1864 July 22nd

July 22 1864 Friday

Battle of Atlanta, GA (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)
Decatur, GA

Atlanta Campaign – Peach Tree Creek
Siege of Petersburg
Rousseau’s Alabama Raid

Go to July 23 1864

Alabama. Incidents at Wood Grove and Pollard.

Alabama. Union Lieutenant Charles S Cotton USN and Acting Ensign John L Hall USN led a landing party from USS Oneida in an attempt to capture a Confederate cavalry patrol near Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay. The sailors rowed in from USS Oneida under cover of darkness and lay in wait for a nightly patrol which had been under observation for some time. The surprise was complete and five men of the 7th Alabama Cavalry were taken prisoner. Hall then marched four miles inland to destroy the Confederate patrol’s campsite.

Arkansas. Skirmish near Pine Bluff.

Florida. Incidents at Barrancas and Fort Hudson.

Florida. Skirmish at Camp Gonzales.

Georgia. Union Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s Raid to Covington began.

Georgia. Incidents at Covington, Chattahoochee River, Kingston, Beechtown, and Turner’s Ferry.

Atlanta, Georgia, also known as Hood’s Second Sortie. Following the unsuccessful battle at Peachtree Creek, Confederate General John Bell Hood was determined to attack the exposed left flank of Union Major-General James Birdseye McPherson’s Army of the Tennessee. McPherson had closed to within two miles of Atlanta from the direction of Decatur. Confederate Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps continued its overnight march of fifteen-mile miles through the city towards the southeast of the city. Confederate Major-General Benjamin Franklin Cheatham’s Corps and Lieutenant-General Alexander Peter Stewart’s Corps (supported by the Georgia militia of State Major-General Gustavus Woodson Smith) remained behind to hold the entrenchments of Atlanta. Major-General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry was riding farther east against the Union supply trains at Decatur.
Cheatham’s Corps was alerted to attack the Union front at dawn as a diversion, but Hood had underestimated the time necessary for Hardee to make the long flank march. Hardee’s column of five divisions made slow progress in the dark along a single narrow road. By dawn, the proposed time for the attack, Hardee’s leading division was only at Cobb’s Mill. Hardee made the planned turn to the northeast, aiming for his intended starting position around the Widow Parker’s Farm, which was still about six miles distant. His column began to arrive about noon and was forming for assault by 12.30 pm. The attack seemed to be undetected so far and Hardee’s hopes were high for a successful attack, even though the men were exhausted.
On the Union side, the absence of Union Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard’s 2nd Cavalry Division on a raid to Covington permitted Hardee’s flank march to proceed undetected, and also allowed Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps to reach Decatur unopposed. Union Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman had initially believed that the Confederate disengagement from his front presaged the abandonment of Atlanta, but his scouts soon discovered that the Confederates were still holding the inner ring of defences closer to the city. By midday, he was conferring with McPherson how they could move the three Union armies from north and east of Atlanta to a new position further to the west, where they could sever the Confederate railroad communications with Mobile and Macon. They also agreed to begin a long-range bombardment of Atlanta with some heavy 32-pounder guns that were being emplaced on Bald Hill.
Accepting that the Confederates were not leaving Atlanta, McPherson sent forward his reserves from Major-General Grenville Dodge’s XVI Army Corps. The two divisions of Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny (2/XVI) and Brigadier-General John Wallace Fuller (4/XVI) passed to the left of Bald Hill. This was not because Sherman had predicted the impending Confederate attack in that sector, but because Dodge could continue to wreck the Georgia Railroad and also act as a reserve to Major-General Francis Preston Blair’s XVII Corps, which was entrenching on Bald Hill. Dodge occupied and began to fortify a line facing south-eastwards on the left of Blair’s XVII Corps. When rumours of a Confederate approach came in, Dodge faced his two divisions southwards astride Sugar Creek. The first sounds of firing were heard from the southeast at about 12.30 pm, and Sherman learned for the first time that Confederates were active in that unexpected direction.
Hardee deployed the Confederate divisions of Brigadier-General George Maney and Major-General Patrick Ronayne Cleburne on his left flank astride the Flat Shoals Road and Bouldercrest Road. This put them in the right position to attack the presumably exposed Union left on Bald Hill. The divisions of Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker and Major-General William Brimage Bate moved onto their right, on the opposite sides of Sugar Creek, forming along Wilkerson Drive. Walker and Bate were expected to strike past the open left flank and into the rear of the Union Army of the Tennessee. The advance was already six hours behind schedule when Wheeler warned that Union cavalry had recently passed in this direction, apparently making a raid southward. Hardee decided to ignore that threat and to make the attack at all costs, remembering the harsh criticism for his performance at Peachtree Creek. Having successfully screened the flanking march, Wheeler rode off to make his raid against Decatur. When Walker complained that his front was blocked by an impenetrable briar patch, Hardee insisted that the attack should nevertheless proceed.
