1864 October 19th

October 19 1864 Wednesday

Second Battle of Lexington, MO (CWSAC Limited Battle – Confederate Victory)

Battle of Cedar Creek, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

Siege of Petersburg

Sheridan’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Hood’s Operations in Northern Alabama

Price’s Missouri Raid

Madeira. The Confederate raider CSS Shenandoah, commanded by Lieutenant James I Waddell, was commissioned off the Madeira Islands. It had been purchased in England as the Sea King in September 1864. The raider had made rendezvous with the tender Laurel north of the island of Las Desertas to take on board its commander, guns, munitions, and supplies. The commerce raider’s voyage was to go via the Cape of Good Hope and Australia.

Alabama. Confederate General John Bell Hood telegraphed the Confederate authorities of his intention to cross to the northern bank of the Tennessee River at Gadsden.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance from Little Rock to Princeton began.

Arkansas. Skirmish in Crawford County.

Florida. A Union boat expedition under Acting Master George E Hill from USS Stars and Stripes ascended the Ocklockonee River and destroyed an extensive Confederate fishery on Marsh’s Island, capturing a detachment of Confederate guards.

Georgia. Skirmish at Howell’s Ferry.

Georgia. Skirmish at Turner’s Ferry.

Georgia. Skirmish at Ruff’s Station.

Missouri. Skirmish near Montevallo.

Second Lexington, Missouri, also known as Lexington. Confederate Major-General Sterling Price’s expedition approached Lexington in its slow march along the Missouri River. Union Major-General William Starke Rosecrans proposed a pincer movement to trap Price and his army, but he was unable to communicate with Major-General Samuel Ryan Curtis in Kansas, to agree the plan. Curtis was having problems with his Kansas militiamen who refused to enter Missouri, but a force of 2,000 men under the command of Major-General James Gilpatrick Blunt did set out for Lexington. Price collided with Union scouts and pickets near Lexington at about 2 pm, drove them back, and then engaged in battle with Blunt’s main force. The Union forces resisted at first, but Price’s stronger force eventually pushed them through the town to the western outskirts, and then pursued them along the Independence Road until nightfall. The Union troops were too few in number to halt Price’s army, but they did retard their progress. Blunt also acquired valuable information about the size and disposition of Price’s army. Casualties were not reported. (CWSAC Limited Battle – Confederate Victory)

Texas. USS Mobile, Acting Lieutenant Giraud, captured the schooner Emily off San Luis Pass with a cargo of 150 bales of cotton.

Vermont. Confederate Lieutenant Bennett H Young and a group of twenty to wenty-five pro-Confederate raiders took control of St Albans and robbed three banks of over $200,000. They set fire to some buildings with incendiary devices and fled back into Canada. They were not under the official command of the Confederate army but used the stolen money to fund other clandestine activities. One civilian was killed and three of the invaders were wounded in the raid. About a dozen of the raiders fled back across the border and were captured but later released by Canadian officials.

Virginia. Incidents at Belle Grove and Middletown.

Virginia. Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet returned to active duty in command of I Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, which had been in the hands of Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson. Longstreet’s areas of responsibility were the lines at Bermuda Hundred (currently held by Major-General George Edward Pickett’s division), and the region north of the James (held by Major-General Charles William Field’s division and Robert Frederick Hoke’s division).

The II Corps of the army was operating currently in the Shenandoah Valley under Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early. The III Corps remained under the command of Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill. A new IV Corps was created to provide a commensurate command for Anderson, who had to concede command of I Corps to Longstreet. Anderson’s IV Corps was allocated the two divisions of Major-General Robert Frederick Hoke and Major-General Bushrod Rust Johnson and contained an aggregate strength of about fourteen thousand troops.

Cedar Creek, Virginia, also known as Belle Grove. At dawn, the Confederate Army of the Valley under Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early surprised the Union Army of the Shenandoah, commanded temporarily by Major-General Horatio Wright, at Cedar Creek. Early had deployed his men into three columns for a moonlit night march. One group advanced northward up the Valley Pike to oppose the Union line along Cedar Creek from in front, while a second column made up of cavalry rode from Front Royal to cut off their line of retreat. The third and largest column under Major-General John Brown Gordon was directed to attack the Union left flank from the direction of Massanutten Mountain. Gordon’s division started out at 8 pm the previous evening and followed a rugged “pig’s path” along the base of Massanutten Mountain and across the river. At times, the troops were forced to pass single file through difficult ravines. Gordon deployed near Bowman’s Creek before dawn and his division then crossed the North Fork of the Shenandoah River just before sunrise, concealed by dense fog. Two more divisions under Brigadier-General John Pegram and Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur followed Gordon’s route along the near-impassable trail. Meanwhile, the Confederate divisions of Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw and Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton advanced secretly up the turnpike from Strasburg, preceded by the cavalry of Brigadier-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser. Wharton and Kershaw were to attack to the left of Gordon’s three divisions, distracting the Union defenders from the front while Gordon struck their flank and rear.

