1864 June 18th

June 18 1864 Saturday

Second Battle of Petersburg, VA (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Battle of Lynchburg, VA (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Atlanta Campaign – Kennesaw

Petersburg Campaign

Hunter’s Shenandoah Valley Campaign

Sheridan’s Trevilian Raid

France. Captain Raphael Semmes CSN of the CSS Alabama put ashore at Cherbourg a large quantity of money and items taken from captured and prize ships, in preparation for his imminent departure.

Arkansas. Skirmish at Monticello Road near Pine Bluff.

Georgia. Skirmish at Muddy Creek

Georgia. Skirmish at Ackworth.

Georgia. Skirmish at Allatoona.

Georgia. After further pressure and skirmishing from Union forces, Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston completed his withdrawal during the night and morning. His army now occupied a convex arc-shaped position centred on Kennesaw Mountain, two miles to the southeast of his previous mountain-top line. The ridge was 700 feet high above the valley and consisted of two peaks with a narrow gorge between them. Confederate guns clustered on the highest points and observation posts signalled continually the positions the Union armies of Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman. The entire ridge was carefully fortified by breastworks and rifle pits and extended from the railroad on the right, across Kennesaw Mountain, and Little Kennesaw Mountain to Pigeon Hill. The left flank was posted on a low ridge later named Cheatham Hill after its Confederate defender. The entire line was six miles long and the side facing the Union army was steep, strewn with boulders and thick scrub. The crest and its approaches were cleared off obstacles by Confederate engineers, who posted the defence intelligently with rifle pits and screening positions further down the slope. Two batteries were hauled laboriously onto Pigeon Hill, one at the northern end of Kennesaw Mountain and a second on its peak, and another nine guns crowed Little Kennesaw Mountain. Sherman prepared for a determined attack on this strong position. He placed the Army of the Ohio on his right flank, reinforced by Major-General Joseph Hooker’s XX Corps. The Army of the Cumberland began a vigorous artillery bombardment in the centre from 130 guns. The Army of the Tennessee probed the Confederate left under observation from the higher peak held by the Confederates.

Kentucky. Incident at Liberty.

Louisiana. Incident at Newport Cross Roads.

Mississippi. Incident at Cross Roads.

Missouri. Confederates from Chariton County raided the town of Laclede and were pursued by Union troops.

Missouri. Union Expedition from Kansas City began.

Missouri. Incident at Columbia.

Virginia. Incidents at Cold Harbor and Snicker’s Ford.

Virginia. Skirmish at King and Queen Court House.

Virginia. The last part of the Union Army of the Potomac completed its crossing of the James River pontoon bridge at 7 pm. The bridge was split into three rafts and was floated to City Point where it arrived at about dawn, ready for use elsewhere.

Second Petersburg, Virginia, also known as Petersburg. Certain at last that the Union Army of the Potomac had shifted its primary direction of operations to the south of the James River, Confederate General Robert Edward Lee arrived at Petersburg around noon. He had sent all but one of his divisions in motion towards Petersburg. The Howlett Line had been occupied by Major-General George Edward Pickett’s division from I Corps. Two divisions under Major-General Joseph Brevard Kershaw and Major-General Charles William Field (both from I Corps) arrived to raise Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard’s force to over 20,000 men to defend Petersburg. Kershaw marched in to the town at about 7.30 am and Field had arrived by 10 am.

On the Union side, Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant’s force had been augmented by the arrival of Major-General Gouverneur Kemble Warren’s V Corps, bringing his available force up to 67,000 men. At dawn the Union II Corps, XI Corps, and V Corps attacked the Petersburg defences in turn, starting from right to left. Union Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock was suffering from his Gettysburg wound and turned over command of the II Corps to Major-General David Bell Birney. The men of the II Corps made rapid early progress towards the Confederate line, unaware that Beauregard had abandoned it the night before for a new line a mile or so further back, which linked the Appomattox River with the Jerusalem Plank Road. Beauregard’s unexpected withdrawal during the night caught the Union attackers by surprise and although they lost almost no casualties they paused at the abandoned first line before advancing again towards the unexplored second line. The II Corps discovered a new strongpoint by the Hare House, 300 yards behind the old line. Two attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties before noon.