Although Hood had gained the temporary advantage he had planned, it was now outweighed by the unexpected arrival of Dodge’s XVI Corps exactly at the intended point of Hardee’s attack. When Walker’s and Bate’s divisions finally advanced, they became entangled in dense forests and were further delayed. Hood observed this attack from the defences of Atlanta and assumed incorrectly that Hardee had mistakenly deployed in the wrong place, thereby hitting the Union line head-on rather than beyond its flank. In fact, Hardee had only missed the chance of inflicting a crushing blow by a mere half an hour. Walker rode forward to straighten out the direction of attack and was killed almost immediately by a Union picket outpost. His division was taken over by Brigadier-General Hugh Weedon Mercer. Bate’s attack did not strike past an open and vulnerable flank as planned but ran directly into an unexpectedly strong triple line of Dodge’s infantry. Hardee’s two divisions made two attacks against the previously unknown Union position along Sugar Creek soon after 12.15 pm. They were stalled by Sweeny’s Division and twelve well-sited guns.
There was better progress on the left side of the Confederate advance. Maney’s and Cleburne’s divisions moved ahead and to the left of Bate and Mercer but Maney soon found that he also was not beyond but still west of the Union left flank. He had to wheel his line to the right, bringing him against the westward-facing front of the Union army. Maney struck the angle where the Union line turned, which was held by Brigadier-General Giles Alexander Smith’s division (4/XVII), forcing it back towards Bald Hill. Smith had just taken over the division from Brigadier-General Walter Quintus Gresham, who was severely wounded by a sharpshooter. Maney made three more unsuccessful attacks but Cleburne on his right had more success. Sweeping up the Flat Shoals Road and over Bald Hill, Cleburne’s division drove back the Union left flank, capturing eight guns until it was halted by Colonel Hugo A Von Wangelin’s brigade (3/1/XV). Every effort by Cleburne’s men to press beyond Bald Hill was frustrated. Union Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett (3/XVII) counterattacked strongly and recaptured Bald Hill. Leggett held the key strong point throughout the ensuing fighting. Bald Hill was later renamed Leggett’s Hill in his honour.
McPherson rode forward to investigate the battle more closely and rode towards Bald Hill. He saw that Sweeny’s Division was holding its ground, so he decided to ride onwards to observe the other end of his line. He summoned reinforcements and assigned a brigade to block the gap between XVI and XVII Corps. The Confederate advance into this gap was turned back in part by the 64th Illinois Infantry with their Henry repeating rifles. As McPherson approached G A Smith’s position, accompanied only by an orderly, he stumbled into a clearing held by Confederate skirmishers from the 5th Confederate Infantry. The Confederates called for his surrender, but he turned to gallop away. A single shot went through McPherson’s lungs and he died almost immediately. Once the news of McPherson’s fall was learned, Major-General John Alexander Logan took over the Army of the Tennessee. Logan energised the defence of Bald Hill. The Union line regained stability and troops probed forward to recover McPherson’s body as they regained their ground.
Having understood at 3 pm that his attack had hit the left flank and not the rear of the Union line, Hood ordered Cheatham and Smith’s Georgia Militia to leave the entrenchments of Atlanta and to reinforce the attacks on Bald Hill from the west. To support this advance from the west, Maney was ordered to disengage his division and to shift it beyond Cleburne’s left in support of Cheatham’s attack, which focused once again on Bald Hill. Maney attacked at 3.30pm and Cheatham’s attack began about half an hour later after 4 pm. Initial success was gained along the railroad and at the Hurt House. Confederate Brigadier-General Arthur Middleton Manigault’s brigade routed Brigadier-General Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn’s Brigade (2/2/XV). They pushed on through a railroad cutting to overrun a battery and a section of artillery, garnering six Union guns including the four long-range 32-pounders that were placed on Bald Hill to batter Atlanta. The Confederates captured a total of ten guns during the day. Part of Union Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods’ division (1/XV) was also driven back by Cheatham’s charge. Union Brigadier-General Manning Force’s brigade (1/3/XVII) was forced to defend first from one side of its breastworks and then from the other. Four Union brigades were forced back on a front of half a mile, but the Confederates could not entirely take Bald Hill. Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halted their drive. Logan brought forward eight brigades from the reserve to turn back the advance. Colonel August Mersy’s brigade (2/2/ XVI) recaptured the long-range battery position although the guns had already been carried off.
Logan’s XV Corps delivered the counter-attack that finally restored the Union line. Apart from one brigade sent to defend Decatur against Confederate cavalry, the battle was fought on the Union side almost entirely by the Army of the Tennessee. Despite the poor performance of G A Smith’s division (4/XVII), the Union army held and never appeared likely to break. Hood’s attacking forces suffered severe casualties in their repeated attacks. The Union commanders conceded that Hood had conceived a brilliant manoeuvre that was frustrated only by the fortuitous relocation of Dodge’s troops into the path of what would have been a devastating surprise attack.
McPherson was the only Union army commander to be killed in action during the war, and he was considered by Sherman and others as possibly the best of them all. Union casualties were estimated as between 3,641 to 3,722 men (as well as ten or twelve guns and including at least a thousand prisoners). The Confederate loss was at least 5,000 men and more probably amounted to between 8,000 and 8,500 men. (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)