Wright had deployed the three divisions of VI Corps on his right flank behind Cedar Creek while the level, open ground further to the west was guarded by the cavalry of Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt and Brigadier-General George Armstrong Custer. Major-General William Hemsley Emory’s two divisions of XIX Corps were in the centre of the position deployed either side of the Valley Pike. Brigadier-General George Crook’s two divisions of VIII Corps (Army of West Virginia) held the army’s left flank, near to the North Fork of the Shenandoah River. Crook felt he had the strongest section of the line, believing erroneously that he was protected on his open left by the steep Massanutten Mountain.

Kershaw crossed Cedar Creek at 4.30 am. Kershaw’s and Wharton’s divisions pinned the Union centre on the Valley Pike by their presence and with their artillery. At about the same time, Rosser’s horse artillery opened fire further north as a diversion. Shortly afterwards, Gordon’s attack at Bowman’s Ford became audible. Gordon’s flank attack came as a complete surprise, catching many Union troops asleep. Crook’s two divisions (Colonel James Thoburn and Brigadier-General Isaac Hardin Duval) could not take up an effective line of battle and held only momentarily before they broke. Emory’s XIX Corps was the next to be overrun by the headlong charge of Gordon’s division from the south, while Kershaw pushed forward in their front. Their hastily aligned battle line had to change face to the south as well as to the east, and the Confederate guns across the creek were able to shell the open Union flank in enfilade. The Confederates took hundreds of Union prisoners, many of them undressed. Thoburn was killed and Union Colonel J Howard Kitching was mortally wounded. Pegram’s and Ramseur’s Confederate divisions arrived behind Gordon’s division to exploit the initial success but were hindered by fog from seeing the epic scale of the Union defeat. Confederate artillery on high ground to the south gradually increased the rate and accuracy of their fire as the visibility improved.

The Confederate assault developed so swiftly that the defenders had too little time to prepare. Retreating soldiers from the four divisions of Crook’s and Emory’s Corps milled away northwards, spreading confusion and panic. Wharton’s division met no opposition and extended the attack to the west on the Valley Turnpike. They encountered Wright’s VI Corps, which made a strong defensive stand amidst their camps across the Valley Pike. The VI Corps withdrew slowly under pressure into the fields west of Middletown. Wright had attempted to advance the VI Corps southward to oppose Gordon’s initial assault, but the defeat of VIII Corps and XIX Corps developed too quickly for him to make much forward progress.

The VI Corps was attacked in front and flank for a further hour, from 8 am to 9 pm, before it was forced to a further withdrawal to a third position nearly two miles east of Middletown. Union Brigadier-General George Washington Getty’s division (2/VI) was separated and fell back to a ridge a mile north of Middletown and on the west side of the Valley Pike. This became the strongest rallying point for the defenders. The XIX Corps gradually rallied from its disorder behind VI Corps. The Union cavalry also formed on the ridge with Getty while the rest of the army coalesced in a position a mile further north.

With victory apparently gained, having already taken 1,300 prisoners and 18 guns, Early resisted Gordon’s urging to press the attack aggressively, and the opportunity to attack Getty’s line was missed. Early mistakenly assumed that Wright’s forces would retreat from the battlefield now that they had already fallen back past Middletown. Gordon urged a resumption of the attack a second time, but Early declined, trusting his instinct that a defeated Union army usually left the field. The Confederate troops were hungry and exhausted and fell out of their ranks to pillage the Union camps.

