berryville Pike, and Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover (2/XIX). Union Colonel J W Kiefer (2/3/VI) had seen this gap developing and on his own initiative pushed three of his regiments to the right to fill it. Colonel Jacob Sharpe (3/2/XIX) aligned with Keifer from the north with his 156th New York Infantry. Rodes was killed at the outset of the fighting while directing a charge to open this breach between Wright and Emory. At the critical moment, Union Brigadier-General David Allen Russell’s division (1/VI) attacked the shoulder of the Confederate penetration. The Union brigade of Brigadier-General Emory Upton reached the gap first, but the Confederates had already launched a counterattack through the gap. Upton placed his men in line of battle and counter-charged. Leading the charge was Colonel Ranald Slidell Mackenzie, commanding the 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery serving as infantry. Russell was killed in the action. Upton assumed command of the division and a lull came over the battlefield.
Meanwhile, Union Brigadier-General George Crook was leading his two divisions of VIII Corps (Army of West Virginia) across the mountain slopes to the south, where they were joined by Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division. Their aim was to cut off the Confederate line of retreat along the Valley Pike.
By noon, most of Sheridan’s troops had reached the field and he ordered a frontal attack. Wright’s VI Corps was stopped on the left flank when faced with a well-entrenched Confederate position on a hilltop supported by artillery. The XIX Corps deployed on the right of VI Corps and drove Gordon’s division back through some woods. Confederate Brigadier-General Clement Anselm Evans’ brigade on Gordon’s left flank was hit so badly that it fell back. The Union forces pressed their pursuit through the woods they were cut down by artillery as they emerged in a clearing on the far side. Confederate Lieutenant-Colonel Carter M Braxton’s artillery managed to check this Union counterattack without infantry support. Union casualties were very heavy, but the Confederate line was outnumbered by 38,000 men to 14,000 and was gradually driven back towards Winchester. By mid-afternoon, Crook’s VIII Corps had been recalled from the left flank to bolster the VI Corps, leaving Wilson’s cavalry division alone to conduct the deeper penetration.
During the fighting, Confederate Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge arrived with the fourth of Early’s divisions, coming from Stephenson’s Depot on the Charles Town road. They crossed Opequon Creek but were delayed by the Union cavalry brigades of Colonel Charles Russell Lowell and Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin. By 2 pm, Breckinridge’s division was reunited with Early’s main body. His division became the left flank of the new defensive line. Sheridan maintained relentless pressure along the whole line and Early was forced back to a final position east of Winchester. Exploiting a huge superiority in numbers, Sheridan revised his plan of attack and launched a flanking attack from the west. He assigned to VI Corps and XIX Corps the role of pinning the Confederates from the east while Crook sent his 2nd Division under Colonel Joseph Thoburn to the far right beyond XIX Corps, while his 1st Division under Colonel Isaac Hardin Duval moved north across Red Bud Run in order to hit the left flank of the recently arrived Breckinridge’s division from the north. Beyond Crook’s right, Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt and Brigadier-General William Woods Averell were moving with their cavalry divisions along the Martinsburg Pike.
By this time, the Confederate right flank was on the verge of collapse as Union Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry division had slowly pushed Brigadier-General Lunsford Lindsay Lomax’s cavalry as far back as the Millwood Pike, threatening the Confederate escape route. Early perceived the imminent catastrophe almost too late but finally ordered a general retreat at 5 pm. His troops fled through Winchester and then onwards for twenty miles up the Valley Turnpike via Newtown to Fisher’s Hill near Strasburg. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry provided a rear-guard across the Turnpike but Lee was wounded during the fighting.
Confederate Brigadier-General William Terry and Brigadier-General Archibald Campbell Godwin were wounded. In the Union army, Brigadier-General David Allen Russell was killed, and Brigadier-General Emory Upton and Brigadier-General George Henry Chapman were seriously wounded. Sheridan’s victory at Winchester was acknowledged by Union Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, and promotion was subsequently awarded to reflect the importance of a rare and decisive Union victory in the Shenandoah Valley.
Union casualties were reported as 5,020 men lost out of 37,711 engaged (697 killed, 3,983 wounded and 338 missing. Confederate losses were 3,921 men (276 killed, 1,827 wounded and 1,818 missing) out of a force estimated between 12,500 and 18,131. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)


Union Middle Military Division: Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
Army of West Virginia: Brigadier-General George Crook
1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel James Thoburn
1st Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel George Duncan Wells
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Lieutenant-Colonel R S Northcott
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel Thomas Maley Harris
2nd Division (West Virginia): Colonel Isaac Hardin Duval
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (West Virginia): Colonel Rutherford Birchard Hayes
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (West Virginia): Colonel D D Johnson
Army of the Shenandoah: Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
VI Corps (Shenandoah): Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright
1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General David Allen Russell
1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Livingston
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Emory Upton
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Oliver Edwards (I C Bassett)
2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General George Washington Getty
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel James Meech Warner
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Daniel Davidson Bidwell
3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel W Emerson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Joseph Warren Keifer
XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory
1st Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General William Dwight
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Colonel George Lafayette Beal
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General James Winning McMillan
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Colonel L D H Currie
2nd Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Henry Warner Birge
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Colonel Edward Leslie Molineux
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Colonel Jacob Sharpe
4th Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps Detachment (Shenandoah): Colonel David Shunk
Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin
Reserve Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Charles Russell Lowell
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General William Woods Averell
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel J M Schoonmaker

2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Henry Capehart
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General James Harrison Wilson
1st Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General John Baillie McIntosh
2nd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General George Henry Chapman

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General David Allen Russell was killed at Winchester, Virginia.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodore Phinney Green
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: Alexander Moseley Pennock
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: Jefferson Columbus Davis
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: William Crooks temporary
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: Francis Jay Herron
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: vacant
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: John McNeil

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan temporary

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: George Sykes
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Edward Elmer Potter temporary
  • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: David Bell Birney
    • XVIII Corps James: John Gibbon temporary

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur assumed temporary command of I Corps (Valley), succeeding Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes.

CSA: James Lawson Kemper promoted Major-General PACS 19 September 1864.

CSA: Matthew Calbraith Butler promoted Major-General PACS 3 December 1864 to rank from 19 September 1864.

CSA: Basil Wilson Duke confirmed Brigadier-General PACS 19 September 1864 to rank from 15 September 1864.

CSA: Major-General Robert Emmett Rodes was killed at Winchester, Virginia.

CSA: Colonel Archibald Campbell Godwin (Brigadier-General unconfirmed) was killed at Winchester, Virginia.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor

  • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: George Baird Hodge
  • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
  • District of Northern Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
  • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of Western Kentucky: Adam Rankin Johnson

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
    • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
      • I Corps Valley: Stephen Dodson Ramseur
      • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

  • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
  • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
    • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
    • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
  • District of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood

  • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
  • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
    • I Corps Tennessee: Patrick Ronayne Cleburne temporary
    • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
    • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
    • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Echols interim John Cabell Breckinridge awaited

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell KIA
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Daniel Davidson Bidwell
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes KIA
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Richard Waterhouse

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