Union Military Division of the Mississippi: Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman
Department of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
Chief of Artillery Brigadier-General John Milton Brannan
Army of the Cumberland: Major-General George Henry Thomas
IV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Oliver Otis Howard
1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General David Sloan Stanley
1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Charles Cruft
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Walter Chiles Whitaker
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Grose
2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Newton
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Francis T Sherman
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General George Day Wagner
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Luther Prentice Bradley
3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas John Wood
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General August Willich
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Babcock Hazen
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, IV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Samuel Beatty
XIV Corps (Cumberland): Major-General John McAuley Palmer
1st Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John Haskell King
1st Brigade, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Passmore Carlin
2nd Brigade, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel William Stoughton
3rd Brigade, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Benjamin Scribner
2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Jefferson Columbus Davis
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General James Dada Morgan
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel John G Mitchell
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XIV Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Oscar F Harmon
XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Joseph Hooker
1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Alpheus Starkey Williams
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Joseph Farmer Knipe
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Thomas Hewson Ruger
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James S Robinson
2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General John White Geary
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Charles Candy
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Adolphus Buschbeck
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel George A Cobham
3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Major-General Daniel Butterfield
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General William Thomas Ward
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel John Coburn
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XX Corps (Cumberland): Colonel James Wood
Reserve Brigade (Cumberland): Colonel Joseph W Burke
Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Washington Lafayette Elliott
1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Edward Moody McCook
1st Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Joseph B Dorr
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Oscar Lagrange
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Louis Watkins
2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Kenner Garrard
1st Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Robert Minty
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Long
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel John T Wilder
3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Brigadier-General Hugh J Kilpatrick
1st Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Klein
2nd Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Smith
3rd Cavalry Brigade, 3rd Cavalry Division, Cavalry Corps (Cumberland): Colonel Eli Murray
Department of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
Army of the Ohio: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
XXIII Corps (Ohio) “Army of the Ohio”: Major-General John McAllister Schofield
2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Henry Moses Judah
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Nathaniel Collins McLean
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Milo Smith Hascall
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel Silas A Strickland
3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Major-General Jacob Dolson Cox
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel James W Reilly
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Brigadier-General Mahlon Dickerson Manson
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps (Ohio): Colonel Robert K Byrd
Cavalry Brigade (Ohio): Colonel Eugene Crittenden
Department of the Tennessee: Major-General John Alexander Logan temporary
Army of the Tennessee: Major-General John Alexander Logan

XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith
1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Charles Robert Woods
1st Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Milo Smith
2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel James A Williamson
3rd Brigade, 1st Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Hugo A Von Wangelin
2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel James S Martin
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General William Harrow
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Reuben Williams
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Charles C Walcutt
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XV Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John M Oliver
XVI Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Francis Preston Blair
Left Wing XVI Corps (Tennessee): Major-General Grenville Mellen Dodge
2nd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Thomas William Sweeny
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Elliot Warren Rice
2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel August Mersy
3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): (At Rome) Colonel Henry J B Cummings
4th Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General John Wallace Fuller
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): Colonel John Morrill
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XVI Corps (Tennessee): (At Decatur) Brigadier-General John Wilson Sprague
XVII Corps (Tennessee): Francis Preston Blair
3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Mortimer Dormer Leggett
1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Manning Ferguson Force
2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Robert K Scott
3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel Adam G Malloy
4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Brigadier-General Walter Quintin Gresham, Brigadier-General Giles Alexander Smith
1st Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel William L Sanderson
2nd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel George C Rogers
3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XVII Corps (Tennessee): Colonel William Hall

Decatur, Georgia. Union Colonel John Wilson Sprague (2/4/XVI) conducted a masterful delaying action against the raiding cavalry of Confederate Major-General Joseph Wheeler at Decatur. Wheeler’s cavalry pushed through two Union regiments and captured 225 men and a gun, but they were suddenly summoned back to assist Lieutenant-General William Joseph Hardee’s Corps. Wheeler’s main goal of destroying the Union supply train was frustrated. With only a small command, Sprague had repelled a larger force and saved the ordnance train and supply trains of the Union XV Corps, XVI Corps, XVII Corps, and XX Corps from the threat of capture.

Louisiana. Incident at Goodrich’s Landing.

Louisiana. Skirmish at Concordia.

Louisiana. Skirmish near Vidalia.

Mississippi. Skirmish at the Coldwater River.

Mississippi. Incidents at Ellistown and Grand Gulf.

Missouri. Skirmishes at Camden Point and Union Mills.

Missouri. Skirmish in Wright County.

Missouri. Incidents at Johnson County, Warrensburg, Clear Fork, Huntsville, and Fayette Road.

South Carolina. Incident at James Island.