Fifteen miles away at Winchester, Union Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan heard the sound of the guns and galloped to rejoin his army. This escapade became immortalised by the press and to his admirers as “Sheridan’s Ride”. He arrived at about 10.30 am and began to rally the broken troops. He gave directions to halt and park the supply trains at Mill Creek and ordered his staff and escort to form a line across the country in order to stop all fugitives and stragglers. Gradually, rallied troops, stragglers, and reinforcements, were directed towards the ridge still held by Getty west of Winchester. Emory’s and Crook’s troops were rallied and reformed into a new reserve. Merritt’s and Custer’s cavalry divisions still extended the line south-eastwards across the turnpike and provided protection for the Union rear elements. Sheridan bided his time while his army coalesced, re-supplied, and reformed, awaiting the right moment to advance. Whereas the Confederates inexplicably failed to follow up their victory, Sheridan’s inspiration and confidence in victory restored morale. He then addressed the problem of how to reverse the unexpected Confederate success. Emory and Crook, who had appeared demoralised, now regained their determination and assembled whatever troops they could for a counter-attack.

At 3 pm, Early finally resumed his offensive with a minor attack past Middletown that might have succeeded had it been launched in the morning, but it was now easily repulsed. Early observed the unexpected recovery of the Union army and realised that he had missed his opportunity. The Union army was evidently not departing but was, in fact, building up strength for a mighty counter-attack. Early withdrew all the captured guns south of Cedar Creek and put nearly two thousand prisoners on the road for Staunton. He waited forlornly for Brigadier-General Lunsford Lindsay Lomax’s cavalry to strike behind the Union rear from Front Royal, but Lomax had been intercepted by Union Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert’s cavalry and his advance was blocked.

Sheridan was reassured to learn that the rumours of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet’s Corps having reinforced Early were proven to be false. He assessed correctly that the Confederates’ offensive momentum was spent. Shortly before 4 pm, Sheridan unleashed a crushing counterattack, spearheaded by Emory’s XIX Corps. Early’s divisions were stretched out on a line about three miles long but with their flanks unprotected. Many men were absent looting the enemy’s camps. Emory was reinforced by Custer’s cavalry division, which exploited a gap cracked open in Gordon’s division by one of Emory’s brigades. Custer’s troopers broke through the Confederate line with a mounted charge. The Confederate line was irrevocably split in two, and Gordon’s division fragmented. Panic about Union cavalry penetrating into the rear spread to Kershaw’s and Ramseur’s divisions and they also began to give ground. Ramseur tried to hold the line but fell mortally wounded.

On the Confederates’ far left, Rosser’s Confederate cavalry was dislodged by Merritt’s troopers. Early aligned the divisions of Wharton and Pegram to form a new line of defence but they could do no more than delay Wright’s VI Corps as it joined the general advance. The entire Union army now advanced and recovered the whole of the battlefield and drove the Confederates back across the North Fork towards Fisher’s Hill. Union cavalry roamed freely and destroyed a bridge at Spangler’s Mill, west of Strasburg in the Confederate rear, cutting off the escape route for many fugitives. Many Confederates surrendered; certain they could not fight their way out of the debacle. Early attempted to make a stand at Fisher’s Hill at twilight but his hope was short-lived. The Union army took hundreds of prisoners and 43 guns (of which 18 were their own guns recaptured from the morning). Most of the Confederate army’s ambulances, ammunition wagons, and baggage and forage wagons were also destroyed or captured.

Sheridan’s victory at Cedar Creek broke the back of Confederate resistance in the Shenandoah Valley. The Union forces engaged numbered 31,945 (or 30,829) men and they lost 5,665 casualties, of whom 1,591 were missing. Confederate forces engaged numbered 21,000 men (or 18,410) with 2,910 to 3,000 casualties, of whom 1,050 were missing. (CWSAC Decisive Battle Union Victory)

ORDER OF BATTLE: CEDAR CREEK, VA

Union Middle Military Division: Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan
Department of West Virginia: Brigadier-General George Crook
Army of West Virginia: Brigadier-General George Crook
1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel James Thoburn
1st Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Francis Wildes
2nd Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel William Baker Curtis
3rd Brigade, 1st Division (West Virginia): Colonel Thomas Maley Harris
2nd Division (West Virginia): Colonel Rutherford Birchard Hayes
1st Brigade, 2nd Division (West Virginia): Colonel Hiram F Devol
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division (West Virginia): Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin Franklin Coates
Provisional Division (West Virginia): Colonel John Howard Kitching
Army of the Shenandoah: Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright interim, Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan assumed
VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General George Washington Getty interim, Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright assumed
1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Frank Wheaton