By noon, the Union IX Corps and V Corps, which had a longer distance to march to join the attack, came up alongside the II Corps. They made slow progress through ravines and woods filled with slashings and obstacles, and against determined delaying actions. Their attacks lost coordination and, although an attack at 2 pm made some headway, there were heavy casualties and the attackers failed to make a breakthrough against Field and Kershaw. Major-General Orlando Bolivar Willcox’s division of the IX Corps led the next attack, but they suffered significant losses in the marsh and open fields traversed by Taylor’s Branch. Willcox’s division emerged with only 1,000 men still standing. Similarly, Warren’s V Corps was halted by murderous fire from Rives’ Salient (Battery 27) where the Dimmock Line crossed the Jerusalem Plank Road).

At about 4 pm, Birney’s II Corps attempted another attack by a massed brigade on a narrow front. Attacking from the direction of Prince George Court House, the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (fighting as infantry) lost 632 of its 850 men in thirty minutes, accumulating the highest single regimental loss in a single action in the war. The 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery fared little better alongside them. At 6:30 pm, Union Major-General George Gordon Meade ordered a final assault, which also failed with severe losses. Confederate Lieutenant-General Ambrose Powell Hill’s III Corps arrived in the Petersburg Lines during the evening, completing the concentration of the Army of Northern Virginia around the city.

Having achieved almost no gains from four days of assaults, Meade ordered his army to dig in. He reported to Lieutenant-General Ulysses Simpson Grant that the army was exhausted with its offensive efforts and needed to rest before further exertions could be attempted. As the Confederate works were being continually strengthened, the several opportunities to capture Petersburg without a siege had been lost.

Union forces engaged during the assaults of 15-18 June numbered about 63,797 against 41,999 Confederates. Union losses were reported as 1,688 men killed, 8,513 wounded, and 1,185 captured or missing. Confederate losses were incompletely recorded as about 4,000 men (200 killed, 2,900 wounded, 900 missing or captured). (CWSAC Decisive Battle – Confederate Victory)

Lynchburg, Virginia. Confederate Major-General Arnold Elzey and Major-General Robert Ransom arrived in Lynchburg from Richmond to reinforce the defences of the Shenandoah Valley. Elzey assumed command of Major-General John Cabell Breckinridge’s infantry and dismounted cavalry while Ransom superseded Brigadier-General John Daniel Imboden as commander of the mounted cavalry. Part of Lieutenant-General Jubal Anderson Early’s Confederate II Corps also began to arrive in Lynchburg by rail from Richmond from about noon onwards. Early elected to remain on the defensive and waited for more men of his attenuated II Corps to arrive.

A redoubt later known as Fort Early was at the centre of the Confederate line, with Major-General John Brown Gordon’s division on the left, and Brigadier-General William Gaston Lewis’ brigade on the right. Brigadier-General John McCausland commanded the right flank, which included a redoubt, and Elzey’s command defended the area between it and Lewis’ brigade. Colonel Scott Shipp’s Virginia Military Institute cadets were placed in reserve at Spring Hill Cemetery while the inner defences were occupied by Confederate Home Guards.

Union Major-General David Hunter was not convinced that significant Confederate reinforcements had arrived in Lynchburg, and he deployed Brigadier-General Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan’s and Brigadier-General George Crook’s divisions facing the Confederate centre, with Brigadier-General William Woods Averell’s cavalry division in reserve. Reaching the outskirts of Lynchburg, Hunter’s first tentative attacks were thwarted by Breckinridge. Hunter sent an order to Brigadier-General Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié to attack the Confederate right. McCausland succeeded in holding off Duffié’s assaults. After reconnoitring the enemy line in an effort to find a weak spot to push his infantry through, Hunter ruled out a direct attack on the redoubts for they appeared too strong. He ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Henry A Du Pont to deploy his thirty-two guns against that sector. Crook was sent to flank the Confederate left, but had only marched a few miles before finding the going impracticable. The Confederates attacked Sullivan and Du Pont, who managed to hold them at bay until Crook returned. The Confederates fell back after a half hour of fighting but spent the next hour and twenty minutes attempting to break through the gap between Sullivan and Duffié before withdrawing to their earthworks. A regiment from Colonel Rutherford Birchard Hayes’ Union brigade pursued their retreat but was beaten back. As their ammunition ran short, both Hunter and Duffié became convinced that they were outnumbered and likely to be overwhelmed. Their estimate was not far wrong as the timely arrival of the remainder of Early’s II Corps encouraged Early to prepare an attack of his own. Hunter retreated during the night and avoided the danger.  Total casualties in the battle were estimated at 900 men. (CWSAC Major Battle – Confederate Victory)

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General David Bell Birney assumed temporary command of II Corps (Potomac), succeeding Major-General Winfield Scott Hancock.