Tennessee. Skirmish at Clifton.

Virginia. Incidents at Malvern Hill, Purcellville, Charles City Cross Roads, Ream’s Station, and Four Mile Creek.

Virginia. Skirmish near Berryville.

Virginia. Skirmish at Newtown.

Virginia. Brigadier-General George Crook’s command reached Winchester to reinforce the troops gathering to oppose the Confederate Army of the Valley.

Union Organisation

USA: Major-General John Alexander Logan assumed temporary command of the Department of the Tennessee, succeeding Major-General James Birdseye McPherson.

USA: Major-General John Alexander Logan assumed temporary command of the Army of the Tennessee, succeeding Major-General James Birdseye McPherson.

USA: Brigadier-General Morgan Lewis Smith assumed temporary command of XV Corps (Tennessee), Major-General Union John Alexander Logan.

USA: Major-General Union James Birdseye McPherson was killed near Atlanta, Georgia.

Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln
Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren
West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
East Gulf Blockading Squadron: Theodorus Bailey
Pacific Squadron: John Berrien Montgomery
Mississippi River Squadron: David Dixon Porter
Potomac Flotilla: Andrew Allen Harwood

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Department of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
    • District of Tennessee: Lovell Harrison Rousseau
    • District of Western Kentucky: Eleazer Arthur Paine
    • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger
    • District of Etowah: James Blair Steedman
    • Army of the Cumberland: George Henry Thomas
      • IV Corps Cumberland: Oliver Otis Howard
      • XIV Corps Cumberland: John McAuley Palmer
      • XX Corps Cumberland: Joseph Hooker
      • Cavalry Corps Cumberland: Washington Lafayette Elliott
  • Department of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
    • District of East Tennessee: Jacob Ammen
    • District of Kentucky: Stephen Gano Burbridge
    • Army of the Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
      • XXIII Corps Ohio: John McAllister Schofield
  • Department of the Tennessee: John Alexander Logan temporary
    • District of West Tennessee: Benjamin Henry Grierson
      • Sub-District of Memphis: Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
    • District of Vicksburg: Henry Warner Slocum
    • Army of the Tennessee: John Alexander Logan temporary
      • XV Corps Tennessee: Morgan Lewis Smith temporary
      • XVI Corps Tennessee: vacant
        • Right Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Andrew Jackson Smith
        • Left Wing XVI Corps Tennessee: Grenville Mellen Dodge
      • XVII Corps Tennessee: Francis Preston Blair

Military Division of West Mississippi: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

  • Department of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
    • District of Eastern Arkansas: Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
    • District of Little Rock: Eugene Asa Carr
    • District of the Frontier: John Milton Thayer
    • Army of Arkansas: Frederick Steele
      • VII Corps Arkansas: Frederick Steele
  • Department of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
    • District of Baton Rouge: William Plummer Benton
    • District of Port Hudson: John McNeil
    • District of La Fourche: Robert Alexander Cameron
    • District of Morganza: Michael Kelly Lawler
    • District of Carrollton: Nelson B Bartram
    • District of West Florida: Alexander Asboth
    • District of Key West and Tortugas: Daniel Phineas Woodbury
    • Defences of New Orleans: Thomas West Sherman
    • Army of the Gulf: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
      • XIX Corps Gulf: Joseph Jones Reynolds
      • Reserve Corps Gulf: Gordon Granger
  • Department of the Missouri: William Starke Rosecrans
    • District of St Louis: vacant
    • District of Southwest Missouri: John Benjamin Sanborn
    • District of North Missouri: Clinton Bowen Fisk
    • District of Central Missouri: Egbert Benson Brown
    • District of Rolla: Odon Guitar

Department of the East: John Adams Dix

Department of Kansas: George Sykes

  • District of Nebraska Territory: Robert Byington Mitchell
  • District of North Kansas: Thomas Alfred Davies
  • District of South Kansas: Thomas Jefferson McKean
  • District of the Border: William Russell Judson
  • District of Colorado Territory: John Milton Chivington

Middle Department: Lewis Wallace

  • District of Delaware: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • District of the Eastern Shore of Maryland: Henry Hayes Lockwood
  • VIII Corps Middle: Lewis Wallace

Department of New Mexico: James Henry Carleton

  • District of Arizona: George Washington Bowie

Northern Department: Samuel Peter Heintzelman

  • District of Indiana: Henry Beebe Carrington

Department of the Northwest: John Pope

  • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
  • District of Wisconsin: Thomas Church Haskell Smith
  • District of Iowa: Alfred Sully

Department of the Pacific: Irvin McDowell

  • District of California: George Wright
  • District of the Humboldt: Stephen Girard Whipple
  • District of Oregon: Benjamin Alvord
  • District of Southern California: James Freeman Curtis
  • District of Utah: Patrick Edward Connor