1st Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel William Henry Penrose
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Joseph Eldridge Hamblin
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Oliver Edwards
2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier General George Washington Getty, Brigadier-General Lewis Addison Grant
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel James Meech Warner
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah) Brigadier General Lewis Addison Grant
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Daniel Davidson Bidwell
3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Joseph Warren Keifer
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel W Emerson
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, VI Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel William H Ball
XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General William Hemsley Emory
1st Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Brigadier General James Winning McMillan
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel Edwin Page Davis
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel S Thomas
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel L D H Currie
2nd Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Cuvier Grover
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Brigadier General Henry Warner Birge
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel Edward Leslie Molineux
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel Daniel Macauley
4th Brigade, 2nd Division, XIX Corps (Detachment) (Shenandoah): Colonel David Shunk
Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt
1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel James Harvey Kidd
2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin
Reserve Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Charles Russell Lowell
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel William Henry Powell
1st Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel A S Moore
2nd Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Henry Capehart
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Brigadier General George Armstrong Custer
1st Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Alexander Cummings McWhorter Pennington
2nd Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Shenandoah): Colonel Henry Capehart

Confederate Department of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
District of the Valley: Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early
Army of Northern Virginia: General Robert Edward Lee
II Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early
Ramseur’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Battle’s Brigade, Ramseur’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Cullen Andrews Battle Lieutenant-Colonel E La Fayette Hobson
Grimes’ Brigade, Ramseur’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Bryan Grimes
Cook’s Brigade, Ramseur’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Philip Cook
Cox’s Brigade, Ramseur’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Ruffin Cox
Pegram’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John Pegram
Pegram’s Brigade, Pegram’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel John S Hoffman
Johnston’s Brigade, Pegram’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General
Robert Daniel Johnston
Godwin’s Brigade, Pegram’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Lieutenant-Colonel William T Davis
Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major-General John Brown Gordon
Evans’ Brigade, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier Clement Anselm Evans
Hays’ Brigade and Stafford’s Brigade combined, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia):
Terry’s Brigade, Gordon’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Terry
Breckinridge’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Wharton’s Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Echols’ Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Captain Edmund S Read
Smith’s Brigade, Breckinridge’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Thomas Smith
Kershaw’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia) attached: Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Conner’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Major J M Goggin
Humphreys’ Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Daniel M Moody
Wofford’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel Christopher C Sanders
Bryan’s Brigade, Kershaw’s Division, II Corps (Northern Virginia): Colonel James Phillip Simms
Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General Wade Hampton
Lomax’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Imboden’s Brigade, Lomax’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Colonel George H Smith
Johnson’s Brigade, Lomax’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Bradley Tyler Johnson
McCausland’s Brigade, Lomax’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General John McCausland
Jackson’s Brigade, Lomax’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General Henry Brevard Davidson
Rosser’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Major-General Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Wickham’s Brigade, Rosser’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia):
Rosser’s Brigade, Rosser’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia):
Payne’s Brigade, Rosser’s Cavalry Division, Cavalry (Northern Virginia): Brigadier-General William Henry Fitzhugh Payne

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan assumed command of the Army of the Shenandoah, succeeding Major-General Henry Gouverneur Wright.