Birney, David Bell / Alabama / Born 29 May 1825 Huntsville, Alabama / Died Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 18 October 1864
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 23rd Pennsylvania Militia 21 April 1861 / Mustered Out USV 31 July 1861 / Colonel USV 23rd Pennsylvania Infantry 31 August 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 17 February 1862 to rank from 3 February 1862 / Major-General USV 20 May 1863 / WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Spotsylvania 12 May 1864
2nd Brigade Heintzelman’s Division Army of the Potomac 19 February 1862-13 March 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 March 1862-30 May 1862 / 2nd Brigade 3rd Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 12 June 1862-5 August 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 5 August 1862-1 September 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army Of the Potomac 1 September 1862-13 September 1862 / 2nd Brigade 1st Division III Corps Army of the Potomac 13 September 1862-30 October 1862 / 1st Division III Corps Army Of the Potomac 30 October 1862-29 May 1863 / III Corps Potomac 29 May 1863-3 June 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army Of the Potomac 3 June 1863-2 July 1863 / III Corps Army of the Potomac 2 July 1863-7 July 1863 / 1st Division III Corps Army Of the Potomac 7 July 1863-28 January 1864 / III Corps Potomac 28 January 1864-17 February 1864 / 1st Division III Corps Army Of the Potomac 17 February 1864-24 March 1864 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 25 March 1864-18 June 1864 / 3rd Division II Corps Army of the Potomac 27 June 1864-23 July 1864 / II Corps Potomac 18 June 1864-27 June 1864 / X Corps James 23 July 1864-10 October 1864 / Department of Virginia and North Carolina 5 September 1864-7 September 1864

USA: Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain promoted Brigadier-General USV 20 June 1864 to rank from 18 June 1864.

Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence / Maine / Born 8 September 1828 Brewer, Maine / Died Portland, Maine 24 February 1914
Lieutenant-Colonel USV 20th Maine Infantry 8 August 1862 / Colonel USV 20 May 1863 / Brigadier-General USV 20 June 1864 to rank from 18 June 1864 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Major-General Maine Militia 1876 / Brevet Major-General USV 29 March 1865 / Medal of Honor 2 July 1863 / WIA Fredericksburg 13 December 1862 WIA Gettysburg 2 July 1863 WIA Rives’ Salient, Petersburg 18 June 1864 WIA Quaker Road 29 March 1865
3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 26 August 1863-19 November 1863 / 1st Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 6 June 1864-18 June 1864 / 1st Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 19 November 1864-13 January 1865 / 1st Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 27 February 1865-20 April 1865 / 3rd Brigade 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 11 April 1865-20 April 1865 / 1st Division V Corps Army of the Potomac 20 April 1865-28 June 1865 / 1st Brigade 3rd Division Wright’s Provisional Corps Middle Department 28 June 1865-July 1865

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

  • North Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee USN
  • South Atlantic Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral John Adolphus Dahlgren USN
  • West Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Glasgow Farragut USN
  • East Gulf Blockading Squadron USN: Acting Rear Admiral Theodorus Bailey USN
  • Pacific Squadron USN: Captain John B Montgomery USN
  • Mississippi River Squadron USN: Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter USN
  • Potomac Flotilla USN: Commodore Andrew Allen Harwood USN

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

  • Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman
    • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
      • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
      • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
      • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
      • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
        • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
        • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
        • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
        • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
    • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
      • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
      • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • Department of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
      • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
        • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
      • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
      • Army of the Tennessee: James Birdseye McPherson
        • XV Corps Tennessee: John Alexander Logan
        • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
          • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
          • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
        • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair
  • Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
      • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
      • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
      • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
        • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
      • District of Port Hudson: Daniel Ullmann
      • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
      • District of Morganza: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
      • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
      • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
      • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
      • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
        • XIX Corps Gulf: William Hemsley Emory
        • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
    • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
      • District of St Louis: vacant
      • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
      • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
      • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
      • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar
  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Kansas: George Sykes
    • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
    • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
    • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
    • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
    • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington
  • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace
    • District of Delaware: John Reese Kenly
    • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
    • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace
  • Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton
    • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie
  • Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
    • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington
  • Department of the Northwest: John Pope
    • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
    • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
    • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully
  • Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell
    • District of the Humboldt: Henry M Black
    • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
    • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
    • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor
  • Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
      • II Corps Potomac: David Bell Birney temporary
      • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
      • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
      • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
      • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan
  • Department of the South: John Gray Foster
    • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
    • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
    • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
    • District of Florida: William Birney
  • Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch
    • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • District of St Mary’s: Alonzo Granville Draper
    • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
    • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
    • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
      • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: James Jourdan
      • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
    • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
      • X Corps James: Alfred Howe Terry temporary
      • XVIII Corps James: William Farrar Smith
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
    • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
  • Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter
    • District of Harper’s Ferry: Franz Sigel
    • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook
    • Army of the Shenandoah: David Hunter