Department of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade

  • Army of the Potomac: George Gordon Meade
    • II Corps Potomac: Winfield Scott Hancock
    • V Corps Potomac: Gouverneur Kemble Warren
    • VI Corps Potomac: Horatio Gouverneur Wright
    • IX Corps Potomac: Ambrose Everett Burnside
    • Cavalry Corps Potomac: Philip Henry Sheridan

Department of the South: John Gray Foster

  • Northern District (South): Alexander Schimmelfennig
  • District of Beaufort (SC): Rufus Saxton
  • District of Hilton Head: John Porter Hatch
  • District of Florida: William Birney

Department of the Susquehanna: Darius Nash Couch

  • Lehigh District: Franz Sigel
  • District of the Monongahela: Thomas Algeo Rowley

Department of Virginia and North Carolina: Benjamin Franklin Butler

  • District of Eastern Virginia: George Foster Shepley
  • District of Currituck: Samuel Henry Roberts
  • District of North Carolina: Innis Newton Palmer
    • Sub-District of Beaufort NC: Thomas Jonathan Coffin Amory
    • Sub-District of New Bern: Edward Harland
  • Army of the James: Benjamin Franklin Butler
    • X Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • XVIII Corps James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord

Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

  • District of St Mary’s: James Barnes
  • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
  • District of Washington: Moses N Wisewell
  • XXII Corps Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur

Department of Western Virginia: David Hunter

  • District of Harper’s Ferry: Albion Parris Howe
  • Army of the Kanawha: George Crook

Confederate Organisation

CSA: Major-General William Henry Talbot Walker was killed at Atlanta.

CSA: Colonel Samuel Benton (Brigadier0General unconfirmed) was mortally wounded at Atlanta, Georgia.

Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis
Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Secretary of War: James Alexander Seddon
Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

Military Adviser to the President: Braxton Bragg

Department of Alabama and East Mississippi: Stephen Dill Lee

District of Mississippi and East Louisiana: John S Scott

Gulf District: Dabney Herndon Maury

District of Northern Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

District of West Tennessee: Nathan Bedford Forrest

Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

First District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Henry Alexander Wise

Second District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: Laurence Simmons Baker

Third District of North Carolina and Southern Virginia: William Henry Chase Whiting

Department of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

Army of Northern Virginia: Robert Edward Lee

  • I Corps Northern Virginia: Richard Heron Anderson temporary
  • III Corps Northern Virginia: Ambrose Powell Hill
  • Cavalry Northern Virginia: Wade Hampton

Valley District: Jubal Anderson Early

  • Army of the Valley (II Corps Northern Virginia): Jubal Anderson Early
    • I Corps Valley: Robert Emmett Rodes
    • II Corps Valley: John Cabell Breckinridge

Department of Richmond: Richard Stoddert Ewell

Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida: Samuel Jones

District of Georgia: Henry Rootes Jackson

District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley

  • 1st Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
  • 2nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Beverley Holcombe Robertson
  • 3rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Jordan
  • 4th Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
  • 6th Sub-District of South Carolina: Henry Alexander Wise
  • 7th Sub-District of South Carolina: William Booth Taliaferro

District of Florida: James Patton Anderson

Defences of Savannah: Lafayette McLaws

Department of Tennessee: John Bell Hood

District of Western North Carolina: James Green Martin

Army of Tennessee: John Bell Hood

  • I Corps Tennessee: William Joseph Hardee
  • II Corps Tennessee: Benjamin Franklin Cheatham temporary
  • III Corps Tennessee: William Wing Loring temporary
  • Cavalry Corps Tennessee: Joseph Wheeler

Trans-Allegheny Department: John Hunt Morgan

Trans-Mississippi Department: Edmund Kirby Smith

District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: John Bankhead Magruder

  • Western Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Thomas Fenwick Drayton
    • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
  • Eastern Sub-District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: William Steele
  • Sub-District of Houston: Xavier Blanchard Debray
  • Northern Sub-District Texas, New Mexico and Arizona: Henry Eustace McCullough