Sheridan, Philip Henry / New York-Ohio / Born 6 March 1831 Albany, New York / Died Nonquitt, Massachusetts 5 August 1888
USMA 1 July 1853 34/52 Infantry-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1848 / 1st US Infantry 1 July 1853 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Infantry 22 November 1854 / 1st Lieutenant USA 1 March 1861 / Captain USA 14 May 1861 / Assistant Quartermaster 25 December 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd Michigan Cavalry 27 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 September 1862 to rank from 1 July 1862 / Major-General USV 10 April 1863 to rank from 31 December 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 20 September 1864 / Major-General USA 14 November 1864 to rank from 8 November 1864 / Mustered Out USV 8 November 1864 / Lieutenant-General USA 4 March 1869 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 1 November 1884-5 August 1888 / General USA 1 June 1888 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1853 / WIA Middle Cascade, Oregon Territory 28 March 1857
Assistant Quartermaster Army of the Southwest 25 December 1861-26 April 1862 / Assistant Quartermaster Army of the Mississippi 26 April 1862-27 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade Cavalry Army of the Mississippi 1 July 1862-4 September 1862 / 11th Division Army of the Ohio 4 September 1862-29 September 1862 / 11th Division III Corps Army of the Ohio 29 September 1862-24 October 1862 / 11th Division III Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 October 1862-5 November 1862 / 3rd Division Right Wing XIV Corps Army of the Cumberland 5 November 1862-9 January 1863 / 3rd Division XX Corps Army of the Cumberland 9 January 1863-9 October 1863 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 10 October 1863-17 February 1864 / 2nd Division IV Corps Army of the Cumberland 24 February 1864-4 April 1864 / Cavalry Corps Potomac 4 April 1864-7 August 1864 / Middle Military Division 7 August 1864-27 February 1865 / Army of the Shenandoah 7 August 1864-18 October 1864 / Middle Military Division 21 September 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 186422 April 1865 / Sheridan’s Cavalry Command Potomac 26 March 1865-6 May 1865 / Military Division of the Southwest 17 May 1865-27 June 1865 / Military Division of the Gulf 27 June 1865-6 August 1866 / Department of the Gulf 6 August 1866-11 March 1867 / Fifth Military District 11 March 1867-5 September 1867 / Department of the Missouri 19 August 1867-12 September 1867 / Department of the Missouri 2 March 1868-20 March 1869 / General-in-Chief 1 November 1883-5 August 1888,

USA: Brigadier-General George Washington Getty assumed interim command of VI Corps (Shenandoah), succeeding Brigadier-General James Brewerton Ricketts.

Getty, George Washington / District of Columbia / Born 2 October 1819 Georgetown, District of Columbia / Died Forest Glen, Maryland 1 October 1901
USMA 1 July 1840 15/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 September 1836 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 October 1845 / Captain USA 4 November 1853 / 5th US Artillery 14 May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV ADC (G B McClellan) 28 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 25 September 1862 / Major USA 5th US Artillery 1 August 1863 / Colonel USA 37th US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 9 October 1866 / 3rd US Infantry 15 March 1869 / 3rd US Artillery 31 December 1870 / 4th US Artillery 17 July 1882 / Retired USA 2 October 1883 / Brevet Captain USA 20 August 1847 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 19 April 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 4 May 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 1 August 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / WIA Wilderness 6 May 1864
2nd Brigade Reserve Artillery Army of the Potomac July 1862-August 1862 / 3rd Division IX Corps Army of the Potomac 4 October 1862-23 March 1863 / 2nd Division VII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 21 March 1863-1 August 1863 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-18 July 1863 / VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 15 July 1863-18 July 1863 / VII Corps Virginia and North Carolina 20 July 1863-25 July 1863 / Getty’s Division XVIII Corps Department of Virginia and North Carolina 1 August 1863-21 August 1863 / Getty’s Division District of Virginia 21 August 1863-23 September 1863 / Inspector-General Army of the Potomac 27 January 1864-24 March 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-6 May 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 28 June 1864-8 July 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-19 October 12864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 19 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864- 6 December 1864 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 December 1864-16 January 1865 / VI Corps Potomac 16 January 1865-11 February 1865 / 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 11 February 1865-28 June 1865 / 1st Division Provisional Corps Military Division of the Atlantic 28 June 1865-July 1865

USA: Major-General Horatio Gouverneur Wright assumed command of VI Corps (Shenandoah), succeeding Brigadier-General George Washington Getty.

Wright, Horatio Gouverneur / Connecticut / Born 6 March 1820 Clinton, Connecticut / Died Washington, District of Columbia 2 July 1899
USMA 1 July 1841 2/52 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1837 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 1 July 1841 / 1st Lieutenant USA 28 February 1848 / Captain USA 1 July 1855 / ADC (S P Heintzelman) June 1861-July 1861 / Major USA 6 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 14 September 1861 / Major-General USV 20 August 1862 to rank from 18 July 1862 Negated 12 March 1863 Revoked 24 March 1863 / Major-General USV 14 May 1864 to rank from 12 May 1864 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 23 November 1865 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / Colonel USA 4 March 1879 / Brigadier-General USA Chief of Engineers 30 June 1879 / Retired USA 6 March 1884 / Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8 November 1863 Brevet Colonel USA 12 May 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USA 13 March 1865 / CIA Norfolk 20 April 1861 Exchanged 24 April 1861 WIA Spotsylvania 9 May 1864 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
3rd Brigade Port Royal Expedition 19 September 1861-15 March 1862 / 1st Division Department of the South April 1862-July 1862 / Department of the Ohio 19 August 1862-25 March 1863 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 May 1863-16 December 1863 / District of Western Kentucky 25 March 1864-4 April 1864 / 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 23 April 1864-9 May 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 9 May 1864-6 August 1864 / Washington Defence Force 12 July 1864-6 August 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 6 August 1864-16 October 1864 / Army of the Shenandoah 18 October 1864-19 October 1864 / VI Corps Shenandoah 19 October 1864-6 December 1864 / VI Corps Potomac 6 December 1864-16 January 1865 / VI Corps Potomac 11 February 1865-28 June 1865 / Department of Texas 27 June 1865-6 August 1865 / Chief of Engineers USA 30 June 1879-6 March 1884

