1864 November 16th

November 16 1864 Wednesday

Sherman’s March to the Sea Begins

Lovejoy’s Station, GA

Siege of Petersburg

Hood’s Operations in Northern Alabama

Sherman’s March to the Sea

Alabama. Skirmishes at Shoal Creek.

Alabama. Confederate General John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee completed its crossing to the northern bank of the Tennessee River at Florence. Hood had delayed his northward march for three weeks while he awaited the arrival of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry, and in gathering supplies. Hood received confirmation that Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman was about to depart Atlanta with the unexpected intention to march across Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean. There was no realistic possibility for Hood to return to Georgia from his current location to challenge Sherman’s march, so he focused his strategy on an alternative plan. His aggressive plan was to enter Tennessee, defeat the local Union forces before they could concentrate, seize the important manufacturing centre of Nashville, and continue northwards into Kentucky, possibly even as far as the Ohio River. From this point, he could travel east to Virginia to join up with General Robert Edward Lee at Petersburg, Virginia. Even if only partially successful, Hood presumed that the audacity of this operation would cause such consternation in Union ranks that Sherman would be recalled from his expedition across Georgia, and reinforcements would also be drawn away from the siege of Petersburg in Virginia.

Hood’s commander, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard urged Hood to take immediate action to divert or frustrate Sherman’s advance, emphasising the importance of moving before Major-General George Henry Thomas could consolidate the Union forces defending Tennessee. Hood decided to launch his invasion of Tennessee immediately and issued orders for the start of the campaign. However, supply difficulties and a fierce storm of icy rain, sleet, and knee-deep mud once again delayed the start for a further four days. On the Union side, both Sherman and Thomas considered it most likely that Hood would return to Georgia in response to Sherman’s advance. Although Thomas had received intelligence that Hood was amassing supplies for a movement north, he discounted this prospect when heavy rains during November made the roads almost impassable. When he received reports of Confederates scouting the area fourteen miles north of Florence, he became less clear about Hood’s intentions. Thomas’ chief subordinate, Union Major-General John McAllister Schofield, concurred that this probe was likely no more than a raid by Confederate cavalry against the railroad between Pulaski and Columbia and not the forerunner of a major advance.

Arkansas. Reconnaissance from Devall’s Bluff to West Point began.

Colorado Territory. Incident at Fort Lyon.

Florida. Expedition from Barrancas to Pine Barren Creek began. Union troops captured a series of Confederate picket posts, and went on to capture the entire Confederate picket camp without casualties.

Georgia. Skirmish at Bear Creek Station.

Georgia. Skirmish at Cotton River Bridge.

March to the Sea, Georgia. After destroying the military resources, warehouses, and railroad facilities of Atlanta, Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman began his famous “March to the Sea” across Georgia in the direction of Savannah. Sherman and the Union General-in-Chief, Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant, believed that the war would end only when the Confederacy’s strategic, economic, and psychological capacity for prosecuting the war was decisively undermined and broken. Sherman applied the principles of “scorched earth”. He ordered his troops to wreck any facilities with a military application, to forage liberally off the land, burn crops, kill livestock, and consume supplies freely. In some cases, they should also destroy important civilian infrastructure along their path. This policy is often viewed as an early example of “total war”. Sherman’s armies would cut a swathe of destruction 300 miles in length and 60 miles wide as they passed through Georgia, destroying factories, bridges, railroads, and public buildings. A similar policy had already begin under Major-General Philip Henry Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia.

A second objective of the campaign was of a traditionally military kind. Grant’s armies in Virginia remained in a stalemate against General Robert Edward Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, besieged at Petersburg. By moving across Lee’s distant rear, performing a massive turning movement against him from the South, Sherman aimed to increase pressure on Lee’s resources. This would draw Confederate reinforcements away from Virginia and increase Grant new opportunities to break the weakened defences.