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Brigadier-General Henry Rootes Jackson arrived to command the District of Georgia, succeeding Brigadier-General Hugh Weedon Mercer.

Jackson, Henry Rootes / Georgia / Born 24 June 1820 Athens, Georgia / Died Savannah, Georgia 23 May 1898
Colonel USV 1st Georgia Infantry 20 June 1846 / Mustered Out May 1848 / ADC (J E Brown) 1861 / Brigadier-General PACS 4 June 1861 / Resigned PACS 2 December 1861 / Major-General Georgia Militia 2 December 1861-21 September 1863 / ADC (W H T Walker) 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 21 September 1863 / ADC ( J E Brown) 1864 / Georgia Militia 22 June 1864-9 July 1864 / Paroled Fort Warren, Massachusetts 8 July 1865 / CIA Nashville 16 December 1864
Department of Northwest Virginia 14 July 1861-20 July 1861 / Army of the Northwest 14 July 1861-20 July 1861 / 1st Brigade Army of the Northwest 20 July 1861-22 November 1861 / 1st Division Army of the Northwest November 1861-2 December 1861 / District of Georgia 18 June 1864-28 September 1864 / Jackson’s Brigade Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 23 July 1864-10 August 1864 / Walker’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 23 July 1864-24 July 1864 / Bate’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee 10 August 1864-August 1864 / Jackson’s Brigade Bate’s Division I Corps Army of Tennessee August 1864-16 December 1864 / District of Georgia 11 November 1863-27 September 1864

CSA: William Lindsay Brandon promoted Brigadier-General PACS 18 June 1864.

Brandon, William Lindsay / Mississippi / Born 1800 Washington, Mississippi / Died Wilkinson, Mississippi 8 October 1890
Major-General Mississippi Militia 1861 / Major PACS 11 June 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 21st Mississippi Infantry 17 July 1861 / Colonel PACS 12 August 1861 / Resigned PACS 28 October 1863 / Brigadier-General PACS 18 June 1864 / Paroled Meridian, Mississippi 10 May 1865 / WIA Malvern Hill 1 July 1862
Reserve Forces of Mississippi 23 July 1864-4 May 1865

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon

Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

  • Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee
    • District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott
    • Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury
    • District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
    • District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
    • First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise
    • Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker
    • Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting
  • Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
    • Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee
      • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
      • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
      • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton
    • Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early
      • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
  • Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell
  • Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones
    • District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson
    • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
      • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
      • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
      • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
      • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: James Heyward Trapier
      • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
      • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro
    • District of Florida: James Patton Anderson
    • Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws
  • Department of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
    • District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin
    • Army of Tennessee: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
      • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
      • II Corps Tennessee: John Bell Hood
      • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
      • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler
  • Trans-Allegheny Department: George Bibb Crittenden temporary
  • Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith
    • District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder
      • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
        • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
      • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
      • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
      • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough
    • District of Arkansas: Sterling Price
    • District of West Louisiana: John George Walker
    • District of Indian Territory: Samuel Bell Maxey
    • Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith
  • Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers
  • Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson
  • Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb
  • Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes
  • Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut
  • Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson*
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson)
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
John Joseph Abercrombie
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
William Sooy Smith
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
John Henry Hobart Ward
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
John Blair Smith Todd
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Joshua Thomas Owen
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Edward Ferrero
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Samuel Allen Rice
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Lawrence Eustis
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
Charles Garrison Harker
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
Joseph Pannell Taylor (Commissary-General of Subsistence
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

General ACSA/PACS

Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
John Bell Hood
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Alexander Peter Stewart
Jones Mitchell Withers
Stephen Dill Lee
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Henry Delamar Clayton
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Richard Waterhouse

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