USA: William Henry Powell promoted Brigadier-General USV 19 October 1864.

Powell, William Henry / Wales / Born 10 May 1825 Pontypool, Wales / Died Belleville, Illinois 26 December 1904
Captain USV 2nd West Virginia Cavalry 8 November 1861 / Major USV 25 June 1862 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 25 October 1862 / Colonel 18 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 19 October 1864 / Resigned USV 5 January 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA & CIA Wytheville 18 July 1863 Exchanged 22 February 1864
3rd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Department of West Virginia 10 June 1864-July 1864 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Department of West Virginia August 1864-26 September 1864 / 2nd Cavalry Division Department of West Virginia 30 September 1864-5 January 1865

USA: Thomas Casimer Devin promoted Brigadier-General USV 19 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864.

Devin, Thomas Casimer / New York / Born 10 December 1822 New York City, New York / Died New York, New York 4 April 1878
Lieutenant-Colonel 1st New York Militia April 1861 / Captain USV 1st New York Cavalry 19 July 1861 / Mustered Out USV 19 October 1861 / Colonel USV 6th New York Cavalry 18 November 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 19 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Lieutenant-Colonel USA 8th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Colonel USA 3rd US Cavalry 25 June 1877 / Brevet Brigadier-General USV 16 August 1864 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 Brevet Colonel USA 2 March 1867 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 / WIA Crooked Run 16 August 1864
2nd Brigade Cavalry Army of the Potomac 13 December 1862-16 February 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 16 February 1863-6 June 1863 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 6 June 1863-9 June 1863 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 9 June 1863-3 January 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 5 January 1864-6 August 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 30 August 1864-13 November 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 13 November 1864-28 November 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 23 November 1864-31 December 1864 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 31 December 1864-15 January 1865 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 10 February 1865-10 March 1865 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1865-17 May 1865 / 1st Division Cavalry XXII Corps Department of Washington 17 May 1865-28 May 1865

USA: Alfred Gibbs promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864.

Gibbs, Alfred / New York / Born 22 April 1823 Astoria, New York / Died Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 26 December 1868
USMA 1 July 1846 42/59 Mounted Rifles-Cavalry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1842 / US Mounted Rifles 1 July 1846 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 21 December 1846 / 1st Lieutenant USA 31 May 1853 / Regt Adjutant 24 March 1858-15 September 1858 / Captain USA 13 May 1861 / 3rd US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 130th New York Infantry 6 September 1862 / 19th New York Cavalry (1st New York Dragoons) 11 August 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864 / Mustered Out USV 1 February 1866 / Major USA 7th US Cavalry 28 July 1866 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1846 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 18 April 1847 Brevet Captain USA 13 September 1847 Brevet Major USA 11 June 1864 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 19 September 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Cerro Gordo 18 April 1847 WIA Cook’s Spring, New Mexico Territory 9 March 1857 CIA San Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory 27 July 1861 Exchanged 7 August 1862
2nd Brigade VII Corps Department of Virginia 5 December 1862-21 January 1863 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 12 August 1863-12 September 1863 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 21 November 1863-10 April 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 7 May 1864-25 May 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-8 September 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 13 November 1864-18 November 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 13 December 1864-31 December 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 15 January 1865-18 January 1865 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 3 February 1865-10 February 1865 / 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 3rd February 1865-10 February 1865 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Shenandoah 10 February 1865-25 March 1865 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1865-25 May 1865

USA: Ranald Slidell Mackenzie promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864.