US President Abraham Lincoln, persuaded by Grant’s advice, approved the strategic plan. The campaign was designed to be similar to Grant’s innovative and successful Vicksburg Campaign of 1863, insofar as Sherman’s armies would reduce their need for traditional supply lines by “living off the land”, conserving their 20 days of hard rations for as long as possible. Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to plan his route, and he aimed to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively. Foragers, quickly termed “bummers”, would seize food for the Army from local farms, while other troops destroyed the railroads, the manufacturing facilities, and agricultural resources of the state. Cotton gins and storage bins were specifically targeted for destruction as the Confederates were trading cotton through the blockade for weapons and other vital supplies.

Sherman gave explicit orders regarding the conduct of the campaign. Sherman did not employ the entire force of the vast Military Division of the Mississippi for the Georgia campaign. Confederate General John Bell Hood was threatening Sherman’s supply line to Atlanta from Chattanooga, so Sherman detached the bulk of two armies (the Army of the Cumberland and Army of the Ohio) under Major-General George Henry Thomas to handle Hood in Tennessee. The march across Georgia would be mainly conducted by the Army of the Tennessee, and a part of the Army of the Cumberland unofficially renamed as the Army of Georgia.

The “March to the Sea” was carried out by 62,000 men (55,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry and 2,000 artillerymen with 64 guns). Sherman split the column into two wings to reduce congestion on the narrow roads and to broaden the swathe of destruction and foraging to between thirty and sixty miles.

The right wing of the march was conducted by the Army of the Tennessee, commanded by Major-General Oliver Otis Howard, with the XV Corps and XVII Corps. The XV Corps was commanded by Major-General Peter Joseph Osterhaus with four divisions under Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods, Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen, Brigadier-General John Eugene Smith, and Brigadier-General John Murray Corse. The XVII Corps was under Major-General Francis Preston Blair with the three divisions of Major-General Joseph Anthony Mower, Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett, and Brigadier-General Giles Alexander Smith.

The left wing of the march was unofficially referred to as the Army of Georgia, commanded by Major-General Henry Warner Slocum. Slocum’s force comprised the  XIV Corps and XX Corps. Both of these corps belonged previously to the Army of the Cumberland under Major-General George Henry Thomas. The Army of the Cumberland was now reduced technically to IV Corps, which was attached operationally to Major-General John McAllister Schofield’s Army of the Ohio in Tennessee. The XIV Corps was commanded by Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis, with divisions under Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin, Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan, and Brigadier-General Absalom Baird. The XX Corps was led by Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams with three divisions under Brigadier-General Nathaniel James Jackson, Brigadier-General John White Geary, and Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward.

The Union cavalry division of Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick was to operate as required with the two wings. Kilpatrick’s two cavalry brigades were under Colonel Eli Houston Murray and Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins. Two independent mounted regiments also accompanied the march (1st Alabama Cavalry and 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry). Sherman’s personal escort on the march was the 1st Alabama Cavalry, a unit made up entirely of Southerners who were loyal to the Union. A wagon train conveying a collapsible 900-foot pontoon bridge accompanied each wing to enable rapid crossings at streams and rivers.

The Confederates managed to gather a meagre force of about 13,000 men to defend Georgia. These comprised State Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith’s Georgia Militia and other State troops, about 3,050 strong, plus Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps reinforced by one cavalry brigade from Brigadier-General William Hicks Jackson’s cavalry, numbering about 10,000 cavalrymen combined. Further troops were scraped together from Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Department of South Carolina, Georgia and East Florida and from the Department of North Carolina. On the other hand, there was a surfeit of generals. General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, General Braxton Bragg, Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor, and Major-General Lafayette McLaws were all available to help in Georgia, but none of them could bring additional manpower.

Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia, also known as Lovejoy. The two wings of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Union armies attempted to confuse and deceive the enemy about the destination of their march from Atlanta. The Confederates could not determine from the initial movements whether Sherman would march on Macon, Augusta, or Savannah. The two wings quickly diverged fifty miles apart, but the Confederates were to weak to engage either successfully. Union Major-General Oliver Otis Howard’s wing, led by Brigadier-General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry division, marched south along the railroad to Lovejoy’s Station, where they encountered Confederate resistance. The Union 8th Indiana Cavalry (Colonel Eli Houston Murray’s brigade (1/3/Cavalry) made a dismounted attack to take a Confederate line manned by two cavalry brigades and two guns. Murray’s brigade followed up with a charge and routed the defenders. Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins’ cavalry brigade (2/3/Cavalry) took up the pursuit for four miles along the track to Beaver Creek Station, taking 50 prisoners and two more guns. The Confederates attempted to conduct a fighting retreat to Macon. The Union cavalry captured two Confederate guns at Lovejoy’s Station, and then two more guns and 50 prisoners at Bear Creek Station. Howard’s infantry marched through Jonesboro to Gordon, southwest of the state capital, Milledgeville while Kilpatrick resumed his advance to almost as far as Forsyth. Meanwhile, Major-General Henry Warner Slocum’s wing, accompanied by Sherman himself, moved further to the east, heading in the direction of Augusta. Slocum destroyed the ribcage bridges at Oconee and then followed the right bank of the Oconee River.

Mississippi. Former Confederate Brigadier-General Charles Clark became Acting Governor of Mississippi, succeeding John J Pettus.

Missouri. Expedition to Springfield ended.

Missouri. Reconnaissance to Pemiscot County ended.

Missouri. Union expedition from Brookfield to Brunswick, Keytesville, and Salisbury began.

Missouri., Expedition from Cape Girardeau to Patterson began in Wayne County.

Tennessee. Union Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox’s division (2/XXIII) reached Pulaski to reinforce IV Corps.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Strawberry Plains.

Virginia. Incident at Winchester.

Virginia. Skirmish near Lee’s Mill.

Union Organisation

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: David Dixon Porter
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Cornelius Kinchiloe Stribling
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: David Sloane Stanley
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Morgan Lewis Smith
    • Army of the Tennessee: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XV Corps Tennessee: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
      • Detachment Army of the Tennessee (XVI Corps): Andrew Jackson Smith
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Army of Georgia: Henry Warner Slocum
    • XIV Corps Georgia: Jefferson Columbus Davis
    • XX Corps Georgia: Alpheus Starkey Williams
  • Cavalry Corps Mississippi: James Harrison Wilson

Military Division of West Mississippi: Joseph Jones Reynolds temporary

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
    • District of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson: William Plummer Benton
      • Sub-District of Baton Rouge: William Jennings Landram
      • Sub-District of Port Hudson: George Leonard Andrews
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: George Francis McGinnis
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson Viall
    • District of West Florida and South Alabama: Gordon Granger
      • Sub-District of West Florida: Joseph Bailey
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: John Newton
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Stephen Augustus Hurlbut temporary
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: Alfred Pleasonton
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: John Finis Philips
    • District of Rolla: John Finis Philips

Middle Military Division: Philip Henry Sheridan

  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: Samuel M Bowman
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Thomas Scott Mather
    • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley
    • Juniata District: Orris Sanford Ferry
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: George Crook
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: John Dunlap Stevenson
    • Army of Western Virginia: George Crook
  • Army of the Shenandoah: Philip Henry Sheridan
    • VI Corps Shenandoah: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • XIX Corps Shenandoah: Cuvier Grover
    • Cavalry Corps Shenandoah: Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

  • District of Northern New York: John Cleveland Robinson

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of the Upper Arkansas: Benjamin S Henning temporary
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Joseph Hooker

  • District of Illinois: John Cook
  • District of Indiana: Alvin Peterson Hovey
  • District of Michigan: Bennett Hoskin Hill

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • IX Corps Potomac: John Grubb Parke
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: David McMurtrie Gregg

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): John Porter Hatch
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: Edward Elmer Potter
  • District of Florida: Eliakim Parker Scammon

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Stewart
  • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Adelbert Ames temporary
    • XVIII Corps James: Godfrey Weitzel

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Dudley McIver Dubose promoted Brigadier-General PACS 30 November 1864 to rank from 16 November 1864.