District of Arkansas: Sterling Price

District of West Louisiana: John George Walker

District of Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

Trans-Mississippi Army: Edmund Kirby Smith

Reserve Forces of Alabama: Jones Mitchell Withers

Reserve Forces of Florida: John King Jackson

Reserve Forces of Georgia: Thomas Howell Cobb

Reserve Forces of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

Reserve Forces of South Carolina: James Chesnut

Reserve Forces of Texas: Jerome Bonaparte Robertson

Reserve Forces of Virginia: James Lawson Kemper

Union Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

Lieutenant-General USA

Ulysses Simpson Grant

Major-General USA

George Brinton McClellan
Henry Wager Halleck

Major-General USV

Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

John Adams Dix
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Benjamin Franklin Butler
David Hunter
Ethan Allen Hitchcock
Irvin McDowell*
Ambrose Everett Burnside
William Starke Rosecrans*
John Pope*
Samuel Ryan Curtis
Franz Sigel
John Alexander McClernand
Lewis Wallace
George Henry Thomas*
George Cadwalader
William Tecumseh Sherman*
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
Samuel Peter Heintzelman
Joseph Hooker*
Silas Casey
William Buel Franklin
Darius Nash Couch
Henry Warner Slocum
John James Peck
Alexander McDowell McCook
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
John Gray Foster
John Grubb Parke
Christopher Columbus Augur
Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
Gordon Granger
Lovell Harrison Rousseau
James Birdseye McPherson* KIA
George Stoneman
George Gordon Meade*
Oliver Otis Howard
Daniel Edgar Sickles
Robert Huston Milroy
Daniel Butterfield
Winfield Scott Hancock
George Sykes
David Sloane Stanley
James Scott Negley
John McAllister Schofield
John McAuley Palmer
Frederick Steele
Abner Doubleday
Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
John Alexander Logan
James Gilpatrick Blunt
George Lucas Hartsuff
Cadwallader Colden Washburn
Francis Jay Herron
Francis Preston Blair
Joseph Jones Reynolds
Philip Henry Sheridan
Julius Stahel
Carl Schurz
Gouverneur Kemble Warren
David Bell Birney
Alfred Pleasonton
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Quincy Adams Gillmore
William Farrar Smith
James Blair Steedman
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
Horatio Gouverneur Wright
Andrew Jackson Smith
Grenville Mellen Dodge
John Gibbon

Brigadier-General USA

Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

(Irvin McDowell)
(William Starke Rosecrans)
Philip St George Cooke
(John Pope)
(Joseph Hooker)
(George Gordon Meade)
(William Tecumseh Sherman)
(James Birdseye McPherson) KIA
(George Henry Thomas)

Brigadier-General USV

Thomas West Sherman
Benjamin Franklin Kelley
Jacob Dolson Cox
Alpheus Starkey Williams
James Brewerton Ricketts
Orlando Bolivar Willcox
Henry Hayes Lockwood
George Webb Morell
John Henry Martindale
Samuel Davis Sturgis
Henry Washington Benham
William Farquhar Barry
Lawrence Pike Graham
Eleazar Arthur Paine
William Thomas Ward
John Gross Barnard
Innis Newton Palmer
Seth Williams
John Newton
George Wright
John Milton Brannan
John Porter Hatch
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Thomas John Wood
Richard W Johnson
Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
George Washington Cullum
Thomas Jefferson McKean
Zealous Bates Tower
Jefferson Columbus Davis
James Henry Lane
William Scott Ketchum
John Wynn Davidson
James Gallant Spears
Eugene Asa Carr
Thomas Alfred Davies
William Hemsley Emory
Marsena Rudolph Patrick
Orris Sanford Ferry
Daniel Phineas Woodbury
Henry Moses Judah
John Cook
John McArthur
Jacob Gartner Lauman
Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
Speed Smith Fry
Alexander Asboth
James Craig
Mahlon Dickerson Manson
Robert Byington Mitchell
Cuvier Grover
Rufus Saxton
Benjamin Alvord
Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
Nathan Kimball
Charles Devens
Samuel Wylie Crawford
Henry Walton Wessells
Milo Smith Hascall
John White Geary
Alfred Howe Terry
James Henry Carleton
Absalom Baird
John Cleveland Robinson
Truman Seymour
Henry Prince
Maximilian Weber
Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
Alvin Peterson Hovey
James Clifford Veatch
William Plummer Benton
John Curtis Caldwell
Neal Dow
George Sears Greene
Samuel Powhatan Carter
Erastus Barnard Tyler
Charles Griffin
George Henry Gordon
Julius White
Peter Joseph Osterhaus
Stephen Gano Burbridge
Washington Lafayette Elliott
Albion Parris Howe
Benjamin Stone Roberts
Jacob Ammen
Fitz-Henry Warren
Morgan Lewis Smith
Charles Cruft
Frederick Salomon
John Basil Turchin
Henry Shaw Briggs
James Dada Morgan
Johann August Ernst Willich
Henry Dwight Terry
George Foster Shepley
John Reese Kenly
John Potts Slough
Godfrey Weitzel
George Crook
Gershom Mott
Henry Jackson Hunt
Francis Channing Barlow
Mason Brayman
Nathaniel James Jackson
George Washington Getty
Alfred Sully
William Woods Averell
Francis Barretto Spinola
Solomon Meredith
James Bowen
Eliakim Parker Scammon
Robert Seaman Granger
Joseph Rodman West
Alfred Washington Ellet
George Leonard Andrews
Clinton Bowen Fisk
William Hays
Israel Vogdes
David Allen Russell
Lewis Cass Hunt
Frank Wheaton
John Sanford Mason
David McMurtrie Gregg
Robert Ogden Tyler
Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
Gilman Marston
William Dwight
Sullivan Amory Meredith
Nathaniel Collins McLean
William Vandever
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Charles Kinnaird Graham
John Eugene Smith
Joseph Tarr Copeland
Charles Adam Heckman
Edward Elmer Potter
Henry Beebee Carrington
John Haskell King
Adam Jacoby Slemmer
Thomas Hewson Neill
Thomas Gamble Pitcher
Thomas William Sweeny
William Passmore Carlin
Romeyn Beck Ayres
William Babcock Hazen
Joseph Anthony Mower
Richard Arnold
Edward Winslow Hinks
Michael Kelly Lawler
George Day Wagner
Lysander Cutler
Joseph Farmer Knipe
James Barnes
Edward Harland
Samuel Beatty
Isaac Jones Wistar
Franklin Stillman Nickerson
Edward Henry Hobson
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland
Joseph Dana Webster
William Harrow
William Hopkins Morris
Thomas Howard Ruger
Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom
Elias Smith Dennis
Thomas Church Haskell Smith
Mortimer Dormer Leggett
Davis Tillson
Hector Tyndale
Albert Lindley Lee
Marcellus Monroe Crocker
Egbert Benson Brown
John McNeil
George Francis McGinnis
Hugh Boyle Ewing
James Winning McMillan
Daniel Ullmann
George Jerrison Stannard
Henry Baxter
John Milton Thayer
Charles Thomas Campbell
Halbert Eleazer Paine
Robert Brown Potter
Thomas Ewing
Joseph Andrew Jackson Lightburn
Henry Hastings Sibley
Joseph Bradford Carr
Joseph Jackson Bartlett
Patrick Edward Connor
John Parker Hawkins
Gabriel René Paul
Edward Augustus Wild
Adelbert Ames
William Birney
Daniel Henry Rucker
Robert Allen
Rufus Ingalls
Alexander Shaler
Benjamin Henry Grierson
Robert Sanford Foster
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
Alexander Stewart Webb
Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
Walter Chiles Whitaker
Wesley Merritt
George Armstrong Custer
William Denison Whipple
John Converse Starkweather
Kenner Garrard
Charles Robert Woods
John Benjamin Sanborn
Giles Alexander Smith
Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
Thomas Kilby Smith
Walter Quintin Gresham
Manning Ferguson Force
Robert Alexander Cameron
John Murray Corse
John Aaron Rawlins
Alvan Cullem Gillem
John Wesley Turner
Henry Eugene Davies
Andrew Jackson Hamilton
Henry Warner Birge
James Hewitt Ledlie
James Harrison Wilson
Adin Ballou Underwood
Augustus Louis Chetlain
Thomas Francis Meagher
William Anderson Pile
John Wallace Fuller
John Franklin Miller
Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
Cyrus Bussey
Christopher Columbus Andrews
Hiram Burnham
Edward Moody McCook
Lewis Addison Grant
Edward Hatch
August Valentine Kautz
Francis Fessenden
John Rutter Brooke
John Frederick Hartranft
Samuel Sprigg Carroll
Simon Goodell Griffin
Emory Upton
Nelson Appleton Miles
Joseph Hayes
Byron Root Pierce
Selden Connor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Elliott Warren Rice
William Francis Bartlett
Thomas Algeo Rowley
Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
Martin Davis Hardin
Charles Jackson Paine
Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
John Baillie McIntosh
George Henry Chapman

Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
Lorenzo Thomas
William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)
George Douglas Ramsay (Ordnance)
James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
Richard Delafield (Engineers)
Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)

Confederate Generals

Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission


Samuel Cooper
Robert Edward Lee
Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Braxton Bragg
Edmund Kirby Smith
John Bell Hood

Lieutenant-General PACS

James Longstreet
Theophilus Hunter Holmes
William Joseph Hardee
Richard Stoddert Ewell
Ambrose Powell Hill
Richard Taylor
Jubal Anderson Early
Richard Heron Anderson
Alexander Peter Stewart
Stephen Dill Lee

Major-General PACS

Benjamin Huger
John Bankhead Magruder
Mansfield Lovell
William Wing Loring
Sterling Price
Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
Samuel Jones
John Porter McCown
Daniel Harvey Hill
Thomas Carmichael Hindman
John Cabell Breckinridge
Lafayette McLaws
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Samuel Gibbs French
George Edward Pickett
Carter Littlepage Stevenson
John Horace Forney
Dabney Herndon Maury
Martin Luther Smith
John George Walker
Arnold Elzey
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
Franklin Gardner
Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
Joseph Wheeler
Edward Johnson
William Henry Chase Whiting
Robert Emmett Rodes
William Henry Talbot Walker KIA
Henry Heth
Robert Ransom
Jones Mitchell Withers
Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
Wade Hampton
Fitzhugh Lee
Howell Cobb
John Austin Wharton
William Thompson Martin
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Charles William Field
James Patton Anderson
William Brimage Bate
Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac
Robert Frederick Hoke
William Henry Fitzhugh Lee
James Fleming Fagan
John Brown Gordon
Joseph Brevard Kershaw
Bushrod Rust Johnson
Stephen Dodson Ramseur
Edward Cary Walthall
Henry Delamar Clayton