Mackenzie, Ranald Slidell / New York-New Jersey / Born 27 July 1840 Westchester, New York / Died New Brighton, Staten Island, New York 19 January 1889
USMA 17 June 1862 1/28 Engineers / Cadet USMA 1 July 1858 / 2nd Lieutenant USA Engineers 17 June 1862 / 1st Lieutenant USA 3 March 1863 / Captain USA 6 November 1863 / Colonel USV 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery 10 July 1864 / Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Colonel USA 41st US Infantry 6 March 1867 / 24th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / 4th US Cavalry 15 December 1869 / Brigadier-General USA 26 October 1882 / Retired USA 24 March 1884 / Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 29 August 1862 Brevet Captain USA 3 May 1863 Brevet Major USV 4 July 1863 Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel USA 18 June 1864 Brevet Colonel USA 19 October 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 13 March 1865 Brevet Major-General USV 31 March 1865 / WIA Second Bull Run 29 August 1862 WIA Gettysburg July 1863 WIA Petersburg 22 June 1864 WIA Winchester 19 September 1864 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864 WIA Blanco Canyon, Texas 15 October 1871
2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 19 October 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 3 November 1864-6 December 1864 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 December 1864-23 January 1865 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 February 1865-17 March 1865 / Cavalry Division XVIII Corps Army of the James 21 March 1865-1 April 1865 / Cavalry Division Sheridan’s Cavalry Command 1 April 1865-8 April 1865 / Mackenzie’s Brigade 2nd Division Cavalry Army of the Potomac 8 April 1865-9 May 1865

USA: Rutherford Birchard Hayes promoted Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864.

Hayes, Rutherford Birchard / Ohio / Born 4 October 1822 Delaware, Ohio / Died Fremont, Ohio 13 January 1893
Major USV 23rd Ohio Infantry 27 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 24 October 1861 / Judge Advocate General Department of Western Virginia November 1861 / Colonel USV 24 October 1862 / Brigadier-General USV 30 November 1864 to rank from 19 October 1864 / Resigned USV 8 June 1865 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865 / WIA Giles Court House 10 May 1862 WIA Fox’s Gap 14 September 1862 WIA Winchester 24 July 1864 WIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
1st Brigade 1st Division VIII Corps Middle Department 19 March 1863-26 June 1863 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Department of West Virginia June 1863-April 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of West Virginia April 1864-19 October 1864 / 2nd Division Department of West Virginia 19 October 1864-24 December 1864 / 1st Brigade 2nd Division Department of West Virginia 24 December 1864-January 1865 / 1st Brigade 1st Division Department of West Virginia January 1865-25 February 1865 / 1st Division Department of West Virginia 25 February 1865-April 1865

USA: Brigadier-General Daniel Davidson Bidwell was killed at Cedar Creek, Virginia.

Bidwell, Daniel Davidson / New York / Born 12 August 1819 Black Rock, New York / KIA Cedar Creek, Virginia 19 October 1864
New York Militia / Private USV 65th New York Infantry July 1861 / Private 74th New York Infantry May 1861 / Colonel USV 49th New York Infantry 21 October 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 11 August 1864
3rd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 28 May 1863-10 June 1863 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac February 1864-25 March 1864 / 3rd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Potomac 6 May 1864-8 June 1864 /3rd Brigade 2nd Division VI Corps Army of the Shenandoah 6 August 1864-19 October 1864

USA: Charles Russell Lowell promoted Brigadier-General USV posthumously to rank from 19 October 1864.

USA: Brigadier-General Charles Russell Lowell was mortally wounded at Cedar Creek, Virginia.

Lowell, Charles Russell (Jr) / Massachusetts / Born 2 January 1835 Boston, Massachusetts / DOW Middletown, Virginia 20 October 1864
Captain USA 3rd US Cavalry 14 May 1861 / ADC (G B McClellan) 10 July 1861-6 November 1861 / 6th US Cavalry 3 August 1861 / Colonel USV 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry 10 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 19 October 1864 posthumously / MWIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
Cavalry Brigade XXII Corps Department of Washington 1 August 1863-17 October 1863 / Cavalry Brigade Corcoran’s Did Department of Washington 17 October 1863-30 December 1863 / Cavalry Brigade R O Tyler’s Division Department of Washington 30 December 1864-February 1864 / Cavalry Brigade R O Tyler’s Division Department of Washington April 1863-13 July 1864 / Cavalry Brigade Washington Defence Force 13 July 1864-8 August 1864 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Middle Department 8 August 1864-8 September 1864 / Reserve Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Middle Department 8 September 1864-19 Octonary 1864