Dubose, Dudley McIver / Tennessee-Georgia / Born 28 October 1834 Shelby, Tennessee / Died Washington, Georgia 2 March 1883
1st Lieutenant ACSA Infantry 19 July 1861 / ADC (R A Toombs) 1861-1862 / Captain PACS Assistant Adjutant-General 29 January 1862 / 15th Georgia 1861 / Colonel PACS 15th Georgia Infantry January 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS (Temporary) 30 November 1864 to rank from 16 November 1864 / Paroled Fort Warren, Massachusetts 24 July 1865 / WIA Chickamauga 19 September 1863 CIA Sayler’s Creek 6 April 1865
Benning’s Brigade Field’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 5 May 1864-June 1864 / Wofford’s Brigade Kershaw’s Division I Corps Army of Northern Virginia 5 December 1864-6 April 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Military Division of the West: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

  • Department of Tennessee and Georgia: John Bell Hood
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • I Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
      • II Corps Tennessee: Stephen Dill Lee
      • III Corps Tennessee: Alexander Peter Stewart temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest temporary
  • Department of Alabama, Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana: Richard Taylor
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: Franklin Gardner
      • Sub-District of Southwest Mississippi: George Baird Hodge
      • Sub-District of Northern Mississippi: William Wirt Adams
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Central Alabama: Daniel Weisiger Adams
    • District of Northern Alabama: Philip Dale Roddey
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of East Tennessee and West Virginia: John Cabell Breckinridge
  • Department of Western Kentucky: Hylan Benton Lyon

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting interim Braxton Bragg awaited

  • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
  • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
  • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • I Corps Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
    • II Corps Northern Virginia: Jubal Anderson Early
    • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
    • IV Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson
    • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
  • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: William Joseph Hardee

  • District of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • District of South Carolina: Samuel Jones
    • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
    • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans interim Robert Ransom awaited
    • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
    • 5th Sub-District of South Carolina: Lafayette McLaws
  • District of Florida: William Miller
  • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

  • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John George Walker
    • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: James Edwin Slaughter
      • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
    • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
    • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
    • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
  • District of Arkansas: John Bankhead Magruder
  • District of West Louisiana: Simon Bolivar Buckner
  • District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper
  • Army of Missouri: Sterling Price
  • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • I Corps Trans-Mississippi: Simon Bolivar Buckner
    • II Corps Trans-Mississippi: John Bankhead Magruder
    • III Corps Trans-Mississippi: John George Walker
    • Reserve Corps Trans-Mississippi: Thomas Pleasant Dockery

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: William Miller

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of Mississippi: William Lindsay Brandon

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Tennessee: John Cabell Breckinridge

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

Henry Wager Halleck
William Tecumseh Sherman
George Gordon Meade
Philp Henry Sheridan

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
George Stoneman
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock*
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Joseph Antony Mower
George Crook

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Henry Thomas)
(Winfield Scott Hancock)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
John Dunlap Stevenson
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman
William Grose
Joseph Alexander Cooper
John Thomas Croxton
John Wilson Sprague
James William Reilly
Luther Prentice Bradley
Charles Carroll Walcutt
William Worth Belknap
Powell Clayton
Joseph Abel Haskin
James Deering Fessenden
Eli Long
Thomas Wilberforce Egan
Joseph Roswell Hawley
William Henry Seward
Isaac Hardin Duval
John Edwards
Thomas Alfred Smyth
Ferdinand Van Derveer
William Henry Powell
Thomas Casimer Devin
Alfred Gibbs
Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
James Richard Slack
Thomas John Lucas
Edmund Jackson Davis
Joseph Bailey

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
George Douglas Ramsay
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee
Simon Bolivar Buckner

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton
William Mahone
John Calvin Brown
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
James Lawson Kemper
Matthew Calbraith Butler
George Washington Custis Lee
Thomas Lafayette Rosser

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
William Felix Brantley
Robert Houston Anderson
Jacob Hunter Sharp
George Doherty Johnston
George Gibbs Dibrell
Thomas Benton Smith
David Addison Weisiger
William Miller
Philip Cook
William Hugh Young
George Washington Gordon
Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell
Walter Husted Stevens
Basil Wilson Duke
Charles Miller Shelley
Patrick Theodore Moore
Edwin Gray Lee
William Henry Wallace
Gilbert Moxley Sorrel
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne
Peter Burwell Starke
William MacRae
Samuel Read Anderson
Josiah Gorgas
Joseph Benjamin Palmer
Dudley McIver Dubose
Richard Waterhouse

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