Brigadier-General PACS

Alexander Robert Lawton
Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Hopkins Sibley
John Henry Winder
Gideon Johnson Pillow
Daniel Ruggles
Roswell Sabine Ripley
Paul Octave Hébert
Albert Gallatin Blanchard
Gabriel James Rains
Thomas Fenwick Drayton
Nathan George Evans
James Heyward Trapier
Hugh Weedon Mercer
William Montgomery Gardner
William Mahone
Raleigh Edward Colston
John King Jackson
George Wythe Randolph
James Ronald Chalmers
Daniel Leadbetter
William Whann Mackall
Winfield Scott Featherston
Thomas James Churchill
William Booth Taliaferro
Albert Rust
Samuel Bell Maxey
Hamilton Prioleau Bee
James Morrison Hawes
George Hume Steuart
James Edwin Slaughter
Seth Maxwell Barton
Henry Eustace McCullough
John Selden Roane
States Rights Gist
William Nelson Pendleton
Joseph Finegan
William Nelson Rector Beall
Thomas Jordan
William Preston
John Echols
George Earl Maney
John Stuart Williams
James Green Martin
Thomas Lanier Clingman
Daniel Weisiger Adams
Louis Hébert
Ambrose Ransom Wright
James Lawson Kemper
James Jay Archer
Beverley Holcombe Robertson
St John Richardson Liddell
Johnson Hagood
Harry Thompson Hays
Matthew Duncan Ector
Edward Aylesworth Perry
John Gregg
John Calvin Brown
Alfred Holt Colquitt
Abraham Buford
William Steele
Francis Asbury Shoup
Joseph Robert Davis
John Crawford Vaughn
Evander McIvor Law
Elkanah Brackin Greer
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls
Alfred Cumming
William Stephen Walker
Montgomery Dent Corse
George Thomas Anderson
Alfred Iverson
James Henry Lane
Edward Lloyd Thomas
John Rogers Cooke
Jerome Bonaparte Robertson
Evander McNair
Archibald Gracie
William Robertson Boggs
James Camp Tappan
Dandridge McRae
Mosby Monroe Parsons
John Pegram
John Sappington Marmaduke
John Hunt Morgan
Marcus Joseph Wright
Zachariah Cantey Deas
Lucius Eugene Polk
John Adams
William Hicks Jackson
James Cantey
Henry Lewis Benning
William Tatum Wofford
Samuel McGowan
Marcellus Augustus Stovall
George Blake Cosby
Francis Crawford Armstrong
William Lewis Cabell
John Daniel Imboden
Alfred Eugene Jackson
Robert Brank Vance
Arthur Middleton Manigault
Douglas Hancock Cooper
John Wilkins Whitfield
James Alexander Walker
Matthew Whitaker Ransom
Alfred Moore Scales
George Washington Custis Lee
Henry Harrison Walker
Gabriel Colvin Wharton
Francis Marion Cockrell
James Patrick Major
Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Lunsford Lindsay Lomax
Laurence Simmons Baker
Otho French Strahl
Philip Dale Roddey
Eppa Hunton
Thomas Pleasant Dockery
Benjamin Grubb Humphreys
Henry Brevard Davidson
Cullen Andrews Battle
William Andrew Quarles
William Whedbee Kirkland
Goode Bryan
Matthew Calbraith Butler
Williams Carter Wickham
Robert Daniel Johnston
Alexander Welch Reynolds
Thomas Neville Waul
Edmund Winston Pettus
Armistead Lindsay Long
Henry Rootes Jackson
William Wirt Adams
Thomas Lafayette Rosser
Pierce Manning Butler Young
James Argyle Smith
Joseph Horace Lewis
Mark Perrin Lowrey
Edward Higgins
John Tyler Morgan
John Herbert Kelly
William Young Conn Humes
Jesse Johnson Finley
James Holt Clanton
Alfred Jefferson Vaughan
Joseph Orville Shelby
John Randolph Chambliss
Lawrence Sullivan Ross
Daniel Chevilette Govan
Randall Lee Gibson
Clement Hoffman Stevens
Nathaniel Harrison Harris
Allen Thomas
Alexander Travis Hawthorn
Robert Charles Tyler
Edward Porter Alexander
William Wirt Allen
Hiram Bronson Granbury
Claudius Wistar Sears
William Feimster Tucker
Richard Lucian Page
Alpheus Baker
Daniel Harris Reynolds
James Chesnut
Stand Watie
Samuel Jameson Gholson
John Bratton
Thomas Moore Scott
John McCausland
Clement Anselm Evans
William Terry
Bryan Grimes
Martin Witherspoon Gary
Birkett Davenport Fry
Stephen Elliott
William Ruffin Cox
Thomas Fentress Toon
William Gaston Lewis
Zebulon York
Robert Doak Lilley
John Caldwell Calhoun Sanders
William Richard Terry
James Conner
Rufus Clay Barringer
John Smith Preston
Hylan Benton Lyon
William Lindsay Brandon
Bradley Tyler Johnson
James Thadeus Holtzclaw
John Carpenter Carter
Richard Waterhouse

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