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: Alexander Moseley Pennock
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: Jefferson Columbus Davis
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox temporary
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Mortimer Dormer Leggett temporary

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: Francis Jay Herron
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Jennings Landram
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Joseph Bailey
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Albert Sigel temporary

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: James Gilpatrick Blunt
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Army of the Border: Samuel Ryan Curtis

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Eliakim Parker Scammon
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Edward Elmer Potter temporary
  • District of Florida: John Porter Hatch

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry
    • XVIII Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: IV Corps (Northern Virginia) was established in the Army of Northern Virginia.

CSA: Lieutenant-General Richard Heron Anderson assumed command of IV Corps (Northern Virginia).

Anderson, Richard Heron / South Carolina / Born 7 October 1821 Stateburg, South Carolina / Died Beaufort, South Carolina 26 June 1879
USMA 1 July 1842 40/56 Dragoons / Cadet USMA 1 July 1838 / 1st US Dragoons 1 July 1842 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 2nd US Dragoons 16 July 1844 / 1st Lieutenant USA 13 July 1848 / Captain USA 3 March 1855 / Resigned USA 3 March 1861 / Colonel 1st South Carolina Regular Infantry 28 January 1861 / Major ACSA Cavalry 16 March 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 19 July 1861 / Major-General PACS 14 July 1862 / Lieutenant-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 / Discharged PACS 8 April 1865 / No Record of Parole / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1842 Brevet 1st Lieutenant USA 20 August 1847 / WIA Santa Rosa Island 9 October 1861 WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
Dept of South Carolina 27 May 1861-21 August 1861 / Anderson’s Brigade Army of Pensacola August 1861-12 October 1861 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of the Potomac 15 February 1862-31 May 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 31 May 1862-1 June 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862-21 June 1862 / 2nd Division Right Wing Army of Northern Virginia 29 June 1862-1 July 1862 / 2nd Brigade 2nd Division Army of Northern Virginia 1 July 1862-14 July 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 14 July 1862-17 September 1862 / 2nd Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia November 1862-30 May 1863 / 2nd Division III Corps Army of Northern Virginia 30 May 1863-7 May 1864 / I Corps Northern Virginia 7 May 1864-19 October 1864 / IV Corps Northern Virginia 19 October 1864-8 April 1865

CSA: Major-General Stephen Dodson Ramseur was mortally wounded and captured at Cedar Creek, Virginia.

Ramseur, Stephen Dodson / North Carolina / Born 31 May 1837 Lincolnton, North Carolina/ DOW Meadow Mills Virginia 20 October 1864
USMA 1 July 1860 14/41 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1855 / 3rd US Artillery 1 July 1860 / 2nd Lieutenant USA 4th US Artillery 1 February 1861 / Resigned USA 6 April 1861 / 1st Lieutenant ACSA Artillery 16 March 1861 / Captain 10th North Carolina Militia 8 May 1861 / Major North Carolina Militia 16 May 1861 / Captain PACS Alabama Artillery May 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 3rd North Carolina Infantry 27 May 1861 / Major PACS Artillery 20 August 1861 / Colonel PACS 49th North Carolina Infantry 12 April 1862 / Brigadier-General PACS 1 November 1862 / Major-General PACS (Temporary) 31 May 1864 to rank from 1 June 1864 / Brevet 2nd Lieutenant USA 1 July 1860 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862 WIA Chancellorsville 3 May 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864 MWIA Cedar Creek 19 October 1864
Ramseur’s Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 8 April 1863-2 May 1863 / Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 2 May 1863-3 May 1863 / Ramseur’s Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 3 May 1863-12 May 1864 / Iverson’s Brigade Rodes’ Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 July 1863-8 September 1863 / Ramseur’s Division II Corps Army of Northern Virginia 4 June 1864-13 June 1864 / Ramseur’s Division II Corps Valley District 13 June 1864-19 October 1864 / I Corps Valley 19 September 1864-27 September 1864

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan*
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)
(Philp Henry Sheridan)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Daniel Davidson Bidwell KIA
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes

Charles Russell Lowell

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
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William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
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Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
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Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
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John Bratton
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John McCausland
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Robert Doak Lilley
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John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
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Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
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